The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passive behaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization.
Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings): what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father). It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation.
A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.
Contemporary situation with mental health is reviewed, and developments in psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology are monitored. Russian experience is discussed in the context of the world tendencies. In the situation of the unprecedented increase in psychopathology, insufficient attention has been paid to the crisis phenomena in psychiatry and psychology as well as the development of mental health institutions, which are still in need of specialists, and facilitation of health care programs for population.
The author writes about the increase in the number of patients who need psychiatric or psychological care, lack of experts in the mental health system, low psychological culture of the population, lack of early diagnosis of predisposition to psychopathology.
Multiple hypotheses on the causes of mental disorders are outlined in the paper. Among them, the theory of nervous exhaustion, the hypothesis that mental disorders are associated with impaired brain electrical activity, the theory of the special role of the frontal lobes in the emergence of psychopathology, the hypothesis of an imbalance of hormones, as an etiological factor of mental illness and others, are given account. The paper raises issues of mental disorders classification. The author also discusses the issue of chemical treatment and its isolated and uncontrolled use within mental disorders.
However, the review is incomplete and tends to be an invitation for mental health specialists to further discuss the issues mentioned in the paper.
The paper highlights the urgent issues of complex and multifaceted social and legal phenomenon of «child abuse». The definitions of «child abuse» in family law and relevant explanations of the Supreme Court in relation to Article 69 of the Family Code are shown. Within the criminal protection of children, it is determined that erroneous and deliberately incorrect qualification of actions of those responsible for committing child abuse that occurs in the practice of the preliminary investigation and inquiry occurs due to the imperfection of criminal law, including the lack of the concept of «child abuse», which is used as a mandatory feature in the art. 156 of the Criminal Code (failure to child-rearing responsibilities). This gap in the criminal law and personnel incompetence allow the guilty evade responsibility, as they are often refused a suit, or ordered to dismiss the criminal case or termination of proceedings for various reasons. The necessity of a legislative definition of «child abuse», shall be due to the following: analysis of available scientific debate in the doctrine of criminal law, the definition of «child abuse» in Article 156 of the Criminal Code; lighting statistical parameters, confirming the high level of latency of this category of crime, but because of difficulty with their identification and qualification; generalization of judicial practice, which also does not have a uniform approach to solving the problems mentioned above, but allowed to identify the main forms of manifestation of «child abuse» as a result of which there are specific consequences of distorting the child’s personality. Summing up, for the criminal law to protect the rights of the child and the right of a practical approach, the concept of «child abuse» should be legally defined as the category of the legal institution carries risks too broad or, on the contrary, overly narrow its interpretation, which may lead to abuse in law enforcement, as well as leave the guilty unpunished, and defenseless children.
The paper gives a brief introduction to existential analysis (EA). It briefly describes how to develop this phenomenological approach and its main provisions. The emotion is deemed as a specific perception of a meaningful life. Emotionality plays a significant role in the existential analysis of anthropology and practice. The former one is the cornerstone of existence, and takes its place among the other three measurements in the existential theory of the EA.
The paper presents a phenomenological description of the four-step process of the emotion emergence. It shows how during this process vitality is stimulated, so emotions are important to humans. This is an existential analytic theory of emotions, which explains the importance of the EA practice of affection feeling (fühlen) and intuitive feeling (sense, i.e. spüren). The first is related to human life and the need for the detection values, the second one is related to the authenticity and ethics. In this pater, we consider the difference between the affect and the emotion. In the last three paragraphss theyform of emotional dysfunction is fiscribed, some of the studies in this area and the main elements of emotional and affective therapy.
Part 2. Cultural activity approach to the issue of identifying strategies and mechanisms.
The first part of this paper argued the desirability of structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation in the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm with the construction of a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in norm and pathology, and also psychological mechanisms enabling the regulation of emotions. This conclusion was based on the analysis of the basic concepts and paradigms in which the issue of emotion regulation is studied: cognitive and psychoanalytic approaches, concept and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of emotion regulation by J. Gross, identifies emotion regulation strategies and evaluates their effectiveness. The possibilities and limitations of the model. Based on the review of the today research the conclusion is arrived at that the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies remain an open issue.
The author’s definition of emotion regulation is drawn. Emotion regulation is deemed as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that people use to preserve the capacity for productive activities in a situation of emotional stress; to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions; to maintain the excitement at the optimum level.
The second part of this paper provides the general description of emotion regulation strategies, the approach to their typology, the psychological mechanisms of emotion regulation that lie in the basis of this typology, i.e. the main elements of the structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation. The work shows theoretical and methodological efficacy of empirical significance of signs and symbols and also personal reflection. The diagnostic system to allow empirically identify a wide range of emotion regulation strategies is suggested. The psychological mechanisms used by the subject to solve the problem of emotional control and protection in the emotional situations is emphasized.Three classes of emotion regulation strategies are given a particular account: indirect cognitive, transforming cognitive, and communicative and expressive ones.
