Intensification of cross-cultural interactions naturally actualizes the insight into optimal social distance perceptions, prospective entering into an intercultural professional group. Social expectations and stereotypes of cross-cultural compatibility, emotional preferences and behaviour choice are largely shaped in tertiary education environment. The study of social distance parameters in the course of cross-cultural communication among student groups from several higher education institutions demonstrated dominant positive attitude towards intercultural friendship. Similar to this was students’ assessment of prospects for working in a multinational team with different labour ethics, attitudes and values. However, emotional preferences in cases involving multicultural situations in a group are not that positive, while the examination of social distance shortening through intermarriage showed a tendency towards negative multicultural tolerance. A possibility to develop multicultural competence while receiving tertiary education is closely connected with acceptance of “others” and the nature of reacting in the communication process. The analysis of cross-cultural preferences among students from several Russian cities indicates the potential of interlocutory forms for group compatibility interpretation. It also shows prospects for multicultural understanding conditioning and mutual acceptance of semantically loaded social perceptions and in-group privileges determination. Development of cross-cultural cognitive system, which includes post non-classic discourse, subjective experience of interaction in multicultural environment, provides the opportunity to choose communication and behaviour strategies. Elaboration of linguistic determinism theories substantiates the link between the language and the world outlook, the world-image and linguistic peculiarities of perceiving it, comprising significance of national culture in one’s world view. The overcoming social and communicative barriers, the realization of objective need for intercultural dialogue will create conditions to optimize acceptance of the “Other” concept, to rationalize sociocultural peculiarities, and the level of their accessibility, to perfect the algorithms of cross-cultural interactions.
Russian culture is a high-context one, where a large amount of connotations are included in the process of informational exchange. This phenomenon is reflected in the special importance of nonverbal behaviour, mostly facial expressions. At the same time, the absence of smiling in Russian nonverbal communication is emphasized in numerous cultural studies and common sense.
The article makes an attempt to show that the high-context XIX century Russian culture could be described through the importance of a smile in communication. In order to prove this hypothesis, a content analysis of the novel «Anna Karenina» by Leo Tolstoy was carried out. Results of the research demonstrated that Tolstoy used the smile quite widely as one of the elements of nonverbal behavior of Russians (more than 550 words with a root «smile» were detected; it was also shown that more than 80 different characters (of different importance and class) do smile in the novel). Additionally, to describe smiles The Great Russian writer employed a rich range of linguistic tools, often expressing several emotions at once. The main function of the smile for Tolstoy is communion (obschenie ) since the interaction between the characters is not just seen as an informational exchange, but rather an opportunity to reflect feelings. Smiles accompany the speech, and at the same time they are an independent part of communication. They coincide with the most significant events in the characters lives – birth, wedding and even death.
It is suggested that the lack of a smile, and even the negative attitude of modern Russians toward smiles, is not a traditional feature of Russian culture, but rather Soviet and Post-Soviet ones. The social changes of the XX century resulted in some transformations of the rules of nonverbal expression of emotions – during the years of the Soviet power people stopped smiling and the habit of smiling was gradually lost. The article expresses the hope for the return of a smile to the Russian culture.
The paper discusses the effect of Information Technologies entering into the everyday life of a human, which is associated with the erosion of the identity boundaries. In respect of such technologies phenomenon, which is important for the structure and dynamics of identity, is revealed: the interpenetration of the two control systems. On the one hand, technology provides people with new means of control over the world, but at the same time we becomes controlled by the same technological expansion. Getting equipped with certain vital facilities, technologically advanced people become deprived of their privacy, so technology turns out to be the means of total control. Benefits that provide technological expansion have the reverse side. Extended opportunities to access information results in increasing the availability of an Internet user, a smart phone owner or a bank cardholder. Any private information in the network can be accessed by a third party without the user’s consent.
