Background. Studying students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of the teaching and upbringing process is important in connection with the modernization of school education. Their attitude to these issues characterizes the social psychological context that determines the role of school in cultural and value-based education of adolescents.
The Objective of the research is to determine the differences between the students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education in relation to the three areas of analysis: between students and teachers, between members of schools types (general education, in-depth study of particular subjects, gymnasium and lyceum), between generations of teachers and students as of 1991 and 2017.
Design. The paper presents the results of survey questionnaire conducted by the Centre for Sociology of Education, IEM RAE, Moscow, Russia, in 2017. The sample included 11 803 students of 7-11 grades and 4 999 school teachers. The data are further compared with the results of the survey 1 conducted in 1991 (sample included 162 students and 681 teachers). Questions concerning goal orientations of school education are considered at two levels: pragmatic ("What should school give to students?") and value-based ("Who should schools prepare their students for?").
Research Results. At the pragmatic level, students attach greater importance to the issues of professional identity, whereas teachers regard the traditional functions of education. At the value-based level for students, the individualistic attitudes are more typical, whereas teachers place a greater value on socially regular patterns. Members of the gymnasia and lyceums more often note the importance of the cultural development as well as communication and interaction between students. Unlike gymnasia and lyceums, general education schools put a greater emphasis on normal behaviour and participation in public life. The admission requirements have increased for socializing functions and training, and also the individualistic attitudes in modern education compared with 1991 have been in the focus of attention. Simultaneously, the importance of creative activity is decreasing and education is aimed at supporting social institution. Factor analysis has revealed three meaningful juxtapositions in relation to which the goals of school education are structured: "norm – self-actualisation", "convention – principle", "romantic approach – pragmatic approach".
Conclusion. This research reveals particular goals and purposes for modern school education in students’ and teachers’ minds that allows them to improve the educational process.