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National Psychological Journal #2(10)/2013, 148 p.


Zinchenko Yu. P. (2013). Editorial. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 1-3

Dear colleagues, here is the regular issue of the “National Psychological Journal”.

The year of 2013 was a landmark in many ways not only for scholars of psychology, but also for the Russian science in general.

Pages: 1-3

Keywords: National Psychological Journal; history of Russian psychology; history of psychology;

By: ;

Classical Russian Psychologists

Brushlinskiy A.V., Tikhomirov O.K. (2013). On the trend of modern psychology of thinking. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 10-16

The paper analyses the main achievements and development trends of the national psychology of thinking in the second half of the twentieth century from the point of view of the activity approach. This approach has been implemented in various forms (firstly by S.L. Rubinstein and his followers, secondly by A.N. Leontiev and his followers). The paper summarises and compares the results of long-term cycles of theoretical and experimental studies, and also confirms the synthesis of productivity based upon conceptions of thinking as a process and as an activity according to these research schools.

Based on the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity the authors emphasize the need of thinking in the context of the various activities and claim that the developed thinking should be studied as a separate, self-regulated function of the person with a multi-level psychological determination which presupposes goal-setting, motivational and emotional, meaningful, and reflective functions. The increasing role of the study of the subject of thought, and in a wider sense the cognitive activity in the context of the analysis of mental development (in history, ontogenesis and actual genesis) is being stressed in the paper. It involves identifying both general and specific patterns of micro genesis and macro genesis of thinking.

The restrictions of the rapidly developing informational approach developed by cognitive sciences, inability to reduce the psychological reality to the model laid down in the artificial intelligence systems are being proved in the paper. It is argued that the main feature of thinking as a process is its continuity, which is conceptually genetic (non- disjunctive and non-dichotomous item) in contrast with the separate cycles of any computer programme: all stages of the thinking process is continuously followed by another one, and therefore, being objectively different, they are indivisible, they are mutually determined by the dynamics of intellectual and emotional processes and their products that are attributable to the different levels of awareness and arbitrariness.

At the same time, the paper emphasizes the fact that in modern conditions the intellectual activity produced and processed by computers plays a new significant object of psychological research, as the human societal progress of requires substantial advance in the study of thinking. Considering the rapid dissemination of science-based (physiological, logical and mathematical, cybernetic, sociological) reductionism the authors call for a reorientation of research in the psychology of thinking. First and foremost, they offer to study creative, non-algorithmic, non-formalised components (i.e., to analyze the personal aspect of thinking, which determins patterns of generating and operating new needs, motives, emotions, judgments, meanings, purposes and methods of thinking activity). In this paper we prove a significant advantage of the activity approach methodology, its heuristic approach and prospects to disclose specific features of intricate psychological forms of human thinking.

Received: 08/12/2014

Accepted: 08/14/2014

Pages: 10-16

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0201

Keywords: activity theory; structuring function of motives; heuristic functions of emotions; goal-setting; operational meanings; personal meanings theory of thinking;

By: ; ;

Psychology and Society

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu.(2013). An intent regarding possible emigration and personality security. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 17-24

One of the fundamental factors influencing an individual’s intent to emigrate is a sense of danger that triggers the decision on settling in another country. The intent to emigrate under modern conditions is decision making in the situation of choice and is determined by perceptions of one’s own security. Security of a person is the matter of his/her own efforts. Thus security is one of the leading factors of orientation and determination in the course of obtaining the notion of the outer world.

