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Massacres in educational institutions: mechanisms, causes, prevention

Massacres in educational institutions: mechanisms, causes, prevention

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Recieved: 12/23/2018

Accepted: 01/17/2019

Published: 01/30/2019

p.: 62-76

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0406

Keywords: school shootings; school violence; violence against peers; massacre; security; education

Available online: 30.01.2019

To cite this article:

Davydov Denis G., Khlomov Kirill D.. Massacres in educational institutions: mechanisms, causes, prevention. // National Psychological Journal 2018. 4. p.62-76. doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0406

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Issue 4, 2018

Davydov Denis G. Modern University for the Humanities

Khlomov Kirill D. Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation


Introduction. The massacres in schools and colleges committed by their students are initially associated with the United States, but in recent decades the phenomenon has spread to other countries including Russia. Such tragedies affecting children and adolescents are of particular interest to politicians, general public and professionals.

The Objective of this research is to summarize the foreign literature accounts of the phenomenon of mass school murders, the structure of this phenomenon, the stages of its development and factors that cause it.

Procedure. Research methodology included search and generalization of conclusions from scientific and applied publications on the issue. The search was carried out using bibliographic systems and scientific networks Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ResearchGate, Google Scholar,, Mendeley. He author selected 55 scientific publications on specific cases and meta-analysis of data aimed at addressing socio-psychological factors of school shootings and prevention.

Findings. The main methodological approaches to the analysis of school shootings are described, the theories offering a systematic understanding of this phenomenon are presented, the stages of both social and personal predictors of school shootings are defined.

Conclusion. The analysis of the literature allows interpreting massacres in schools as an independent phenomenon, to reconstruct the events, to determine the main mechanisms and development stages, to offer effective ways to detect and prevent threats.

Table 1. Attacks of school students on classmates and employees of educational organizations of Russia using firearms throughout 2014–2018.

Event Date

Accident Site

Firearms, number of attackers and injured people

Outcome for attacker


School 263, Moscow, Russia

Small-bore rifle, 1 attacker, 2 dead adults (teacher and school guard), 1 injured adult (police officer)

Detained, sent for compulsory treatment by court order


Lunin Branch of the Novosibirsk College of Transport Technologies, Barabinsk, Russia

Smoothbore hunting rifle, 3 injured college students



Polytechnic College, Kerch, Russia

Firearms, explosive devices, 1 attacker, 5 college workers and 16 college students including the attacker killed, 67 people injured


Table 2. Attacks of school students on classmates and employees of educational organizations of Russia using cold steel and other types of weapon throughout 2014–2018.

Event Date

Accident Site

Firearms, number of attackers and injured people

Outcome for attacker


School 39, St.-Petersburg, Russia

1 attacker, 1 injured adult (teacher)

Detained, sent for compulsory treatment


School 4, Bryansk, Russia

Air gun, 1 injured student



College of Hospitality and Management 23, Moscow, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured



School 3, Nakhodka, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 killed (student)



Polytechnical College 42 Moscow, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 killed adult (teacher)



School 1, Ivanteevka, Russia

Air gun, топор, 1 attacker, 3 injured (students) и 1 injured adult (teacher)



School 4, Irkutsk, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured student



School 85, Volgograd, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured student



School 1, Nizhnekamsk, Russia

Air gun, 1 student killed



School 48, Nizhniy Novgorod

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured student



School 1, Vysokovsk, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured



School 2, Usinsk, Komi Republic, Russia

Air gun, 1 injured student



School 127, Perm, Russia

2 attackers, knives, 9 injured students, 1 injured teacher



School in Smolnoe village, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 пострадавший ученик



School in Sosnovyy Bor Town, Russia

Axe, bottle bomb, 1 attacker, 6 injured students, 1 injured teacher



School 1, Sterlitamak, Bashkorkostan, Russia

1 attacker, knife, 1 injured (student)



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To cite this article:

Davydov Denis G., Khlomov Kirill D.. Massacres in educational institutions: mechanisms, causes, prevention. // National Psychological Journal 2018. 4. p.62-76. doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0406

Copied to Clipboard