ISSN 2079-6617
eISSN 2309-9828
Subjective Criteria for the Preference of Profession and Work in Senior Adolescence and Young Adulthood

Subjective Criteria for the Preference of Profession and Work in Senior Adolescence and Young Adulthood

PDF (Rus)

Recieved: 10/02/2023

Accepted: 02/10/2024

Published: 03/12/2024

Keywords: professional identity; choosing a profession; personal traits; values; user activity; senior adolescents; young adulthood

p.: 23-40

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2024.0102

Available online: 12.03.2024

To cite this article:

Emelin, V.A. , Rasskazova, E.I. . Subjective Criteria for the Preference of Profession and Work in Senior Adolescence and Young Adulthood. // National Psychological Journal 2024. 1. p.23-40. doi: 10.11621/npj.2024.0102

Copied to Clipboard

Issue 1, 2024

Emelin, V.A. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Rasskazova, E.I. Lomonosov Moscow State University


Background. The present article addresses the criteria for choosing a profession and work among modern adolescents and young adults in the changing and transient world. It sets the ideals of professions that illusorily seem to be accessible, easy, well-paid, and interesting at the same time.

Objective. The present study aims at identifying subjective criteria of the preference for occupation and work in senior adolescents and young adults and their relationship with personality traits, values, user activity, and subjective well-being.

Study Participants. 172 subjects, 54 students of 8–11 grades at the age from 13 to 16 and 118 students of Moscow universities at the age from 17 to 23, including 103 males (59.9%) and 69 females (40.1%).

Methods. The respondents fill in the scale of subjective criteria for job preference, the Ten Item Personality Measure, the Portrait Values Questionnaire and techniques for assessing subjective well-being and user activity. The answer the questions about the possibility and intention to combine several criteria of career and job choice.

Results. The scale of the subjective criteria for job preference is a reliable, factor- and content-valid screening instrument assessing the importance of payment, interest, convenience, prospect, usefulness to others, ease, difficulty, and image in the work. In choosing a profession and job, both high school and college students focus on a wide range of criteria. Conscientiousness is associated with the preference for a well-paid, promising, and challenging work; openness to new experience is associated with the preference for interesting work. Orientation to the values of conformity and tradition is associated with the readiness to choose between different criteria, while the orientation to the values of achievement and power is associated with a wider range of subjective criteria, which the future job should correspond to. A higher level of positive emotions is associated with the preference for many criteria of job selection at the same time. A greater user activity is connected to the desire for easy work.

Conclusions. In contemporary adolescents and young adults, a greater subjective well-being and the values of achievement and power are paradoxically associated with an unrealistically wide range of criteria of choosing a profession and job that are simultaneously important to them. This may further lead to some difficulties in searching for the job and disappointments in it.


Akimova, Anna Yu., Oboznov, Aleksander A. The Psychological Space of Professionals’ Trust and Distrust in Socio-Technical Systems. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 15(1), 20–34.

Aleksandrova, E.A. (2023). Current problems of professional consultants’ activity in the modern context of labour market. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya (Lomonosov Psychology Journal), 46(4), 186–202. (In Russ.).

Alkaya, S.A., Yaman, S., Simones, J. (2018). Professional Values and Career Choice of Nursing Students. Nursing Ethics, 25(2), 243–252.

Auxier, B., Anderson, M., Perrin, A., Turner, E. (2020). Parenting Children in the Age of Screens. (2020). Pew Research Center. URL: (access date: 15.01.2023).

Belinskaya, E.P. (2013). The information socialisation of adolescents: the experience of using social networks and psychological well-being. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya: Elektronny Nauchny Zhurnal (Psychological Research: Electronic Scientific Journal), 6(30), 5. (In Russ.).

Brown, M.E., Lim, J.H., Horsburgh, J., Pistoll, C., Thakerar, V., Maini, A., Johnson, C., Beaton, L., Mahoney, C., Kumar, S. (2022). Identity Development in Disorientating Times: the Experiences of Medical Students During COVID-19. Medical Science Educator, 32(5), 995–1004. URL: (access date: 02.08.2022).

Bryzgalin, E.A. (2022). Key provisions about personal values and semantic meanings based on the proceedings of domestic and foreign scientific sources. Teoreticheskaya i Eksperimentalnaya Psikhologiya (Theoretical and Experimental Psychology), 9(5), 46–66. (In Russ.).

Cruess, S.R., Cruess, R.L., Steinert, Y. (2019). Supporting the Development of a Professional Identity: General Principles. Medical Teacher, 41(6), 641–649. URL: (access date: 01.08.2022).

Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, (49), 71–75.

Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., Biswas-Diener, R. (2020). New Well-Being Measures: Short Scales to Assess Flourishing and Positive and Negative Feelings. Social Indicators Research, (4),143–156.European Social Survey ESS4-2008. Documentation Report. (2008). URL: survey/ESS4_data_documentation_report_e05_5.pdf (access date: 15.05.2022).

Fitzgerald, A. (2020). Professional Identity: A Concept Analysis. Nursing Forum, 55(3), 447–472. URL: (access date: 01.05.2022).

Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367–1378.