263 respondents aged from 20 to 40 participated in the study. Four groups of respondents (those with emigration intentions and with a sense of security; the ones lacking emigration intentions and with a sense of security; respondents with emigration intentions, with a feeling of being in danger; respondents lacking emigration intentions with a feeling of being in danger) were formed on the basis of two criteria: emigration intentions and a feeling of being secure/insecure. The results show that the most significant motives for changing the settling area are life standards and search for comfort, which is explained by a pronounced dissatisfaction with social and economic situation of the native land, and low income. It is identified that the groups mentioned differ in their social psychological characteristics of life satisfaction level, sense of happiness, sense of security, motives for possible emigration, concept of emigration. The contradiction between the stated positive attitude towards those who emigrate (“a person can live where he likes”) and the semantic meaning of the “Emigration” concept (“cowardice”, “attenuation of a state”, “escape”, “rats deserting the sinking ship”) was detected in all groups of the respondents.

Received: 10/07/2013

Accepted: 10/16/2013

Pages: 17-24

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0202

Keywords: emigration intent; security; notion; immigration; adaptation;

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Dontsov A.I., Drozdova A.V.(2013). The visual impact of online advertising on youth subculture. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 25-31

In the modern world a dominant role in everyday life is played by such media channels as television, video resources and the Internet. Perception of the world is reverberated by the more indirect images of this world, whereas visuality is the formative principle of visual culture. «The «visual turn» consists in the shift of modern methods of verbal perception toward visual, or image ones.

Images are the components of the mental architecture. Image sensitivity replaces the text and sometimes it complements the text. Topical issues of visualization require modernised research methods of media images, which must be included in the broader context of interdisciplinary research.

The Internet space acquires an independent meaning, it carries a growing set of social interactions and contacts. With the development of the Internet business, the linear narratives are replaced by hypertextual and visual ones. The Internet can be viewed in “the postmodern situation» as a setting of global automation, and also as endless polyphonic communication of independent segments once a common cultural and information space. The most active Internet audience is presented by young people. Within them the formation of various subcultures and communities is inherent, there is a new system for structuring culture.

In the modern consumer society, along with other advertising media, products are increasingly becoming a source of visual differentiation and entertainment. The visual impact of online advertising is determined by the fact that it represents the lifestyle and values of the youth subculture, constructs a new perception and develops a new structure of consciousness and vision of the world of young people.

Received: 10/07/2013

Accepted: 10/16/2013

Pages: 25-31

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0203

Keywords: visual; everyday life; identity; Internet advertising; subculture; narrative;

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Sobkin V.S., Mkrtychyan A.А.(2013). The role of sociocultural factors of developing attitudes toward extremism in school students of the cities of Moscow (Russia) and Riga (Latvia). National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 32-40

The present article reports the results of cross-cultural research on the role of sociocultural factors that develop attitudes toward extremism in school students of Moscow, Russia, and Riga, Latvia. Equally, it analyzes various aspects of social activity of adolescents: their attitude to legislative sanctions against extremist activities, a tendency to express various ways of political protest, etc. Special attention is paid to the role of social and cultural factors that determine the specific features of adolescents’ attitude to extremism. We consider such factors as the degree of social distance from extremist organizations or membership of a national majority or minority, etc. The article reports on the relationship between adoption of extremist behaviour and attitudes of aggressive behaviour in various social situations, and in the situation of bullying in particular. In addition, the article presents the results of factor analysis to identify a set of features that determine not only those ones related to extremism, but also the position of the teenagers in the propensity for violence and aggressive behaviour as a way to solve their own conflicts. Also, based on the selected factors, the averaged profiles of teenagers in Moscow (Russia) and Riga (Latvia), who claimed their own relationship with extremist organizations, are shown. The main conclusions of the article can be briefly presented in the following points. In general, negative attitude towards extremism dominates in schoolchildren. It is expressed in personal non-acceptance of extremism. Social environment of teenager affects assessment of various kinds of extremist manifestations. The study revealed significant differences in attitudes toward extremism, depending on the membership of a national minority or titular nation.

