In this paper, we discuss the past, present and future of cultural activity approach as a methodology due to applying for the integration of humanities and natural sciences, psychotechnical and theoretical knowledge.
An attempt was taken to perceive another crisis of cultural activity psychology. The meaning of the historical crisis of cultural activity psychology is reflected in the future prospects of its development bridging the gap between classical and contemporary approaches. Reflection of the crisis of cultural activity psychology allows to allocate the following axioms: the need for dialogue with different variants of cultural activity movement in modern psychology; need for reflection of myths and dangers of canonizing certain thinkers; presumption of decency professionals, true school of Leo Vygotsky and understanding their motivation in the development of his ideas.
In addition to the axioms required for conducting an appropriate dialogue with the researchers of L.S. Vygotsky, there are risks that restrict the understanding and development of his space: the risk of the science-policy isolation, sectarian risk, risk of jubilee historicism, risk of reducing monism to monotheism. These axioms and risks are deemed as cognitive aspects of the situation, which are important for further development of the research program of cultural activity psychology.
Discussing cultural activity psychology as a methodology and a special intellectual movement allows to emphasize a number of meta-features of cultural activity psychology as ideology. On the level of particular scientific methodology it is possible to consider the relationship of cultural activity psychology with other sciences, in which the category of “activity” is the key one. Summing up, the communication referred to cultural activity approach to the social and cultural practices, which expressed methodological bases of social constructivism.
The article analyzes the concepts of «unity» and «element» of psychological systems used by Vygotsky. Five signs of «units» and «elements» of the system has been described. These signs are logically symmetrical because their wording transformed into each other by denying or replacing certain words reversed. Some concepts of the theory of psychological systems considered and some differences between the concepts of «unit», «minimal unit» and «cell» of psychological system were described.
Psychological systems are defined as a holistic, sensible and active processes and/or outcomes of human interaction with the world. Examples of such systems are «the system of psychological functions» (according to Vygotsky), as well as purposeful human actions and operations (the interaction with the world at the level of objects and means). The concept of «component» of the psychological system is defined as any «something» that is in some sense belongs to human interaction with the world or is included in this interaction The component belonging to the system is called its element, but a component included in the operation and development of the system is called a part of it. The mathematical justification of these definitions is given. Identified and discussed the substantial (independently existing ) components of psychological systems and their components attribute ( properties and relations ). The relationship between bipolar theoretical constructs «part - element « and «substantial - attributive» component systems are described.
The paper presents the detailed comments on the review of L.S. Vygotsky on the famous Russian ballerina E.V. Geltser’s performance during her Gomel tour in the autumn of 1922. We present a reconstruction of the cultural context which is quite essential for understanding multiple lines of the plot covered in the review of Vygotsky.In the analysis of the text the importance of the distinction between artificial and natural movements introduced by L.S. Vygotsky’s when considering the uniqueness of expressive movement in the choreography is stressed.
It is shown that the uniqueness of cathartic experience that has become a central theme in L.S. Vygotsky’s research monograph “Psychology of Art” (1925), in this review is examined using the analysis of classical dance perception. However, we fix the methodological importance for the analysis of Vygotsky’s account of the existing opposition between the classical and the “so-called untaught natural dance” (A. Duncan, M. Fokine), which in turn allows to designate the fundamental differences between “spiritual” and “soulful” experience. The comments to the review are equipped by the detailed references to the theoretical works of the classicists of the Russian theatre (e.g. A.Tairov, Vs. Meyerhold), where the problem of expressive movement and gesture is also given special focus. Analysis of L.S. Vygotsky’s representations on the fact that it is the “indifference” of the ballet to the natural movement, puts it at a particular level, whereas the detachment from everyday things brings to the experience of the great psychological meaning (“not soulful but spiritual”), and thus allows to link his early work with the ideas he developed in his later book “The Psychology of Art”.
Referring to S. Frank’s works, he rhapsodizes about the nature of artistic experience that might fulfill “the incompleteness and imperfection” of a particular situation. Exactly in these comments to the review L.S. Vygotsky’s juxtaposition of “soulful” and “spiritual” being the fundamental importance for perceiving the psychological characteristics of cathartic experiences in the perception of art is fixed.
In addition, the review comprises the specific use of symbolic means for understanding the processes that have been developed by L.S. Vygotsky in the following works: “The history of the development of higher mental functions” (1930), “Thinking and Speech” (1934).