Keywords: higher mental functions (APF);
indirect cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
transforming cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
communicative and expressive emotion regulation strategies;
Available Online: 30.03.2015
The paper provides an overview of work engagement and workaholism, and also the current research. Work engagement differs from workaholism as a psychological phenomenon, but both concepts are closely connected with each other. The scientific research of the phenomena mentioned above began only in 1970, when Oates published his first book called “On being a “workaholic”. Each employee has to find balance between private life and work to get utmost job satisfaction, and to perform his/her job responsibilities productively. Work engaged staff have higher levels of subjective comfort and psychological well-being, without any experience of occupational deteriorations. In modern psychology, there is no prescription for perfect recipe of finding balance between work and family that entails different angles of considering work engagement and workaholism, their causes and prevention mechanisms. On the other hand, the impact of excessive work engagement may be one of the reasons of developing negative human functional states that plays a moderating role in the transit stage from work engagement to workaholism. Schaufeli discribed work engagement as a positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that can be characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Workaholism is a multidimensional construct, which can be linked to both positive and negative outcomes. At the contemporary stage of scientific development a lot of difficulties in studying workaholism and work engagement could be analyzed, e.g. there are no adopted Russian diagnostics instruments to assess workaholism and its manifastations. Thus, further research should be devoted to the issues of choosing proper research instruments in order to obtain clear and reliable results.
Objective. Identification of the most stable components of subjective representations about success in life of a modern person.
Methods. The study was carried out using a structuring content analysis based on inductive category extraction. The detailed answers of the respondents to the question concerning the representations of life success were analyzed.
Results. The generalized categories of subjective representations about life success are revealed: significant values; a process that is realized through the orientation of a personality “on oneself”, “on business”, “on others”; set of achievements (results); conditional complexity/unilaterality. A meaningful description of each identified category is given with the provision of quantitative data on the frequency of their occurrence. The predominance of the orientation “on oneself ” manifested in the designation of self-realization processes and life enjoyment is revealed. It was found that in the “result” category, the tendency to “have” benefits is most pronounced as compared to the tendencies to “be” and “achieve” goals accompanied by a partial representation of the result. Almost half of the respondents showed unilateral representations about life success, namely, including them in the description of ideas in one category. Along with this, constructive char- acteristics of representations about life success were revealed: the traditional nature of the most significant values (family, work, material well-being, health). Some of respondents have an orientation “to others” and a tendency to “be”.
Conclusion. The results obtained made it possible to compile a generalized picture of the subjective representations about the life success of a modern personality (using the example of Russians), which outlines the common features as well as reveals the most acute problems.
RAN / RAS test (Rapid Automatized Naming / Rapid Alternating Stimulus) has been used successfully used by many psychologists, primarily to predict the risk of dyslexia, as it includes a language component and requires good visual-verbal connections. However, The research demonstrates that the low speed of naming is an effective indicator of neurocognitive problems of information processing as a whole (learning difficulties in general), not just reading difficulties. This can be explained in two ways: disturbance of executive mental control and the difficulties of automatization: the difficulties of the transition from a controlled energy-consuming assignment to a less energy-consuming one. The second interpretation describes the problems of energy resources of cognitive functioning. It is similar to weak maintenance of cortical structures activation. However, using the test mentioned herewith for assessing functions of activation regulation has not been described previously.
In terms of the Luria’s three functional units of the brain theory the RAN / RAS test can be considered as sensitive to the weakness of the first unit, whose function is to maintain the activity of cortical structures. So the aim of the research is to prove the possibility of assessing the activation regulation using the RAN / RAS test. This issue is relevant because neuropsychological tools for determining the weakness of Unit I functions are not quite sufficient, while the problem of “energetic” unit ranks first in the frequency of occurrence in children with learning disabilities.
The aim of this research is to establish relationships between the levels of operational system elements (classification, seriation, understanding of the conservation principle and the ability to decenter) on the concrete operational thinking fledging period in preschool children from two different countries: Russia and China. Classic techniques of Piaget were used to diagnose development levels of subject’s operational system structural elements. Development stages of classification and seriation of logical operations, understanding the conservation principle, the ability to decenter were compared in the 40 Russian and 40 China preschool children (3.1-6.5 years). No statistically significant differences in terms of development of all the examined elements were revealed in children from Russia and China (Mann-Whitney U test). Statistically significant positive correlation relationship is found between the levels operational system elements in the Russian and Chinese samples (ρ Spearman; p < 0.01). It is concluded that the subjects of the Russian Federation and China do not surpass each other in terms of developing the classification, seriation, understanding the conservation principle and the ability to decenter. The subject’s operational system elements function and develop interdependently in Russian and China preschoolers, so if one level of the system elements rises it is accompanied by increasing of other elements. Summing up, the subjects of the Russian Federation and those of China do not surpass each other in terms of developing the classification, seriation, understanding the conservation principle and the ability to decenter. There are no statistically significant differences in configurations of operational system elements under the transfer from the pre-operational stage of thinking development to concrete operational one between the preschool children of different cultural-social conditions (Russia, China). This emphasizes the fact that the spontaneous processes of shaping and development of logical thinking operational system is universal. Besides, the system of logical operations functions under the inherent laws of system development when transferring from pre- operational development stage to the concrete-operational.