Received: 05/03/2013

Accepted: 05/16/2013

Pages: 32-40

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0204

Keywords: extremism; aggression; legitimisation of aggression; adolescence; bullying; political protest; national majority/minority;

By: ; ;


Cooper S.(2013). Dr. Sathasivan Cooper Interview with the President of the International Union of Psychological Science at UNESCO (IUPsyS).National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 41-42

Interview with the President of the International Union of Psychological Science at UNESCO (IUPsyS) Dr. Sathasivan Cooper On 22-27 July, 2012 in Cape Town, South Africa, the XXXth International Congress of Psychology “Psychology in the service of humanity” was held. Dr. Sathasivan Cooper, a former vice chancellor and rector of the University of Durban-Westville was elected a new President of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS). He kindly agreed to tell us about his vision of further psychology development.

Professor Cooper said the main problems the International Union of Psychological Science at UNESCO is faced with for the upcoming four years, current trends of psychological research, the prospects for expanding the EuroPsy system and promoting it to other non-European countries. He answers the question which of the Russian psychological research are interesting to him personally and to the international community on the whole. He talks about the prospects of the “International Psychological Journal”. According to Dr. Sathasivan Cooper, the key project that will affect the psychology of its clinical aspects and directions, is the further revision of the International Classification of Diseases (“International Classification of Disorders” (ICD), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO)). IUPsyS held a psychological campaign, which resricted the dominance of psychiatry in the course of this review.

Dr. Cooper answeres the following question: which of the Russian psychological research are interesting to him personally and to the international psychological community as a whole. He put emphasis on the works that fall into A.R. Luria’s paradigm, which are of great importance, and a wide range of applications throughout the world, particularly against the background of neuropsychology development in some countries. Russia must regain its former high position both in this sphere and in other areas of psychological research. The new president of the International Union of Psychological Science told the audience about the prospects of the «International Journal of Psychology», which is well-known in all countries..

Received: 10/25/2012

Accepted: 01/15/2013

Pages: 41-42

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0205

Keywords: the XXXth International Congress of Psychology; the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS); Dr. Sathasivan Cooper; current trends in psychological research; development of IUPsyS national divisions;

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Organisational Psychology

Barabanshchikova V.V., Kaminskaya E.O. (2013). Procrastination phenomenon in virtual project team members. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 43-51

The modern world sets high requirements for work structure. Therefore, a great number of services become outsourcing. In order to reduce their charges, various enterprises found virtual project teams (PT). The main problems in this decision are connected with high necessity of PT members’ self-regulation. One of the reasons of PT members’ self-regulation failure is procrastination phenomenon. Over 15-25% of people demonstrate procrastination behaviour. Procrastination can be analysed as a type of inadequate coping behaviour, and it correlates with high level of stress. Thus, the main purpose of this research is to analyze the procrastination phenomenon in PT members with different job stress level.

We collected the following data: objective measures (age, gender); General Procrastination Scale (Lay, 1986); Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman, Oldham, 1980); Survey for actual and chronic stress manifestation assessment (Leonova, 2004). 52 respondents from several PTs were under study. Subjects show high level of stress manifestation and moderate level of procrastination. Regression analysis was also conducted (adj. R-squared=0.457, p<0.001). Only appraisal of chronic resource exhaustion and job experience emerged as significant predictors of procrastination. Conducted research should help in PT members’ job organization in order to protect them from deadline breakdowns.

Received: 08/06/2013

Accepted: 10/16/2013

Pages: 43-51

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0207

Keywords: procrastination; occupational stress; coping strategies; potential motivation;

By: ; ;

Zhukova E.V.,Nestik T.A. (2013). Interdependence of the management vision and individual personality traits of the company executive. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 52-60

The article is devoted to definition of management vision among adjacent concepts and to the analysis of interdependence of management vision and individual and personal features of the company executive and their relation to time.

In this work, the management vision is considered as a self-concept among related concepts: anticipation, goal setting, planning, forecasting and individual management concept. The solution of theoretical problems of correlation and differentiation of the terms close to management vision was formed on the basis of the psychological literature review: management vision, being a component of managerial concept, represents a form of anticipation and is the result of goal-setting process, forecasting, and planning.