Personal deprivatization results in increased levels of anxiety, emergence of feelings of being controlled and feelings of insecurity. The agenda includes the issue of ethical and psychological repercussions of electronic monitoring, digitizing, and chipping via wearable implants. The paper discusses the risk of changing human living through invisible, widespread and standard technologies of control. It is shown in the paper that personal space violation is not always a result of the activities of the state, but is rather the result of misunderstanding the specifics of Information Technologies, as well as ways of using than by a human.
Realizing that technology is a not neutral issue with respect to the user is the basis for complying with ordinary ‘information hygiene’ and preventing violations of the identity boundaries.
Conducted in recent years Russian population studies of the Internet use by children show that the rapid skills development in children and adolescents is associated with a lack of awareness of the risks and dangers of the digital world, and also the possibilities of coping with them. The paper offers psychological models of digital competence in children and adults including four components: knowledge, skills, motivation, responsibility, as well as types of digital competence, i.e. media competence, communicative competence, technical competence, and consumer competence.
The paper performs the results of the development and methods validation of screening diagnosis index of digital competence according to population-based study on a representative sample of Russian 12-17 year-olders (N = 1203) and parents of adolescents in this age group (N = 1209) conducted by the Foundation for Internet Development and the Department of Psychology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia with Google support. Reliability-consistency scales of the knowledge skills and responsibility was sufficient (0.72-0.90) with inhomogeneity of motivation scale. The confirmatory factor analysis proved the compliance of the 4-component index model to the empirical data.
To verify the validity of the criteria we used the four tests assessing the respondents’ knowledge and skills in the areas of content, communication, technosphere and consumption sphere. The overall level of digital competence was for parents, 31 per cent from of the highest possible level, and for adolescents, the level was 34 per cent, with particular decline in motivation (20 per cent and 20 per cent respectively), which indicates the necessaity for motivating and informing educational programs in this area.
The most discussed validity criteria of qualitative research, namely realistic, constructionist, critical, aesthetical and radical ones are analysed in this paper. Modern research does not only introduce specific concepts of validity, but it also strives to conceptually replace this criterion by another.
In the realistic system the validity is discussed from the point of view of the interpretative argumentation. The constructionist criteria assume refusal of classical validity criteria, new criteria, i.e. “trustworthiness” and “authenticity”, are introduced. The critical criteria emphasize social value and usefulness, a critical component of the research, its inclusiveness in the context of social and cultural changes.
Aesthetical criteria equate quality of the analysis and the expressiveness, polyphony of the collected data, the representation of the various subjective positions in the study. The radical system, following the logics of radical constructionism and methodological anarchism, refuses a definite standard of quality research. Summing up, we conclude that the so-called “subjective” view of the researcher is not an artifact of the analysis, but its key epistemological tool. The issue of validity is the problem of critical reflexivity of the researchers and positions of their respondents. In conclusion, we suggest the original validity criteria of qualitative research in psychology based on the theoretical analysis of various criteria and practical experience.
The general principle of these original criteria is a relation of criteria and various levels (or stages) of qualitative research: research design, data collection and analysis, and data interpretation.
In this paper we develop the criteria for evaluating scientific and academic publications and such qualification works, as diplomas, master theses and Ph. D. theses carried out using qualitative methods. The criteria are the result of a research seminar on qualitative methods held by A.N. Krichevets and O.T. Melnikova at the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. The detailed steps are described and corresponding standards of planning research, preparing the target and theoretical sample, collecting and analyzing quality data, interpreting and presenting results are shown. Particular attention is given to such criteria as transparency of result interpretation, result analysis documentation, validity, availability of author’s reflexive position in the text and availability of respondents’ judgements and opinions. In addition, we show the necessity of choosing methods for analyzing the results (e.g. thematic analysis, grounded theory method, hermeneutic or descriptive phenomenology, narrative and discourse analysis), how they conform to the goals and objectives of the research, and also the adequacy of studying a particular subject area.
We discuss the key validation strategies included into the research process (validation by respondents, analysis of deviant cases, triangulation, etc.), ethical principles and sampling, communicating with respondents, working with their personal data. Developing “quality standards” is an important factor in establishing a qualitative research in the Russian national science of psychology.
