The aim of this research is to establish relationships between the levels of operational system elements (classification, seriation, understanding of the conservation principle and the ability to decenter) on the concrete operational thinking fledging period in preschool children from two different countries: Russia and China. Classic techniques of Piaget were used to diagnose development levels of subject’s operational system structural elements. Development stages of classification and seriation of logical operations, understanding the conservation principle, the ability to decenter were compared in the 40 Russian and 40 China preschool children (3.1-6.5 years). No statistically significant differences in terms of development of all the examined elements were revealed in children from Russia and China (Mann-Whitney U test). Statistically significant positive correlation relationship is found between the levels operational system elements in the Russian and Chinese samples (ρ Spearman; p < 0.01). It is concluded that the subjects of the Russian Federation and China do not surpass each other in terms of developing the classification, seriation, understanding the conservation principle and the ability to decenter. The subject’s operational system elements function and develop interdependently in Russian and China preschoolers, so if one level of the system elements rises it is accompanied by increasing of other elements. Summing up, the subjects of the Russian Federation and those of China do not surpass each other in terms of developing the classification, seriation, understanding the conservation principle and the ability to decenter. There are no statistically significant differences in configurations of operational system elements under the transfer from the pre-operational stage of thinking development to concrete operational one between the preschool children of different cultural-social conditions (Russia, China). This emphasizes the fact that the spontaneous processes of shaping and development of logical thinking operational system is universal. Besides, the system of logical operations functions under the inherent laws of system development when transferring from pre- operational development stage to the concrete-operational.