The characteristics of management vision of company executives are studied empirically. The characteristics of management vision of company executives are associated with individual personal peculiarities of their relationship to time. The empirical research has confirmed the main idea of the work – relationship is the most important power of the company executive – the management vision and ability of managers to see the company future.

The collected data and patterns of relationship between the management vision and the peculiarities of their attitude to time will not only allow to study the social psychological phenomenon thoroughly, but also can be used in developing programs of organizational adjustment, diagnostic techniques, studying and development management vision.

Received: 07/01/2013

Accepted: 09/10/2013

Pages: 52-60

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0208

Keywords: anticipation; image of the company future; management vision; relation to time; company executive’s temporary prospect;

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Akhmadieva L.R., Assorov D.S.(2013). Trainees’ individual characteristics as a key factor in improving training effectiveness. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 61-68

The researchers examine the correlation between students’ personal characteristics and their knowledge acquisition during a public speaking training. The article describes the influence of a number of training conditions on knowledge acquisition among students with either kinesthetic or visual primary sensory receivers. During the experiment the following training conditions addressed the visual modality: the group analysis of other people’s public speaking videos, whether performed or not, the trainees’ public speaking videos were analyzed with or without group assistance. The following training conditions addressed the kinesthetic modality: the analysis of other people’s public speaking videos was carried out on the first or last training days, the trainees either did practical exercise or not, as a feedback they were only criticised or given criticism and praise. The results reveal differences in knowledge acquisition among trainees with dominant visual or kinesthetic modality. Knowledge acquisition significantly increased when the trainees with the visual modality had a group discussion on their own public speaking results and other people’s ones. These conditions did not have a significant impact on the knowledge acquisition among students with the primary kinesthetic modality. They were aware of their learning progress even better if they analysed their own public speaking video on the first training day. Both groups of students benefited more from that training practice where feedback was given in the form of criticism. The results of the study can be applied to the design and implementation of public speaking training and may be incorporated in training future trainers

Received: 08/06/2013

Accepted: 09/24/2013

Pages: 61-68

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0209

Keywords: public speaking training; primary sensory receivers (PSR); kinesthetic or visual PSR; individual learning styles; evaluation of training effectiveness; knowledge acquisition;

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Vartanov A.V. (2013). Anthropomorphic method of emotion recognition in sounding speech. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 69-79

A new efficient method for automatic emotion recognition by speech signal based on the four-dimensional emotions spherical model and principles of information encoding in the nervous system, is described. As a result, the principle of the relative cross-frequency amplitude-variable encoding of emotions in speech signal is proposed and experimentally tested. The hypothesis on the speech being a multichannel signal (a frequency diversity) with each band having possible independent fast micro amplitude change was tested. The agreement between the selected parameters of the speech signal and the subjective perception of the same samples (short words «yes» and «no») in the system of formalized parameters of psychophysiological emotion for the four-dimensional model is shown. The obtained parameters (factors) may be characterized as bimodal spectral filters. Factor 1 has a basic value is 3000 Hz and the secondary value is 500 Hz. It determines the change in the sound signal in accordance with «character emotion» axis, and the contribution of this component as compared with other components, the more positive (better useful) ones are estimated in the utterance. Factor 2 has two extremes at frequencies that lie somewhere near 1000 and 1750 Hz. It determines the degree of information uncertainty as opposed to confidence (calm). Factor 3 characterizes affection (love). It corresponds to the most widely spaced peaks: low frequencies of about 150 Hz and high-frequencies of 3500 Hz. In yes-no dichotomy «no» is accompanied by the absence of active rejection, and «yes» is characterised as a positive assessment. Factor 4 has similar range between 600 Hz and 1500 Hz. The configuration is close to factor 2, but it is shifted with respect to the low-frequency region, getting their peaks in its local minimum. This component determines whether aggressive (active) or passive (fear, escape) reaction is provoked in the subject. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed general anthropomorphic approach to the development of technical systems, in particular, the methods of speech signal processing and data presentation. It also confirms the identity of a previously identified psychophysiological model parameters, further justifying the preference (compared with other well-known ones) of this emotions classification, both in terms of dimensions and orientation of the axes of the model space.