In this paper, the motivation is deemed as a particular activity of living beings to provide mental support of individuals for generating activity (as the solution of generating activity problem). In the process of motivation, triggered by actualized needs or requirements of the society, the person accepts the need of conduct, chooses one of the offered activities to fulfill, selects the object of his/her behaviour, which is correspondent with the subject of need in a particular situation, finds a way of conduct to create the supraliminal motivation to work. This activity can be carried out randomly or involuntarily, with multiple operations or being reduced to automaticity (motivational habit being a skill).
Solution of the motivation problem is provided by either solution found in the evolution of species (congenital method) or by solutions found in ontogeny (motivational skills), or is being looked for “here-and-now”.
In humans, the process of motivation is correspondent with the higher mental functions, the former being constructed as a system and implemented deliberately and voluntarily. The motivation system denotes collaboration of all mental processes (emotional-volitional, and cognitive), which provides motivation to action by means of internal and external operations.
When referring motivation to action, the subject of the activity shall take into account the objects or subjects of desire that are meaningful for him/her in terms of needs, their degree of attractiveness in this particular situation, knowing the subject terms of his/her field of action, anticipating changes, having tools at disposal for further action, skills, their emotional and functional condition, and other factors. Motive is understood as a particular object or a desirewhich is meaningful for a subject in terms of necessity in this particular situation. The subject of need is the general term for anything that can meet the need.
The paper examines the phenomenon of “professional deformation” which comprises destructive personality changes that occur after many years of a career. This condition does not only produce an adverse effect on the personal productivity, but also gives rise to undesirable qualities in a person, alters his/her professional behaviour. Professional deformation may lead to changes in mental structure and personality traits (behaviour, ways of communication, stereotypes, perceptions, character, values, etc.). They are also one of the reasons that may prevent the professional development of a person.
Various concepts of the structure of professional deformation are considered. Thus, E.F. Zeer classifies professional deformation based on four levels of their manifestations, A.K. Markov considers professional deformation based on major trends, A. Pines, J. Aronson and A. Shirom understand professional deformation as a one-dimensional structure, D.V. Direndonk, W.B. Schaufeli, H.J Sixma, accounts professional deformation as a two-dimensional structure, while B. Pelman, E. Hartman, C. Maslach, S. Jackson and B.A. Farber identified three constructs of professional deformation, and G.H. Frith, A. Mims, E.F. Iwanicki, R.L. Schwab represent professional deformation as four-factor model, where in addition to emotional exhaustion and reduced professional achievements they considered depersonalization associated with work, and depersonalization associated with the recipients.
In conclusion, the domestic and foreign psychology are given lack of consensus on the structure of this condition.
Available Online: 22.06.2022
The paper analyses the condition and the basic directions of military psychologists in the American armed forces. It gives an account of specific features, problems, basic fields of activity, general structure of military psychologists’ vocational training. Issues of military psychological community functioning as component of the American psychological association are discussed.
The paper shows that the direction and content of the military psychologists is determined by the peculiarities of the domestic and foreign policy of the American leadership, problems solved by the US armed forces at a particular stage of its historical development, the specific features of the psychological problems that are observes in the Army, the Air Force and the Navy at the today level of the psychological science and practice. The main problems that are the targets of the military psychologists (post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, drug addiction, war crimes, and relations in military units) are revealed.
The subject field of the American military psychology, and its main objectives are analyzed. The consistency in determining the main points of the practical application of military psychology is given special attention to.
The main areas of activity of military psychologists are analyzed. The specific tasks solved by military psychologists of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps are shown. The direction and methods of clinical psychologists, experts in information operations support of military troops, psychologists in teaching (psychological training of troops) and educational areas are shown. Staff positions and organisations where psychologists works in the interests of the military administration are reviewed. The paper provides an overview of the measures taken by the military leadership of the United States that claim to improve the system of psychological work in the armed forces at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries. The main structure of professional training for the psychologists who are working on solving defense problems are analyzed. A comparative analysis of remuneration system for military psychologists is given.
The issues of military-psychological community functioning as an integral part of the American Psychological Association are discussed. A review of periodicals, literature and events held by the section of military psychology of American Psychological Association ( APA) are provided.
This paper discusses diverse theoretical approaches to the study of adolescent personal autonomy, including psychoanalytic approach (A. Freud, M. Mahler, P. Blos), attachment theory (J. Bowlby, Ainsworth, M. P. Crittenden), self-determination theory (E. Deci and R. Ryan), activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, D.A. Leontiev) and developmental approach (El’konin, T.V. Dragunova, L.I. Bozhovich, G.A. Zuckerman, G.V. Burmenskaya). Analysis of the adolescent personal autonomy has demonstrated the diversity of theoretical approaches and empirical research to explain the phenomenology, mechanisms and conditions of developing the complex personality constructs. The study of modern foreign and Russian research has allowed to analyze the main ways of separating from parents and the role of social context in shaping adolescent autonomy.
