The paper discusses traditional and modern approaches to the study of the separation-individuation process in late adolescence, which is considered as the central developmental task (R. Havighurst) of this developmental stage. Within the family psychology the process of separation-individuation in late adolescence is recognized as normative family crisis. The results of mother and father roles research in the development of boys and girls individuation are described using the Russian and Ossetian culture conditions. Gender and culture characteristics of individuation are presented. Russian adolescents are more successful in individuation, compared with Ossetian adolescents. Russian students have more difficulties in individuation in mother relationship as compared with the father relation. In contrast, Ossetian students have more difficulties in individuation with father than with mother. The complementarity of father and mother roles for successful individuation of a child during adolescence is shown. The results presented basic and intermediate types of culture that reflects the dynamic development of contemporary Russian culture (the transition from one type of culture to another). Russian students are characterized as representatives of the modern culture type while Ossetian students are characterized as representatives of traditional culture type. The adolescent individuation features of the representatives of different culture type of presented. Summing up, there is connection between the type of culture (by J. Townsend) and individuation characteristics in adolescence: the modern culture type is combined with a more harmonious process of boy’s and girl’s individuation.