Received: 02/18/2013

Accepted: 03/03/2013

Pages: 69-79

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0210

Keywords: emotions; speech signal; anthropomorphic approach;

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Pavlov Yu.G.(2013). Efficacy of Addiction Treatment by EEG biofeedback. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 80-90

The paper provides a review of publications in neurofeedback for treatment of addictive disorders. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness and restrictions of existing varieties of neurofeedback in treatment of addiction. In the second part of the article we have considered problems arising in the evaluation of the effectiveness of training with biofeedback and possible ways to resolve them.

Efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) were used. Peniston Training Protocol (Alpha/Theta Training) is described. The influence of the placebo effect, the complex nature of the treatment and comorbid diagnosis to analyze the effectiveness of its use are explained. The effect of the Scott-Kaiser Protocol in psycho-stimulant abusers. The author describes the Alpha-Stimulation Training Protocol, a wide range of its applications with respect to other protocols, and provides a weak evidence base. The perspectives of neurometric approach application in the development of biofeedback protocols and approach to objective evaluation of the effectiveness of training by detecting the gamma rhythm reactivity in response to specific stimuli associated with addiction are considered.

We offered recommendations how to improve the quality of the research in the field of clinical applications of neurofeedback. The quality can be achieved in the observational group by independent groups of researchers, as well as improved procedures for description of the experiment, a careful selection of subjects and selection criteria for successful session and training as a whole.

Received: 11/22/2011

Accepted: 02/16/2012

Pages: 80-90

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0211

Keywords: BFB; EEG; addiction; biofeedback;

By: ;

Zakharov V.M., Korolev A.D., Chernorizov A.M.(2013). A new approach to anti-smoking: a psychophysiological analysis. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 91-99

The article presents the results of a pilot psychophysiological research based on the analysis of changes of brain activity and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the human while giving up smoking using the method proposed by the Russian researcher V.M. Zakharov. The method is based on the theory of the gradual development of higher mental functions proposed by P.Ya. Galperin.

16 subjects (8 males and 8 females) took part in the psychophysiological experiments. In the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral composition, the absolute values of alpha-rhythm powers (in electrodes O2-A2, O1-A1, P4-A2, P3-A1) and beta-rhythm (in electrodes F4-A2, F3-A1) were taken into account. ANS activity of was estimated on the basis of the electrocardiogram analysis. Participant’s functional state was valued according to the psychological testing procedure «Health, Energy, and Mood» (HEM). According to the results of the pilot study, it was revealed that the functional state of the nervous system (estimated by EEG and ANS parameters) and the subjective (psychological) state (evaluated according to HEM) during smoking and during quitting smoking depend not only on the duration of tobacco addiction, but also on the smoker’s attitude to the entire process of smoking. Cognitive activity during smoking (controlling the amount of smoked tobacco) looks like an “instrument” that returns to a smoker his/her original functional state of a «non-smoker» and thereby facilitates the process of giving up smoking. The obtained data are preliminary and require further clarification. Over the long term, they can be used to develop «psychological strategy» in smoking control.

Received: 12/19/2013

Accepted: 12/26/2013

Pages: 91-99

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0212

Keywords: Galperin’s theory of development of higher mental functions; smoking; Zakharov’s method of quitting smoking; human brain; electroencephalography; autonomic nervous system;

By: ; ; ;

Psychology and Law

Morgunova E.A.(2013). Copyright in psychodiagnostics. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 100-104

This paper considers the issues of copyright protection of intellectual property, produced and consumed in the area of psychology as psychological diagnostics. Getting to the consideration of copyright in psychodiagnostics, the author finds it necessary to focus on the very concept of copyright and its forms, and then, based on this knowledge, to turn to the analysis of the intellectual activity used in psychodiagnostics.

