ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
"Ah, Poor Liza, Ah!" – experience of psychological analysis of N.M. Karamzin’s story

"Ah, Poor Liza, Ah!" – experience of psychological analysis of N.M. Karamzin’s story

PDF (Rus)

Recieved: 05/27/2020

Accepted: 06/03/2020

Published: 10/06/2020

Keywords: psychological analysis of a literary work; perception of a literary work; artistic perception; mechanisms of artistic perception

p.: 109-147

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2020.0210

Available online: 06.10.2020

To cite this article:

Vladimir S. Sobkin. "Ah, Poor Liza, Ah!" – experience of psychological analysis of N.M. Karamzin’s story. // National Psychological Journal 2020. 2. p.109-147. doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0210

Copied to Clipboard

Copy
Issue 2, 2020

Vladimir S. Sobkin Federal Scientific Center of Psychological and Multidisciplinary Research

Abstract

Background. It is a generally shared belief  that “Bednaya Liza” (1792; "Poor Liza") of N.М. Karamzin is a classic example of the Russian sentimental school. Actually it is not sufficient just to attribute this story to the particular genre. A careful reading of “Poor Lisa” we will appear to allow identifying basic, archetypal psychological mechanisms that determine the characteristics of modern artistic perception in a latent form. The work continues the line of psychological research on the interpretation of a literary text identified by L.S. Vygotsky as ‘reader's criticism’. A number of psychological techniques and hermeneutic methods of text analysis are used.

The Objective is to reveal explicit or implicit literary techniquesused by Karamzin, e.g. plot construction, speech and behaviour characters, description of the landscape, etc., and also to consider the psychological characteristics of the real behaviour of the characters, i.e. motives, affective reactions, behavioural norms, social expectations, moral and ethical assessments, worldview, etc.

Design. The paper provides an artistic and real analysis of the story used by the author to play two games with the reader. Both of them are played by the author and the reader simultaneously, where both artistic and real plains are combined on "one playing ground", i.e.  the ground of the literary piece, which making different combinations determine the reader's experience.

Results. A number of psychological phenomena are highlighted that are quite clearly manifested in the perception of the story "Poor Liza". The phenomena are compared with the text features and those artistic techniques that generate them. The issues concerning the study of authentic  psychological mechanisms, authentic artistic experience and eliciting their meaning when reading a story are considered. The author brings together the explanatory models and concepts used in philological and psychological works in order to clarify the genuine sentimental feelings

References

  1. Anzar, M. (2019). Theory of Literary Perception. Smart moves journal ijellh, 7(9), 8. Retrieved from: https://ijellh.com/OJS/index.php/OJS/article/view/9806  doi: 10.24113/ijellh.v7i12.10227

  2. Bakhtin M.M. (1979). Aesthetics of verbal creativity. Moscow: Iskusstvo.

  3. Bakhtin M.M. (1963). Issues of Dostoevsky's poetics. Moscow: Sovietskiy pisatel’, 363.

  4. Dijkstra K. & Zwan R.A. (1995). Character and Reader Emotions in Literary Text. Poetics.Amsterdam, 23(1/2), 139–157. doi:10.1016/0304-422X(94)00009-U

  5. Dixon, P., Bortolussi, M., Twilley, L. & Leung, A. (1993). Literary processing and interpretation: Toward empirical foundations. Poetics, 22, 5–33. doi:10.1016/0304-422X(93)90018-C

  6. Eco U. The Role of the Reader. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1984.

  7. Eikhenbaum B. & Karamzin N. (1969). In  B. Eikhenbaum [O prose: sbormik statey].Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaya literatura, Leningradskoe otdelenie,  203–213.

  8. Feduta A.I. The reader in the minds of N.M. Karamzin: Before "History ...". [Vestnik Novgorodskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta],2–15, 87, Part 1, 83–87.

  9. Flores d'Arcais G.B., Schreuder R. (1983). The process of Language Understanding: A Few Issues in Contemporary Psycholinguistics. The Process of Language Understanding. Chichster etc.: J. Wiley a. Sons, 1–42.

  10. Fraanje, Maarten. (1999). Nikolai Karamzin and Christian Heinrich Spiess: "Poor Liza" in the Context of the Eighteenth-Century German Suicide Story. Study Group on Eighteenth-Century Russia Newsletter, 27. 

  11. Fromm E. (1998). Psychoanalysis and religion. The art of loving. To Have or To Be? Kiev: Nika-Tsentr, 400.

  12. Gadamer H.-G. (1977). Philosophical Hermeneutics. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press, LVIII, 243.

  13. Gibbs R. W. (1934). Literal Meaning and Psychological Theory. Cognitive Science., 8, 275–304. doi:10.1207/s15516709cog0803_4

  14. Graesser, A. C., Millis, K. K. & Zwaan, R. A. 1997. Discourse comprehension. Annual Review of Psychology, 48,163–189. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.163

  15. Gukovsky G.A. & Karamzin (1941). History of Russian Literature. In 10 volumes.  Part I. Moscow; Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR, 55–105.

  16. Heidegger M. (2003). Being and Time.  Kharkov: Folio, 503.

  17. Hunt R.A. & Vipond D. (1986). Evaluations in literary reading. Text, 6, 53–71. doi: 10.1515/text.1.1986.6.1.53

  18. Husserl E. (1960). Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology. Hague: Nijhoff, XII, 157. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-4952-7

  19. Ivanov V.V. (1976). Essays on the history of semiotics in the USSR. Moscow: Nauka, 304.

  20. Karamzin N.M. (1964). Poor Liza. In Karamzin N.M. Selected works. In 2 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow; Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 605–621.