The paper includes results of the research, where influence of main parenting styles on developing children’s personality and appearing child-parent problems were considered. It covers client families of psychological advice (with overprotection and over exactingness). It is indicated that the key factor emerging child-parent problems in this families is the abnormality of the parent personality identified through so-called existential criterion, which is displayed in their parenting styles. The parenting styles contribute to shaping child abnormal personality types, also identified through existential criteria are designated as “directed at external assistance”, “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” and “directed at protesting against compliance with the requirements of other people”. Children of such personality types have problems communicating with others as communication is addressed to children with normal personal development and is not relevant for abnormal personal abilities. As the problems mentioned above are connected with maladjustment to social environment requirements they can be classified as problems of social adaptation.
There is a connection of a personality type “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” with abnormal personality predisposed to various life problems and mental disorders mentioned in the works of E. Fromm, S. Freud, A. Adler, С. Jung, C. Rogers, and V. Frankl. It suggests the understanding of the personality of this type to be regarded as a classical type of personality which the authors mentioned above were dealing with in their psychotherapeutic practice at different times.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of spiritual determination of character development in adolescence. On the basis of the experimental research of spiritual sphere and the degree of a character harmony of today’s students, the author allocates the psychological laws of influencing the spiritual orientation for the process of character developments in adolescents. The experimental research has shown that spiritual orientation and character harmony are mutually influenced. However, the spiritual potential does not always positively correlate with character harmony as because the process of character harmonization does not appear linear, but cyclic with of rise and fall periods. The fall periods are accompanied by expressed disharmony of character and promotes social psychological personality maladjustment. Conditioned by steady spiritual orientation, spiritual self-development promotes character harmonization through overcoming personal spiritual crises. Continuous moral struggle against imperfection conditioned, the personality faces gradual character harmonization according to the spiritual ideal.
Spiritually and creative activity promotes activation of psychological mechanisms of character harmonization in adolescents. The basic directions of optimization of the education system is creating psychological conditions of spirituality and moral improvement, saturation of teaching and educational programs by spiritual and creative contents.
Nowadays in vitro fertilization procedure is widespread. Due to improvements in medical technology parenting has become possible for couples who were doomed to childlessness. Practical request for psychological support couples who have decided to take part in the IVF program has been raised. Shaping the internal position of the IVF parent takes place in special psychological conditions. The IVF procedure is preceded by a period of infertility, the procedure is often the last chance to have a baby alone. Participation in the IVF program involves regular contact with doctors, medical personnel access to the intimate sphere of life couples. The paper analyzes the attitude of women participating in the IVF pregnancy program, the unborn baby and parenting - the elements constituting the parent position. The study which was attended by 224 pregnant women, 62 participants of IVF program and 162 women with physiological pregnancy was carried out on the basis of Kulakov Scientific Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. When analyzing the data obtained we were able to identify features of the internal position of women who became pregnant using IVF. In comparison with a group of women with physiological pregnancy, the IVF program participants tend to romanticize the role of parent and child. IVF program participants demonstrate unwillingness to take on the role of parent. The main motivation of mothers in the IVF group concentrated on the very fact of pregnancy and childbirth, proper parenting, while care and support for children is not appealing to women who became pregnant using IVF.
Important conditions for becoming a parent are the experience of motherhood and the time of pregnancy expectation.
Shaping professional reflection of future teachers is of particular importance in the context of the modernization of the Russian education. However, despite the deep reflection of a problem in Russian pedagogical science the characteristics of development levels of pedagogical reflection among future teacher remains largely fragmented.
The paper deals with professional and pedagogical reflection as a process of perceiving essential features of educational process by a teacher, summarizes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to this issue. The research is aimed to identify and describe levels of professional and pedagogical reflection among students. The research is divided in several stages: the stage of theoretical allocation of substantial components of professional pedagogical reflection, the stage of selecting proper research tools, ascertaining stage, and concluding stage. The conceptual basis of the research is to identify the main components that determine the following features of professional and pedagogical reflection: motivational, creative, emotional volitional, communicative, monitoring and evaluative.
Based on the empirical results the levels of professional and pedagogical reflection of the students of the teacher-training specialties are identified. The first level is characterized by weak professional reflection and undifferentiated consciousness, self-awareness and self-esteem in the normal course of activities, the second level is associated with certain reflective activity and organization and is characterized by steady demand for professional and personal self-improvement. The indicator of the third level is high development of all components of professional reflection.
The paper describes the results of the study of the relationship a successful career and a romantic relationship. The general structure of the relationship between the successful career and romantic relationships between men and women obtained as a result of in-depth interviews is given. It is shown that the respondents’ representations are as follows: romantic relationships affect the career much more than a career to a romantic relationship. the positive aspects of this influence are highlighted, they are expressed in moral support, inspiration, confidence, etc. and negative aspects - lack of time, attention and energy resources. The differences in assessing the stediness of the relationship between a successful career and romantic relationships between men and women are shown. The features of perception and evaluation of the career success for people who are in relationships and those who do not have a romantic partner are given a distinct account. The relationship between a successful career and attitude of the respondent to the partner’s career is estblished. Additional results regarding the factors romantic relationships, which can contribute to a more successful career, are also obtained.