Considerable attention is given to the review and analysis of the concept of copyright as a case of intellectual property created in the psycho-diagnostics, and also classification of copyright objects and the order of their consumption in scientific, educational and law enforcement researchers and psychologists. Much attention is paid to the legal protection of works produced by foreign scientists and official development psychologists. Basic copyright and compliance mechanisms for the consumption of tests, questionnaires, techniques, computer programs, etc. are described. Cases of free use of works made for hire in psychological diagnostics are provided. A difficult problem of protecting creative art is analyzed. From this position, various aspects of the concept are considered.

Depending on the fact whether the newly created work is based on products that existed before, it is possible to distinguish an original, derivative, or compiled product. The original is a work within which every form element is created by a particular author or authors without borrowed elements.

Received: 12/27/2012

Accepted: 01/18/2013

Pages: 100-104

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0213

Keywords: work for hire; psychodiagnostics; copyright objects; techniques; copyright objects;

By: ;

Sport Psychology

Grushko A.I., Leonov S.V. (2013) Using systems of eye movements recording in the psychological preparation for the athletes. National Psychological Journal, 2, 106–116

The paper is devoted to the capabilities of eye movement recording technologies (eye-tracking) in the psychological preparation of athletes. The advantages of using eye-tracking in sport psychology are as follows: the ability to «see through the eyes of an athlete» ongoing training and / or the competitive challenge, the possibility of combining eye movement recording with other instrumental methods (methods of EEG measuring, GSR biofeedback technology, virtual reality, etc.), high ecological validity of experiments using eye tracking mobile systems, the ability to use eye tracking systems not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for training athletes. In chronological order, there are examples of practical implementation of eye-tracking systems in foreign and domestic sport psychology: the results of the eye-tracking in games and precise sports, martial arts and other sports are described.

The results of an experimental application of eye movement recording systems in climbing are considered. In particular, the paper discusses the possibility of using the eyetracking technology in teaching athletes effective strategies for visual search when previewing the climbing route. The results of express survey among rock climbers and mountaineers (N = 120 ) on the importance of the preview and analysis of climbing routes before their actual performance. The experiment using eye-tracking technology was conducted at the artificial relief. 23 climbers participated in the experiment. In this paper we use «Eye-tracking glasses SMI» mobile eye tracking system. As a result, visual strategies that are c

Received: 12/10/2013

Accepted: 12/23/2013

Pages: 106-116

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0214

Keywords: eye movements recording; eye tracking; visual strategy; saccades; fixations; sport psychology; psychology of climbing and mountaineering;

By: ; ;

Kaminsky I.V.(2013).Various aspects of psychological skills in training cross-country skiers . National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 117-126

Modernization of equipment as well as extension of competition schedules and programs that have taken place over the past few decades have dramatically influenced professional activities of cross-country skiers. In particular, acuteness of competitive struggle has extremely increased and as a result psychological preparation of an athlete has become a very important and sometimes crucial factor.

Today, cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding sports associated with critical aerobic loading and cyclic explosive contractions involving all main muscle groups. Characteristic motor activity is highly uniform and automatic that potentially leads to negative psychological states decreasing motor efficiency. Athlete’s high motivation is the main tool to withstand this phenomenon. Muscles arbitrary relaxation rate (ARR) is considered to be the most important parameter of contractive activity. ARR is determined by the function of CNS inhibitory systems and decreased during emotional stress, which can be managed using respective psychological skills training (PST) features. Such interrelationship allows to reveal complex systemic links between various types of training and introduces the problem of the appropriate integration of PST into the entire training system. Available research data suggest that self-talk and mental imagery are quite useful as PST tools without regard to a skier’s level of expertise. Based on an individual interpretation for summarized data the author posed the following hypothesis: conversion from automatically executed to consciously controlled components of activity is involved to functionality of mental imagery; the conversion efficiency can be enhanced by means of attitude of intentional search for such components during visualization.

