Objective. The aim of the work is to analyse the scientific heritage of Doctor in, Professor E.O. Smirnova, in whose works an original concept of play activity and toys was developed. The concept considers play at preschool age in the con- ditions of modern childhood on theoretical, methodological and practice-oriented levels.
Results. It is maintained that play is a source for autonomy and initiative of the child, indicating the development of personality in childhood. The characteristics of the children’s subculture, reflecting the crisis of childhood, are highlight- ed. Special attention is paid to the trends in the transformation of toys and the role of cartoons and computer games in a convergent development environment. The causes of the crisis of childhood are considered. These causes are associated with violation of the intermediary mission of an adult when transmitting socio-cultural experience, with break in moti- vation and modes of action of a child, with alienation of meaning in activity, with blocking creative independent activity and initiative of a child, with reduction of development to the “knowledge-ability-skill” learning paradigm. The goals and objectives of psychological expertise are defined. Criteria for expert evaluation of toys and cartoons are developed. The requirements for computer games, reflecting the social demand for the content to provide developing, safe information environment, are formulated.
Conclusion. The necessary condition for overcoming the crisis of childhood is the strategy of constructing a safe developing convergent environment for child’s mental development in preschool age. This strategy is based on the psy- chological examination of toys, cartoons, and computer games. The progress of personality development is determined by the support for the autonomy and initiative in typical activities of preschool age children: play, cognition, perception of animated films in cooperation with adults and peers.
Keywords: childhood crisis; children’s subculture; game and toy; psychological expertise; perception of cartoons
Available Online 24.08.2022
Karabanova, O.A. (2022). Modern childhood and preschool education protecting the rights of child: to the 75th anniversary of E.O. Smirnova’s birth. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 60–68. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0308