  21. Karamzin N.M. (1988). History of Russian Goverment. Moscow: Kniga 

  22. Karamzin N.M. (1964). Sensitive and cold. In Karamzin N.M.[Izbrannye proizvedeniya]. In 2 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow; Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 740–754.

  23. Koopman, E. M. (2015). Empathic reactions after reading: The role of genre, personal factors and affective responses. Poetics, 50, 62–79. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2015.02.008

  24. Kneepkens E.W. (1995). Emotions and Literary Text Comrehension. Poetics.Amsterdam, 23,(1/2), 125–138. doi:10.1016/0304-422X(94)00021-W

  25. Kuiken, D. & Miall, D.S. (1995). Procedures in think aloud studies: Contributions to the phenomenology of literary response. In Rusch, G. (Ed.)Empirical approaches to literature: Proceedings of the Fourth Biannual Conference of the International Society for the Empirical Study of Literature, IGEL, 50–60. Siegen, Germany: LUMIS‐Publications.

  26. Lakoff G. (1993). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.) Metaphor and Thought. 2-nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 202–251. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013

  27. Levin K. (2001). Dynamic psychology: selected works. Moscow: Smysl,  572.

  28. Levy, B. A., Nicholls, A., & Kohen, D. (1993). Repeated readings: Process benefits for good and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,56, 303–327. doi:10.1006/jecp.1993.1037

  29. Leontyv A.N. (1981). Issues of the psyche development. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo MGU, 584.

  30. Lotman Yu.M. (1966). About one reader's perception of "Poor Lisa" N.М. Karamzin (On the structure of mass consciousness of the 18th century). [Rol' i znachenie literatury XVIII veka v istorii russkoy literatury. XVIII vek : sb. 7]. Moscow; Leningrad: Nauka, 280–285.

  31. Maeterlink M. (1915). Complete Works.Vol. 2.Petersburg: A.F. Marx. 

  32. Miall, D. S. (1989). Beyond the schema given: Affective comprehension of literary narratives. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 55–78. 10.1080/02699938908415236

  33. Morrow, D.G., Greenspan, S.L. & Bower, G. H. (1987). Accessibility and situation models in narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 165–187. doi:10.1016/0749-596X(87)90122-7

  34. Nabokov V. (2010). Writers, censorship and readers in Russia. In V. Nabokov [Lektsii po Russkoy literature].- St. Petersburg: Azbuka-Klassika, 25–42.

  35. Nebel, Henry M., Jr. (1967). N. M. Karamzin: A Russian Sentimentalist. The Hague: Mouton & Co. doi:10.1515/9783111393773

  36. Ortony Andrew, Gerald L. Clore & Allan Collins. (1988). The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. New York.: Cambridge Univ., Press. 223. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511571299

  37. Propp V.Ya. (2001). The morphology of a fairy tale. Moscow: Labirint, 192.

  38. Ricoeur P. (1973). Creativity in Language: Word, Polisemy, Methaphor. Phil. Today, 17(2/4), 7–20. doi:10.5840/philtoday197317231

  39. Ricoeur P. (1973).Human Sciences and Hermeneutical Method: Meaning Action Cosidered as a Text. Expirations in Phenomenology. Hague: Nijhoff, 13–46.  doi:0.1007/978-94-010-1999-6_2

  40. Schleiermacher F.D.E. (1977). Hermeneutik und Kritik. Frankfurt a/M., 466.

  41. Shklovsky V.B. (1917). Art as a device [Sborniki po teorii poeticheskogo yazyka]. Petersburg, II, 3–14.

  42. Sobkin V.S. (2015). Comments to theatrical reviews by Lev Vygotsky; In Vygotsky L.S. [Teatral’nye retsenzii]. Moscow: Institut Sotsiologii Obrazovaniya, RAO, 568.

  43. Sobkin V.S. (1977). Onthe definition of the concept of ‘identification’. [Vidy i funktsii rechevoy deyatel'nosti]. Moscow, 115–122.

  44. Sobkin V.S. (1978). On the semantic content of the text. [Tezisy VI Vsesoyuznogo simpoziuma po psikholingvistike i teorii kommunikatsii].Moscow, 176–178.

  45. Sobkin V.S. & Grekov S.M. (1981). Analysis of the use of perceptual information about a partner in the course of conflict interaction. [Samosoznanie, rech', myshlenie].Alma-Ata, 43–58.

  46. Toporov V.N. (1995). "Poor Liza" by Karamzin: reading experience. Moscow, 83.

  47. Trabasso, T. &Magliano, J.P. (1996). Conscious understanding during comprehension. Discourse Processes, 21, 255–287.  doi:10.1080/01638539609544959

  48. Uspensky B.A. (1972). The poetics of composition. Moscow. 

  49. Vygotsky L.S. (1968). Psychology of art.  Moscow: Iskusstvo, 575.

  50. Zeigarnik B. (2001). Memorizing completed and unfinished actions. In Levin K. [Dynamicheskaya psikhologiya: izbrannye trydy]. Moscow: Smysl, 427–495.

  51. Zwaan, R. A. (1996). Toward a model of literary comprehension. In Britton B.K. & Graesser, A.C. (Eds.) Models of understanding text, 241–255.

  52. Zwaan, R. A., Langston, M. C. & Graesser, A. C. (1995). The construction of situation models in narrative comprehension: An event‐indexing model. Psychological Science, 6,292–297.doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00513.x


To cite this article:

Vladimir S. Sobkin. "Ah, Poor Liza, Ah!" – experience of psychological analysis of N.M. Karamzin’s story. // National Psychological Journal 2020. 2. p.109-147. doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0210

Copied to Clipboard

Copy