Gosling, S.D., Rentfrow, P.J., Swann, W.B. (2003). A Very Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains. Journal of Research in Personality, (37), 504–528.

Howe, Neil; Strauss, William. (2000). Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. William Strauss. New York: Vintage Books.

Jarvis-Selinger, S., MacNeil, K.A., Costello, G.R.L., Lee, K., Holmes, C.L. (2019). Understanding Professional Identity Formation in Early Clerkship: A Novel Framework. Academic Medicine, 94(10), 1574–1580. URL: (access date: 04.08.2022).

Jawed, S., Mahboob, U., Yasmeen, R. (2019). Digital Professional Identity: Dear Internet! Who am I? Education for Health, 32(1), 33–35. URL: (access date: 10.09.2022).

Karabanova, O.A. (2020). The risks of the information socialization as a display of the crisis of the modern childhood. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya (Moscow University Psychology Bulletin), (3), 4–22. (In Russ.).

Klimov, E.A. (1998). Introduction to the Psychology of Labour. Moscow: Unity. (In Russ.).

Kowal, B., Włodarz, D., Brzychczy, E., Klepka, A. (2022). Analysis of Employees’ Competencies in the Context of Industry 4.0. Energies, 15(19). URL: (access date: 30.10.2022).

Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., Staksrud, E. (2018). European Research on Children’s Internet Use: Assessing The Past and Anticipating The Future. New Media & Society, 20(3), 1103–1122.

Martsinkovskaya, T.D. (2010). The information space as a factor in the socialization of modern adolescents. Mir Psikhologii (World of Psychology), (3), 90–102. (In Russ.).

Martsinkovskaya, T.D. (2015). Modern psychology — challenges of transitivity. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya (Psychological Research), 8(42). URL: (access date: 31.08.2022). (In Russ.).

Mascheroni, G., Ólafsson, K. (2016). The Mobile Internet: Access, Use, Opportunities and Divides among European Children. New Media & Society, 18(8), 1657–1679.

Nault, K.A., Thau, S. (2022). Professions, Honesty, and Income. Current Opinion in Psychology, (47), 101403. https://doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2022.101403

Osin, E.N., Leontiev, D.A. (2020). The short Russian-language scales for diagnosing the subjective well-being: psychometric characteristics and the comparative analysis. Monitoring Obshchestvennogo Mneniya: Ekonomicheskie i Sotsialnye Peremeny (Public Opinion Monitoring: Economic and Social Changes), (1), 117–142. (In Russ.).

Polivanova, K.N. (2016). Childhood in a changing world. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya Psikhologiya (Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology), 5(2), 5–10. (In Russ.).

Rasskazova, E.I., Lebedeva, A.A. (2020). The screening scale of positive and negative experiences by E. Diener: testing of the Russian version. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshey Shkoly Ekonomiki (Psychology. The Journal of the Higher School of Economics), 17(2), 250–263. (In Russ.).

Danby, S.J., Fleer, M., Davidson, C., Hatzigianni, M. (2018). Digital Childhoods across Contexts and Countries. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development, (22), 1–14.

Schwartz, Sh.H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). URL: (access date: 05.01.2023).

Shneider, L.B. (2001). Professional identity: structure, genesis and conditions for the formation: the thesis of DSc in psychology. Moscow.

Smahel, D., Machackova, H., Mascheroni, G., Dedkova, L., Staksrud, E., Ólafsson, K., Livingstone, S., Hasebrink U. (2020). EU Kids Online 2020: Survey Results from 19 Countries.

Soldatova, G.U., Rasskazova, E.I. (2023). Personal traits and the psychological self-regulation of students online and offline: some features of digital sociality. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta (St. Petersburg University Bulletin), 13(1), 24–37. (In Russ.).

Soldatova, G.U., Rasskazova, E.I., Nestik, T.A. (2017). The digital generation of Russia: competency and safety. Moscow: Smysl. (In Russ.).

Soldatova, G.U., Voyskunsky, A.E. (2021). The social and cognitive concept of a digital socialisation: a new ecosystem and the social evolution of the psyche. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshey Shkoly Ekonomiki (Psychology. The Journal of the Higher School of Economics), 18(3). 431–450. (In Russ.).

Stetson, G.V., Kryzhanovskaya, I.V., Lomen-Hoerth, C., Hauer, K.E. (2020). Professional Identity Formation in Disorienting Times. Medical Education, 54(8), 765–766. URL: (access date: 29.04.2022).

Strauser, D.R., Lustig, D.C., Ciftçi, A. (2008). Psychological Well-being: Its Relation to Work Personality, Vocational Identity, and Career Thoughts. The Journal of Psychology, 142(1), 21–35.

Veraksa, A.N., Almazova, O.V., Bukhalenkova, D.A., Chichinina, E.A. (2022). Features of the use of digital devices by modern preschoolers. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya (Sociological Studies), (6), 82–92. (In Russ.).

To cite this article:

Emelin, V.A. , Rasskazova, E.I. . Subjective Criteria for the Preference of Profession and Work in Senior Adolescence and Young Adulthood. // National Psychological Journal 2024. 1. p.23-40. doi: 10.11621/npj.2024.0102

Copied to Clipboard