Received: 10/26/2013

Accepted: 11/12/2013

Pages: 117-126

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0215

Keywords: internal dialogue; cross-country skiing; sport psychology; psychological preparation of athletes; self-regulation; mental imagery;

By: ;

Рsychology of Education

Vartanova I.I.(2013).Motivation and time perspective of high-school students. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 127-133

Specific features of temporal perspective and value-semantic orientations (including consistency of relevant values and their availability) in high-school students depending on the type of dominant motivation was studied.

For all students, it is shown that time perspective of their aspirations and desires differs by depth, length and positive orientation to the future, but these representations are qualitative specifics depending on the type of dominant motivation. For the group of students with achievement motivation and learning and cognitive motivation, values of educational activity are well coordinated and are seen as a means of realizing long-term goals for adulthood.

For the group of students with affiliation motivation, prestige and competition, values of learning are often accompanied by internal conflicts and vacuums. In high school students with the prevailing cognitive motivation the near future is associated with the values of freedom, self-confidence, self-improvment, overcoming obstacles, friends.

Their aspirations in the distant future are related to self-development, self-improvement with achieving success and confidence. Students with competitive motivation are characterized by a large number of targets in the distant future, without reference to a specific time and implementation, i.e. their school-life motivation decreases.

Aspirations of students with self-reinforcing learning motivation in the near future are most often focused on studies, but they are associated with a desire to achieve quite definite exam results.

To their mind, distant future is associated with overcoming obstacles and status and competitive values. Students with affiliation motivation associate their distant future with career, and also with status and competitive values of «authority», «to be better than others». Their motivation associated with the present and the immediate future period of school life also decreases.

Received: 04/04/2013

Accepted: 05/16/2013

Pages: 127-133

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0216

Keywords: learning activity; future perspective; motivation; emotional regulation; values; internal psychological conflict;

By: ;

Gorlova E.L.(2013).Mental age of a child as a basis for elaborating parental competence development strategies. National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 134-141

In recent years, children’s school stress and school phobia are rather frequent motives for parents to refer for psychological aid. A child being unable to cope with the annually growing demands to intellectual potential, his/her parents adopt a wait-and-see attitude – the child will grow up and the problems will resolve themselves. Another reason for the parental attitude dysfunction is lack of generally accepted priorities of a child developmental age. On the one hand, this occurs due to countless aspects of psychological preparedness of a child for school: the ability to ride a bicycle, to know geometric shapes, to read, to write, to count, to draw, to develop gross and fine motor skills, to listen to and follow instructions, to memorize, to be attentive and diligent, careful and independent, to socialize with peers, etc. On the other hand, amongst the guidelines for educational programs there are mutually exclusive key characteristics of the primary school age. Moreover, the dominant role in mental development of a child in the early school years is given to a school teacher. The most significant phenomena of the primary school age (theoretical thinking, introspection, etc.) are connected with mastering learning activities.

The basis of our study is the hypothesis that mental ages of a child and stages of development of an age-related psychological neoformation are the regulators of the parental position.

We have covered the underpinnings for distinguishing groups of children of three mental ages – the children that have attained the crisis of the seven’s year («crisis»), post-crisis and stable ones. Based on a subsequent test for the children, we have drawn certain conclusions on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for the parental competence development.

The research carried out has revealed that criteria for a child’s mental age can be considered as a basis for the formation of a competent adult selection of parent-child interaction strategies.

Received: 10/22/2013

Accepted: 01/19/2014

Pages: 134-141

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0217

Keywords: individual social situation of development; the psychological age; age-related psychological neoformation; crisis of the seven’s year; middle childhood; voluntary (willful) structuring; parental position;

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