Contemporary situation with mental health is reviewed, and developments in psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology are monitored. Russian experience is discussed in the context of the world tendencies. In the situation of the unprecedented increase in psychopathology, insufficient attention has been paid to the crisis phenomena in psychiatry and psychology as well as the development of mental health institutions, which are still in need of specialists, and facilitation of health care programs for population.
The author writes about the increase in the number of patients who need psychiatric or psychological care, lack of experts in the mental health system, low psychological culture of the population, lack of early diagnosis of predisposition to psychopathology.
Multiple hypotheses on the causes of mental disorders are outlined in the paper. Among them, the theory of nervous exhaustion, the hypothesis that mental disorders are associated with impaired brain electrical activity, the theory of the special role of the frontal lobes in the emergence of psychopathology, the hypothesis of an imbalance of hormones, as an etiological factor of mental illness and others, are given account. The paper raises issues of mental disorders classification. The author also discusses the issue of chemical treatment and its isolated and uncontrolled use within mental disorders.
However, the review is incomplete and tends to be an invitation for mental health specialists to further discuss the issues mentioned in the paper.
The paper highlights the urgent issues of complex and multifaceted social and legal phenomenon of «child abuse». The definitions of «child abuse» in family law and relevant explanations of the Supreme Court in relation to Article 69 of the Family Code are shown. Within the criminal protection of children, it is determined that erroneous and deliberately incorrect qualification of actions of those responsible for committing child abuse that occurs in the practice of the preliminary investigation and inquiry occurs due to the imperfection of criminal law, including the lack of the concept of «child abuse», which is used as a mandatory feature in the art. 156 of the Criminal Code (failure to child-rearing responsibilities). This gap in the criminal law and personnel incompetence allow the guilty evade responsibility, as they are often refused a suit, or ordered to dismiss the criminal case or termination of proceedings for various reasons. The necessity of a legislative definition of «child abuse», shall be due to the following: analysis of available scientific debate in the doctrine of criminal law, the definition of «child abuse» in Article 156 of the Criminal Code; lighting statistical parameters, confirming the high level of latency of this category of crime, but because of difficulty with their identification and qualification; generalization of judicial practice, which also does not have a uniform approach to solving the problems mentioned above, but allowed to identify the main forms of manifestation of «child abuse» as a result of which there are specific consequences of distorting the child’s personality. Summing up, for the criminal law to protect the rights of the child and the right of a practical approach, the concept of «child abuse» should be legally defined as the category of the legal institution carries risks too broad or, on the contrary, overly narrow its interpretation, which may lead to abuse in law enforcement, as well as leave the guilty unpunished, and defenseless children.
The paper gives a brief introduction to existential analysis (EA). It briefly describes how to develop this phenomenological approach and its main provisions. The emotion is deemed as a specific perception of a meaningful life. Emotionality plays a significant role in the existential analysis of anthropology and practice. The former one is the cornerstone of existence, and takes its place among the other three measurements in the existential theory of the EA.
The paper presents a phenomenological description of the four-step process of the emotion emergence. It shows how during this process vitality is stimulated, so emotions are important to humans. This is an existential analytic theory of emotions, which explains the importance of the EA practice of affection feeling (fühlen) and intuitive feeling (sense, i.e. spüren). The first is related to human life and the need for the detection values, the second one is related to the authenticity and ethics. In this pater, we consider the difference between the affect and the emotion. In the last three paragraphss theyform of emotional dysfunction is fiscribed, some of the studies in this area and the main elements of emotional and affective therapy.
Keywords: higher mental functions (APF);
indirect cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
transforming cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
communicative and expressive emotion regulation strategies;
By: Pervichko Elena I.;
Available Online: 30.03.2015
The paper provides an overview of work engagement and workaholism, and also the current research. Work engagement differs from workaholism as a psychological phenomenon, but both concepts are closely connected with each other. The scientific research of the phenomena mentioned above began only in 1970, when Oates published his first book called “On being a “workaholic”. Each employee has to find balance between private life and work to get utmost job satisfaction, and to perform his/her job responsibilities productively. Work engaged staff have higher levels of subjective comfort and psychological well-being, without any experience of occupational deteriorations. In modern psychology, there is no prescription for perfect recipe of finding balance between work and family that entails different angles of considering work engagement and workaholism, their causes and prevention mechanisms. On the other hand, the impact of excessive work engagement may be one of the reasons of developing negative human functional states that plays a moderating role in the transit stage from work engagement to workaholism. Schaufeli discribed work engagement as a positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that can be characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Workaholism is a multidimensional construct, which can be linked to both positive and negative outcomes. At the contemporary stage of scientific development a lot of difficulties in studying workaholism and work engagement could be analyzed, e.g. there are no adopted Russian diagnostics instruments to assess workaholism and its manifastations. Thus, further research should be devoted to the issues of choosing proper research instruments in order to obtain clear and reliable results.
Nowadays in vitro fertilization procedure is widespread. Due to improvements in medical technology parenting has become possible for couples who were doomed to childlessness. Practical request for psychological support couples who have decided to take part in the IVF program has been raised. Shaping the internal position of the IVF parent takes place in special psychological conditions. The IVF procedure is preceded by a period of infertility, the procedure is often the last chance to have a baby alone. Participation in the IVF program involves regular contact with doctors, medical personnel access to the intimate sphere of life couples. The paper analyzes the attitude of women participating in the IVF pregnancy program, the unborn baby and parenting - the elements constituting the parent position. The study which was attended by 224 pregnant women, 62 participants of IVF program and 162 women with physiological pregnancy was carried out on the basis of Kulakov Scientific Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. When analyzing the data obtained we were able to identify features of the internal position of women who became pregnant using IVF. In comparison with a group of women with physiological pregnancy, the IVF program participants tend to romanticize the role of parent and child. IVF program participants demonstrate unwillingness to take on the role of parent. The main motivation of mothers in the IVF group concentrated on the very fact of pregnancy and childbirth, proper parenting, while care and support for children is not appealing to women who became pregnant using IVF.
Important conditions for becoming a parent are the experience of motherhood and the time of pregnancy expectation.
Shaping professional reflection of future teachers is of particular importance in the context of the modernization of the Russian education. However, despite the deep reflection of a problem in Russian pedagogical science the characteristics of development levels of pedagogical reflection among future teacher remains largely fragmented.
The paper deals with professional and pedagogical reflection as a process of perceiving essential features of educational process by a teacher, summarizes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to this issue. The research is aimed to identify and describe levels of professional and pedagogical reflection among students. The research is divided in several stages: the stage of theoretical allocation of substantial components of professional pedagogical reflection, the stage of selecting proper research tools, ascertaining stage, and concluding stage. The conceptual basis of the research is to identify the main components that determine the following features of professional and pedagogical reflection: motivational, creative, emotional volitional, communicative, monitoring and evaluative.
Based on the empirical results the levels of professional and pedagogical reflection of the students of the teacher-training specialties are identified. The first level is characterized by weak professional reflection and undifferentiated consciousness, self-awareness and self-esteem in the normal course of activities, the second level is associated with certain reflective activity and organization and is characterized by steady demand for professional and personal self-improvement. The indicator of the third level is high development of all components of professional reflection.