The paper highlights the relation between the relevance of coping behaviour and increasing interest to phenomena of uncertainty. The reviewing of coping as complicated setting notion including several levels is offered. The relevance of studying conscious and unconscious levels of coping is validated. Using coping questionnaires’ deficit of prognosis validity and the relevancy of using projective methods that are effective and useful in diagnostics of coping’ unconscious components are discussed. Due to the changes in viewing difficult life situations’ range and focusing on subjective perception of difficulties, the frustration situations are reviewed as difficult daily life situations. The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test could be used for diagnosing coping’ unconscious components that compose meaning set level and coping behaviour basis.
The relations among personal characteristics (tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, noetic orientations, personal anxiety, locus of control) and three types and three directions of subjects’ responses in test’ situations were examined, generalized linear models were used. The subjects of the research are 199 teachers from secondary schools of Russian Federation, mean age is 40.6 years old. The results showed significant relations between particular personal characteristics and types and directions of the responses: ego-defense type and tolerance to uncertainty, obstacle-dominance type and personal anxiety, intropunitive direction and personal anxiety, obstacledominance type and noetic orientations. The common discussion of current results and results obtained in previous studies demonstrates potential existence of mediating relations between particular coping strategies and types and directions of subjects’ responses in The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test.
The paper researches the possibilities and limitations of coping behaviour in children and adolescents on the Internet and the assistance of significant adults (parental mediation) in the context of the new social situation of development mediated by modern information and communication technologies, in particular, by the Internet. The study based on the EUKidsOnline II project was conducted in 11 regions of 7 federal districts of Russia (1025 “parent-child” pairs).
According to the research results the most common risks include dealing with negative sexual content, fraud and identity theft, meetings with online friends. Features of experiences and coping with risks online depend on the adolescent dominating activity on the web: those focused on their studies are less exposed to the risks mentioned, whereas their feelings are deeper and more enduring, they more frequently seek solutions using passive strategies. Those who fall into “content consumers” category are most exposed to the risk of coming across sexual content on the web as actively use various Internet resources including search engines. They experience fewer negative emotions, more frequently they actively seek to solve the problem almost without offline support.
The opportunity of parental mediation at the present moment is rather insignificant: a strategy of prohibitions associated with reduction of collision risks especially for research of teenagers; while the strategy of positive reinforcement and explanation is used effectively with adolescents doing various things on the Internet, it can be associated with a more realistic risk assessment and child using active coping strategies and social support. According to the data received the Internet could be considered as a complex psychological “instrument” that is internalizing by the child in his/her development. This internalization process determines his/her activities and self-regulation including his/her aptitude to coping with difficult life situations.