The paper describes the structure of adolescent personal autonomy construct. During its operationalization, the necessity of including the moral autonomy as part of the value autonomy in the four-tier personal autonomy is emphasized. The significance of parent-child relationship for developing adolescent personal autonomy is outlined. On the one hand, autonomy is represented as a characteristic of the relationship, i.e. social background, and on the other hand, it is the I-image used by a teenager as pattern in relationships with adults and peers. The paper highlights the benefits of the developmental approach in the research of the personal autonomy and presents how to use the concept of social situation development. The developmental approach that considers the social situation of development as a hierarchy of social contexts that determine the vector and development of the key age-dependent features, opens the opportunity of studying the orienting activity in the system of social and interpersonal relations in the development of personal autonomy.
Keywords: orienting image;
social situation of development;
The influence of long-term cognitive load on the individual condition (HEM Questionnaire) and also electrophysiological parameters (individual alpha rhythm (IAR), the spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG), fatigue index (IS)). Cognitive or mental load was simulated by a series of continuous solutions of various cognitive tasks assigned that were aimed mainly on working memory and attention within the time limit of 2.5 hours. Before and after the test we were making records of background EEG and the participants were completing HEM questionnaires.
Analysis of the results of research conducted by the statistical comparison of the data obtained before and after exercise. The results show that long-term cognitive load significantly tells on the subjective sphere and the activity of the participant. On the electrophysiological level, the load results in a decrease of individual alpha rhythm frequency, a vast increase in the fatigue index, and also the increase of average power of theta, alpha and beta rhythms. Thus, the cognitive load is reflected in the significant shift of brain activity dynamics manifested as quite dynamic parameters of the alpha and beta rhythms power, this being in a more stable performance, such as individual alpha rhythm and the fatigue index. Summing up, a significant mental work leads to a significant increase in the power of slow-wave activity in the brain and the deterioration of the subjective well-being. On the one hand, the results of the research correspond with the literature data and, on the other hand, the results are integrating the data of various studies and consequently provide a more comprehensive view of the process of mental fatigue in terms of the dynamics of the brain.
The paper provides a review of publications in neurofeedback for treatment of addictive disorders. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness and restrictions of existing varieties of neurofeedback in treatment of addiction. In the second part of the article we have considered problems arising in the evaluation of the effectiveness of training with biofeedback and possible ways to resolve them.
Efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) were used. Peniston Training Protocol (Alpha/Theta Training) is described. The influence of the placebo effect, the complex nature of the treatment and comorbid diagnosis to analyze the effectiveness of its use are explained. The effect of the Scott-Kaiser Protocol in psycho-stimulant abusers. The author describes the Alpha-Stimulation Training Protocol, a wide range of its applications with respect to other protocols, and provides a weak evidence base. The perspectives of neurometric approach application in the development of biofeedback protocols and approach to objective evaluation of the effectiveness of training by detecting the gamma rhythm reactivity in response to specific stimuli associated with addiction are considered.
We offered recommendations how to improve the quality of the research in the field of clinical applications of neurofeedback. The quality can be achieved in the observational group by independent groups of researchers, as well as improved procedures for description of the experiment, a careful selection of subjects and selection criteria for successful session and training as a whole.
This article analyses the impact of the training program, which is adapted from the author’s integrated concept of creative thinking. The authir interprets it not only as a manifestation of giftedness or a way of thinking, but also as the highest integral level of thinking, the structure of which includes systemic, logical, divergent, predictive, productive, abstract, imaginative, verbal, theoretical, practical, labile thinking. Cluster analysis allowed to identify three types of creative thinking: systemtheoretical, practical and labile-logical.
Based on the integral concept of creative thinking and proven as a result of cluster analysis typology of creative thinking has created a special development program, in which creative thinking teenagers purposefully formed by the development and the integration of its components. The development program is based upon training and educational programs designed to stimulate certain kinds of thinking, but the main focus was on the integration of targeted types of thinking in the structure of creative thinking.
The approbation of the developing program was conducted at the premises of several secondary schools of Angarsk, Russia, in 2009-2010. The program has shown high efficiency both concerning quantitative integrative creative thinking index and also qualitative properties, it was also highly effective concerning all three kinds of creative thinking in adolescents with different versions of its inner structure.