Background. In modern psychology, the question is increasingly being raised if there is a fine type of upbringing or it is rather a myth that does not correspond to the reality of family education practices. Parenting and child relationships are rather acute issues of discussion today.
The Objective of the paper is to analyze the approaches to the nature of the finely tuned type of parental education that provides psychological conditions for child development and positive socialization.
Design. Child-parent relationship is a bilateral process where both partners are active. The provision on the indirect nature of the relationship between the style of parental education and the child development is extended on. The cultural goals of raising a child are discussed. It is proved that in adolescence, the task of development and the goal of upbringing is based on developing personal autonomy in coincidence with the interdependence with the parents.
Results. Studies of the parenting style influence on the child personality showed the complex non-linear nature of such an effect, mediated by the nature of the child’s experience of his relationship with the parent. The main parameters of the harmonious type of upbringing that ensure further child autonomy are highlighted: features of emotional relations, communication and interaction, requirements and prohibitions, and control.
Findings. The model of the fine-drawn style of upbringing and parent-child relationships is a multi-lateral system of emotional relations, communication, control and requirements, creating a zone of the nearest development maintaining stable emotional closeness and interdependence.
The paper discusses a significant and actual issue of developing autonomy of the individual. Special attention is paid to adolescent age having high potential for developing autonomy in view of certain changes in the psychological and social sphere of the adolescents. The value of interpersonal interaction in the course of developing adolescent autonomy is shown.
The approaches to the concept of interaction are analyzed, four main directions of explaining the essence of interaction are allocated: symbolical interactionism (J. Mid), social exchange (J. Homans, G. Blumer), sociodramatic touch (E. Goffman) transaction analysis (E. Berne). Types of interaction, efficiency of interaction development are considered.
The analysis of interpersonal interaction issues shows its communication with the categories of «relation», «communication» and «joint activity» (B.G. Ananyev, G.M. Andreyeva, S.V. Dukhnovsky, Ya.L. Kolominsky V.N. Kunitsyna, V.N. Myasishchev, B.D. Parygin, etc.). The concept of interpersonal interaction system of the autonomy causing development of adolescence in the paradigm of psychologist-teacher interaction, and also child-parent interaction is described. The advantage of psychological assistance and pedagogical support within the system of interpersonal interaction for further development of adolescent autonomy is proved.
The value of cooperation as one of the types of interpersonal interaction in the course of adolescent autonomy development is shown. Mechanisms of interpersonal interaction, nature of contact in interpersonal interaction, components of a social situation are described.
The paper presents the research results that deal with the dependence of individual adolescent autonomy on the characteristics of the social situation of development, i.e. the nature of parent-child relationships and relationships with peers from the perspective of the developmental approach (L.Vygotsky). Non-linear nature of the development and heterochronic components of adolescent autonomy are shown. The highest rates are identified for the evaluative and cognitive components of autonomy, while the lowest ones are identified for emotional components at a fairly low level of behavioural autonomy. Individual autonomy develops functional unity of all the components that form its value-affective and operational-technical component. Advanced development of cognitive autonomy due to the transition to the education and career with elements of self-education is the basis of the formation of behavioural and value autonomy. The latter determines the vector of motivation and sense of identity and consequently also creates conditions for achieving emotional autonomy by adopting self-worth and self-sufficiency. Features of relations with parents and peers in five groups of adolescents, whose individual autonomy level and structure vary, are identified and described.
A relation of autonomy level and its individual components to the nature of the adolescent relationship with parents and peers is identified. The most important parameters for autonomy development are as follows: parent-child relationship as parental control, freedom and autonomy in parent-child relations, cooperation. Relationships with parents and peers play different roles in developing adolescent autonomy. In relations with parents, adolescents get aware of the need for autonomy and motivation. In relationships with peers, the need for autonomy, approbation, role experiments with value choice and decision-making, their behaviour and activities become subjective.
This paper discusses diverse theoretical approaches to the study of adolescent personal autonomy, including psychoanalytic approach (A. Freud, M. Mahler, P. Blos), attachment theory (J. Bowlby, Ainsworth, M. P. Crittenden), self-determination theory (E. Deci and R. Ryan), activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, D.A. Leontiev) and developmental approach (El’konin, T.V. Dragunova, L.I. Bozhovich, G.A. Zuckerman, G.V. Burmenskaya). Analysis of the adolescent personal autonomy has demonstrated the diversity of theoretical approaches and empirical research to explain the phenomenology, mechanisms and conditions of developing the complex personality constructs. The study of modern foreign and Russian research has allowed to analyze the main ways of separating from parents and the role of social context in shaping adolescent autonomy.
The paper describes the structure of adolescent personal autonomy construct. During its operationalization, the necessity of including the moral autonomy as part of the value autonomy in the four-tier personal autonomy is emphasized. The significance of parent-child relationship for developing adolescent personal autonomy is outlined. On the one hand, autonomy is represented as a characteristic of the relationship, i.e. social background, and on the other hand, it is the I-image used by a teenager as pattern in relationships with adults and peers. The paper highlights the benefits of the developmental approach in the research of the personal autonomy and presents how to use the concept of social situation development. The developmental approach that considers the social situation of development as a hierarchy of social contexts that determine the vector and development of the key age-dependent features, opens the opportunity of studying the orienting activity in the system of social and interpersonal relations in the development of personal autonomy.
Keywords: orienting image;
social situation of development;