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Procrastination phenomenon in the activities of athletes of individual and team sports.

Procrastination phenomenon in the activities of athletes of individual and team sports.

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Recieved: 06/30/2015

Accepted: 08/12/2015

Published: 11/15/2015

p.: 91-104

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0310

Keywords: procrastination; professional distortions; individual and team sports; sportsperson

Available online: 15.11.2015

To cite this article:

Valentina V. Barabanshchikova , Ostanina, Maria V., Klimova, Oxana A. . Procrastination phenomenon in the activities of athletes of individual and team sports.. // National Psychological Journal 2015. 3. p.91-104. doi: 10.11621/npj.2015.0310

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Issue 3, 2015

Valentina V. Barabanshchikova Lomonosov Moscow State University

Ostanina, Maria V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Klimova, Oxana A. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Abstract

The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping), and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo) and teams (hockey, football, volleyball). Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368) there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495). 

The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463), the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220) and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465) are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368).

Table1. Sample Description

Occupation

Males

Females

General Sample

Quantity

Average Age

Quantity

Average Age

Quantity

Average Age

Individual Sport

21

18,3

12

20,82

33

19,19

Team Sport

28

18,86

12

17,25

40

18,38

Students

8

21

24

21,3

32

21,25

Table 2. Methods of Research

Methods

Scale (Index)

Description

Tuckman Procrastination Scale

Procrastination

Tendency to procrastinate

Kuhl Action Control Scale

Decision-related action orientation

The ability of the subject to be distracted from defective competing intentions and other irrelevant, interfering information (Kuhl, 1994а).

Performance related action orientation

The ability of the subject to implement the necessary intention to keep the focus of current intention, to persevere (Kuhl, 1994а).

 

Failure-related action orientation

The ability of the subject to initiate the process of implementation intentions despite difficulties (Kuhl, 1994а).

Melbourne 

Decision Making 

Questionnaire 

 (MDMQ)

Vigilance

The main stylistic characteristics of a person as the decision-maker is associated with cognitive complexity, the need for knowledge and tolerance of uncertainty. Goals and objectives of the decision, consideration of alternatives associated with the search for information, assimilating "without prejudice" and evaluation of the choice (Kornilova, 2013).

Procrastination

Procrastination (Kornilova, 2013).

Avoidance

Avoidance of independent decision-making, shifting responsibility and rationalization of dubious alternatives (Kornilova, 2013).

Hypervigilance

Unjustified hesitating between different alternatives, impulsive decision, promising to get rid of the situation. In extreme forms panic when choosing between alternatives (Kornilova, 2013).

Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI)

Past-Positive

Expresses the degree of acceptance of his/her own past in which every experience is experience, contributing to the development and led to the current state.

Past-Negative

Expresses the degree of rejection of the past, disgusting, full of pain and frustration

(Zimbardo, 1999).

Future

Expresses individual goals and plans for the future (Zimbardo, 1999).

Future-Fatalistic

It is seen as independent of the will of the individual, initially predefined and personality, i.e. the fate of the slave (Zimbardo, 1999).

Present-Hedonistic

The present seems detached from the past and the future, the only o is pleasure (Zimbardo, 1999).

Table 3. Descriptive statistics of the total sample according to the methods proposed.

Scales

Individual Athletes (n=33)

Team Athletes (n=40)

Students (n=32)

Mean (mean deviation)

Mean (mean deviation)

Mean (mean deviation)

Procrastination

89,48 (12,17)

97,13 (9,33)

96,06 (16,90)

Failure-related action orientation

5,15 (2,46)

4,72 (1,83)

5,81 (2,70)

Decision-related action orientation

6,24 (2,36)

5,27 (2,66)

5,53 (2,57)

Performance related action orientation

7,36 (2,50)

6,88 (3,25)

7,90 (2,88)

Vigilance

14,97 (2,11)

14,33 (2,15)

14,94 (3,20)

Procrastination

10,66 (2,01)

10,15 (3,66)

10,31 (3,81)

Avoidance

8 (1,80)

8,02 (2,08)

9,03 (3,45)

Hypervigilance

8,81 (1,78)

8,95 (2,29)

9 (2,82)

Past-Positive

2,53 (0,67)

3,06 (0,74)

2,42 (0,74)

Past-Negative

3,42 (0,60)

3,48 (0,81)

3,09 (0,94)

Future

3,68 (0,50)

3,48 (0,78)

3,60 (0,68)

Future-Fatalistic

3,97 (0,52)

3,41 (0,88)

3,67 (0,68)

Present-Hedonistic

2,91 (0,76)

2,76 (0,61)

2,75 (0,80)

Table 4. The significance of differences between individual athletes and team athletes at the scales of the proposed questionnaires (Mann-Whitney test)).

Scales

Individual Athletes

Team Athletes

Уровень значимости

(P)

Mean (mean deviation)

Mean (mean deviation)

Procrastination

89,48 (12,17)

97,13 (9,33)

0,003

Failure-related action orientation

5,15 (2,46)

4,72 (1,83)

0,446

Decision-related action orientation

6,24 (2,36)

5,27 (2,66)

0,115

Performance related action orientation

7,36 (2,50)

6,88 (3,25)

0,522

Vigilance

14,97 (2,11)

14,33 (2,15)

0,170

Avoidance

10,66 (2,01)

10,15 (3,66)

0,680

Procrastination (coping)

8 (1,80)

8,02 ( 2,08)

0,915

Hypervigilance

8,81 (1,78)

8,95 (2,29)

0,653

Past-Negative

2,53 (0,67)

3,06 (0,74)

0,010

Present-Hedonistic

3,42 (0,60)

3,48 (0,81)

0,516

Future

3,68 (0,50)

3,48 (0,78)

0,216

Past-Positive

3,97 (0,52)

3,41 (0,88)

0,002

Future-Fatalistic

2,91 (0,76)

2,76 (0,61)

0,602

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To cite this article:

Valentina V. Barabanshchikova , Ostanina, Maria V., Klimova, Oxana A. . Procrastination phenomenon in the activities of athletes of individual and team sports.. // National Psychological Journal 2015. 3. p.91-104. doi: 10.11621/npj.2015.0310

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