The article features a new technique of work motivation diagnostics based on the new developed concept of motivational task. A motivational task is a tool for selfappraisal in the field of motivational objects allowing further reconstruction of motivational space. The conditions of the motivational task resolution have been implemented in the diagnostic procedure “Motivational Map”. The diagnostics procedure consists in multiple visual appraisal forms of 16 motivational objects (J.Nuttin) within a dimensional graphic space determined by 6 evaluation scales. To indicate the geometric patterns that reflect the relationship between motivational objects the term subjective motivation space is used, based on the definition of subjective psychological space in modern models of multidimensional scaling. Conditions of motivational tasks are as follows: ranking of motivational objects, determining the subjective centre of motivational space, multiple comparative evaluation of motivational objects, successive refinement of estimates of motivational objects, adjusting the motivational space with due account of placing high priority motivational object. Approbation of new assessment technique was conducted using a sample of 206 financial experts and included two series which had the test and the retest stages. These results were compared with the scores received using the results of standard questionnaires. The construct validity of the methodology was assessed by means of the regression analysis. The scales used in the standard methodologies of work motivation assessment served as the independent variables, while the parameters registered by the developed methodology served as the dependent variables. In the course of validity analysis, 32 highly important regression models were established. The results of psychometric verification of validity and reliability are presented in this paper.
The interdisciplinary approach in studies of identity has to employ methods that allow to study and compare the prognostic value of diagnostic criteria of identification which are suggested within the line of various concepts. The objective of this research is to study the steadiness and correlation of identification values according to a number of criteria, and also their relationship to subjective well-being, coping strategies, and also the severity of psychopathology symptoms in subjects without mental illness. The method of “Who Am I?” by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland was completed by a quantitative Likert scale to which extent each identity is liked (emotional evaluation), is often actualized (significance), is important for the subject (psychological centrality), and is recognized by others (perceived social recognition).
The two samples, psychology students (n1=82) and adult subjects (n2=50), show sufficient consistency of identification values, impossibility to interchange the criteria, and the possibility of reliable calculation of a single indicator coherence/incoherence in evaluations identifications. Positive assessment, psychological centrality and awareness of their identities more often contribute to choosing active behavioural and cognitive coping strategies. The additional consideration of consistency in values results in better prediction of the inclination to positive reformulation, appeal to religion and focus on emotions. Relationship of the importance of identification and depression was mediated by the emotional assessment: frequent thoughts about identification prevented depression only in the subjects with positive emotional evaluation of identity. In general, the use of quantitative assessment allows us to complete the qualitative analysis of identifications by general indicators of subjective experience of identity.
The literature on chronic diseases recognizes the role of illness cognition as a mediator between stress and illness. The results of testing of the Russian version of the illness cognition questionnaire. The basis for this questionnaire served as the model representations of the disease is widely developed in the foreign clinical psychology. Diagnostic procedure involves identifying the positive and negative factors to assess the impact of the disease on the psychosocial adaptation. The questionnaire assesses three ways of cognitively evaluating the stressful and aversive character of a chronic illness: helplessness, acceptance, and perceived benefits. Scale «Acceptance» and «Perceived benefits» perceived ability to diminish, live with and master the aversive consequences of one’s disease recognising the need to adapt to the chronic illness, additional positive consequences of the illness situation, such as changes in life priorities and personal goals, positive personality changes, and strengthened personal relationships. Scale «Helplessness» reflect evaluation of the illness that emphasises the negative meaning of the illness, focusing on the adverse aspects of the disease as uncontrollable, unpredictable and unchangeable. Total sample consisted of 177 women with cancer of the reproductive system, the average age was 54,7 ± 6,9 years. Questionnaire includes an 18-point Likert scale measured at designed to study the basic concepts of the disease. Russian version of the illness cognition questionnaire has sufficient internal consistency, test-retest reliability is characterized by high and complies the English version in relation to the factor structure. Convergent validity of the questionnaire is supported by significant relations between cognitive representations of the disease and locus of disease control, anxiety, depression, coping behavior.
