ISSN 2079-6617
eISSN 2309-9828
Adolescents’ hardiness and the ways to respond to stressful situations in relation to child-parent relationship

Adolescents’ hardiness and the ways to respond to stressful situations in relation to child-parent relationship

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Recieved: 08/22/2022

Accepted: 10/19/2022

Published: 03/16/2023

Keywords: adolescents; hardiness; child-parent relations; ways to respond to difficult situations and to everyday stressors

p.: 32-43

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2023.0103

Available online: 16.03.2023

To cite this article:

Marina V. Danilova. Adolescents’ hardiness and the ways to respond to stressful situations in relation to child-parent relationship. // National Psychological Journal 2023. 1. p.32-43. doi: 10.11621/npj.2023.0103

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Issue 1, 2023

Marina V. Danilova Saint-Petersburg State University


Background. Research into the hardiness of an individual in difficult life situations gains significance in the context of the dynamism and complexity of adolescent development, associated with the general rapid change of events in modern life, creating stress factors. Family remains for a teenager an important factor affecting the development and maintenance of hardiness, as well as the formation of tools for coping with difficult life situations. 

Objective. The study focuses on the relationship of hardiness and adolescents’ ways to respond to difficult and everyday stressful situations with parameters of child-parental relations. 

Sample. The study involved 162 adolescents between 14 and 16 (63 boys and 99 girls), brought up in complete (108 people) and single-parent (54 people) families. 

Methods. The study applied included the author’s questionnaire, the questionnaire of S. Maddi’s hardiness in the adaptation of D.A. Leont’ev and E.I. Rasskazova (2006); the questionnaire of child-parent relations “Teenagers about parents” (E. Schaefer) in the adaptation of L.I. Wasserman, I.A. Gor’kovaya, Ye.Ye. Romitsyna (2004). 

Results. The level of hardiness in adolescents corresponds to the lower boundary of the standard-average values. The highest results were obtained on the involvement in life, reflecting age characteristics and the lowest values corresponded to challenge, which shows the limited social experience of adolescents. The questionnaire revealed factors in the ways to respond to difficult and everyday stressful situations. The analysis of child-parent relations showed that the adolescent’s perception of parental attitude as hostile is an indicator, provoking a decrease in hardiness. In adolescence, family factors have a greater impact on the choice of ways to respond to stressful situations. 

Conclusion. The role of child-parental relations for the hardiness of adolescents has been shown, gender specificity of parameters and interrelations between hardiness, ways to respond to difficult situations, and characteristics of child-parent relations has been identified. On the basis of the developed questionnaire, factors for ways to respond to difficult life situations and stress were obtained (the factor “Independent search for solutions”, the factor “Transferring responsibility”, and the factor “Avoiding problems”).


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To cite this article:

Marina V. Danilova. Adolescents’ hardiness and the ways to respond to stressful situations in relation to child-parent relationship. // National Psychological Journal 2023. 1. p.32-43. doi: 10.11621/npj.2023.0103

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