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New approaches to formulation and solution of the problem of consciousness

New approaches to formulation and solution of the problem of consciousness

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Recieved: 09/01/2022

Accepted: 10/01/2022

Published: 03/16/2023

Keywords: consciousness; identification; typology; categories; categorical spaces; communicativeness of consciousness

p.: 66-76

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2023.0106

Available online: 16.03.2023

To cite this article:

Garnik V. Akopov. New approaches to formulation and solution of the problem of consciousness. // National Psychological Journal 2023. 1. p.66-76. doi: 10.11621/npj.2023.0106

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Issue 1, 2023

Garnik V. Akopov Moscow City Pedagogical University


Background. In scientific and theoretical terms, the theme of consciousness as a subject of psychological research is regularly upd ated. Since psychology established its scientific status, at each historical transition from one economic structure to another, general scientific knowledge has been upd ated. At the same time, the central issue of consciousness is being permanently changed: from methodological issues (introspection) to structural-functional and objectified knowledge (analytical philosophy of consciousness, cognitive science, neuroscience). In this process, the so-called “hard problem of consciousness” comes to the fore today (D. Chalmers, А. Revonsuo). 

Objective. The article seeks to outline the necessity for and explain new methodological approaches to the formulation of and conceptual solution to the problem of consciousness (G. Akopov), moving from the contexts of interdisciplinary discourse to psychological discourse. 

Methods. On the basis of previous author’s reviews and research (G. Akopov) on the problems of consciousness, a certain range of philosophical, neuroscientific and psychological definitions and theories of consciousness is presented. The collected material, but for all its limitations in comparison with the hard-to-observe se t of ideas, approaches and concepts that exist today in modern English-language literature on the problems of consciousness, allows us to identify a number of key points in an excessively multiple picture, more or less logically compatible. The typological approach we proposed in 2015 (an expanded version in 2021) allows us to streamline the entire se t of ideas about consciousness. In accordance with the typology on the identification criterion, the concept of categories and categorical spaces of consciousness in various dimensions is specified. 

Results. A new methodology in the formulation and solution of the problem of consciousness has been formalized: categorical and typological approaches. The possibility of constructing categorical systems of various dimensions based on the typological identification of consciousness is demonstrated. The communicative nature of consciousness, implicitly represented in certain definitions of consciousness, is shown on the material of a number of existing approaches to identifying consciousness. 

Conclusion. Typological and categorical approaches make it possible to streamline and systematize the existing set of statements and solutions to the problem of consciousness. The relevant system of categorical spaces of various dimensions defines new opportunities for promising research, amplified by the thesis about the existence of non-verbal languages of consciousness in the socio-communicative, interpersonal and intrapersonal communicative dimensions. The new methodology, coupled with instrumental developments, makes it possible to pose and solve the topical problem of diversity and unity in human consciousness.


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To cite this article:

Garnik V. Akopov. New approaches to formulation and solution of the problem of consciousness. // National Psychological Journal 2023. 1. p.66-76. doi: 10.11621/npj.2023.0106

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