The interview presents the American Psychological Association (APA) and the activities of Antonio E. Puente (Antonio E. Puente), Ph.D., as the President of this organization. Antonio Puente, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina (UNCW), Wilmington, was elected president of the APA in 2017.When asked about the main directions of the future work of the American Psychological Association, Antonio Puente, drew attention to the need for dramatically restructuring the work of the largest scientific and professional organization. It is caused by past investigation and Hoffmann report. After the terrorist attacks of 2009, some psychologists (not APA members) helped the CIA to obtain information using torture.
Changes in the APA will apply not only to the budget and staff, but also its mission, goals and values.Antonio Puente, following Michael Wertheimer believes that to evaluate the significance of certain modern discoveries is very difficult in the field of psychology. It will be possible to make a new generation of professionals. He sees neuropsychology as priority sector, which is considered by Antonio Puente the basis of all psychology as a science. According to A. Puente the most promising area of psychology application is health care. Using psychological science in health care should be more efficient and cost-effective. This approach extends the value of psychology and contributes to improving clinical outcomes and reducing costs.Speaking of the most famous Russian psychologist, A. Puente highlighted L.S. Vygotsky whose work he considers extremely important.
Antonio Puente expresses regret that the modern world is observing the highest figures of murders and suicides, mass shooting, and mental disorders. Therefore, psychologists have to admit they have not arrived to a final understanding of the psychological characteristics of the person.
The article describes the results of the investigation of the mechanisms of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension in students 7-8 y.o. with and without language acquisition disorders. Computer-administered tests were used to assess the ability to comprehend logical-grammatical constructions, as well as the tests of serial organization of speech and movement (traditional and computer-based) and the tests for assessment of the level of visual-spatial perception strategies. Neuropsychological syndrome analysis allowed to conclude that the difficulties of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension are linked to the deficit of visualspatial perception, which is the common point of view for Russian neuropsychology.
Also, the experimental evidences were found, that the understanding of logicalgrammatical construction is closely linked to the serial organization of speech and movements. The character of this connection differs from the character of the connection between the understanding of logical-grammatical constructions and the level of visual-spatial strategies perception, which highlights that these two groups of functions provide different contributions to the process of comprehension of grammatically complex sentences. These findings are interpreted using the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions by Vygotsky-Luria, the model of the three levels of language organization by A.R. Luria and the model of the three levels of syntax by T.V. Akhutina. It is considered that the operations of grammatical re-structuring of complex sentences ontogenetically relate closely to the functions of serial organization of movements and develop on the neighbouring anatomical substrate (posterior parts of frontal cortex). The other aspect of the process of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension, which includes finding of the «reference point», and generation of asymmetrized «quasi-spatial» structure of the sentence, where the thematical roles are assigned, is linked in the same way to the functions of visual-spatial perception and the anatomical substrate of these functions (temporal-parietal-occipital zone).
Available Online: 08/30/2015
The paper deals with a complex of issues relating to the current state and use of the category of “syndrome”, which until recently has been inclusive within the field of professional medical use and clinical psychology. However, since late 20th century, this category has been more and more often used when describing the specific manifestations of human psyche in the particular circumstances of life and activity with the absence of disease symptoms and presented a huge list of so-called “psychological syndromes” of the norm. In this connection, there arise a number of issues concerning the relations of new approaches to understanding the category of “syndrome” with past performances, and also research methodology, which determines task setting, the unit of analysis of human psyche and psychological syndrome-making determinants. The authors assume the answer to these questions lie in the methodology by L.S.Vygotsky and further syndrome analysis method by A.R. Luria. The paper provides a brief history of the notion of “syndrome” and its transition from medical study to psychology with the developed meaning based on the structure of higher mental functions in the neuropsychological paradigm. The basic structural components of the syndrome in system-dynamic relationship are discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of “factor” as a common syndrome-making state which integrates symptoms into hierarchically organized circuit. Various aspects of the categorization are discussed, i.e. whether it belongs to the norm or pathology.
In the context of the syndrome approach development prospects, new issues of polycausativity syndrome appear in relation to the classical paradigm, with compensatory symptoms, the need for statistical data verification, the role of individual supervision and others to be further included into the paradigm. The main current approaches of studying different syndromes using the potential of the Russian methodology of syndrome analysis, the basic principles of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality are considered.