Keywords: cognitive representations of illness;
the implicit model of the disease;
cognitive appraisal of illness and coping behavior;
acceptance of illness;
Social anxiety has a significant negative impact on the individual’s everyday life through handicapping process of social adaptation. In this regard, psychologists observe an increasing amount of research focused on coping-strategies in social phobia. Humorous reactions on stressful events are considered an important and effective coping strategy. The objective of this research is to study the impact of the humour as a coping strategy on different manifestations of social anxiety, as well as the associated feelings of guilt and shame in healthy people and patients with schizophrenia. The study involved 34 patients with schizophrenia and 102 healthy people, aged 18 to 35, males and females. As a research method we used questionnaires such as Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia are less likely to use humour as a coping strategy than healthy people. The results of one-way ANOVA method demonstrated that humour as a coping strategy is effective in some, but not all, aspects of social anxiety. The results of two-way ANOVA method showed that humour as a coping strategy could be effective to cope with shame and guilt, but at low level of social anxiety. At high level of social anxiety humour could not only be ineffective to cope with shame and guilt, but also have a negative influence on these emotions. In healthy males with low level of social anxiety humour helps to cope with withdrawal actions in shame. In males with schizophrenia and low levels of social anxiety humour reduces repair actions in guilt. These results indicate heterogenic influence of humour over social anxiety, shame and guilt, and can be used for diagnostic purposes and for psychocorrection.
The paper is an analytical overview of the results of foreign scientific researches of parental factors’ psychotherapy of children and adolescents. The fundamental differences between child / adolescent psychotherapy and adult psychotherapy are shown: characteristics of the client, sources of information and the influence of the social environment. We identified five groups of psychotherapy efficiency of children and adolescents: procedural factors, “children/adolescent” factors, parental factors, family factors and psychotherapist factors.
Parental factors that have a positive impact on the process of psychotherapy of children and adolescents are as follows: 1) parental self-efficacy which is associated with father’s and mother’s beliefs about their own parental competence; 2) parental involvement in the process of psychotherapy which provides cooperation with the child psychotherapist/psychologist; 3) parental adherence to psychotherapy which allows to adjust and modify their educational tactics and strategy; 4) adequate parental expectations which correlate with the duration of child/adolescent psychotherapy. It is shown that adverse prognostic factors for the process of children and adolescents psychotherapy are as follows: 1) psychopathological status of parents which restrict the positive changes of the child/adolescent; 2) high levels of parental stress that does not change the particular nature of parent-child relationship; 3) inadequate level of hostility and criticism of parents in relation to the child who is not able receive new social and emotional experience.
The paper emphasizes that the underestimating or neglecting psychotherapy efficacy of children and adolescents is associated with the particular features of their parents, so it can result in early psychotherapy ceasing and reducing the achieved positive results.
The paper presents the results of empirical studies of the mother interaction with preschool children. The objective of the research is to determine the peculiarities of mothers aged over 35 interaction with a child. Relevance of the research is due to a pronounced recent trend of first births in adulthood when parenthood is referred to as “late”. Means of identifying age-related features is a comparative analysis of the two groups of preschool children mothers who gave birth to their first child under to 30 years (young mothers) and those who gave birth to their first child being over 35 (“late” mother). The study involved 80 females aged 26 to 55 years with children of preschool age. Features of the emotional state of their children were also analyzed. Preschool experience of interaction in the family allowed to talk about the advantages and dangers of the “late” motherhood. The analysis of the emotional state of preschool children was conducted by projective picturesque samples, also, the mothers and kindergarten teachers who are to watch the baby for a long period of time were interviewed. The results of the study suggest that a “late” mother builds a more harmonious interaction with the children, which is reflected in their experience of the family situation well-being, and a favourable emotional state. Responsiveness of “late” mothers and also their support and sympathy allow the child to feel secure, while at the same time does not induce children’s autonomy. These children are more likely to seek help of an adult, need adult’s support, while the children of young mothers are more likely to solve problems on their own.