The objective of the paper is to research the relations between psychological and didactic requirements for designing training technologies of ensuring the educational results specified by the Federal State Educational Standards of a new generation.
A necessity of solving three interrelated tasks is highlighted. The first task is aimed at selecting achievements of A.N. Leontiev’s academic school by to further include them into the psychological training program of educators. The second one is directed at realizing the “projection” of psychological theory provisions into the system of didactic notions. The third one consists in developing educational methods of various study fields on the basis of the novel didactic knowledge and experimental verification of these methods.
The general approach to solving the tasks mentioned is proposed hereunder. The most important principles of A.N. Leontiev’s theory for the sphere of education have been emphasized.
It is suggested to introduce a number of notions in didactics to be adequately described in the activity structure. A set of methods for the developing students’ learning activities, which is the basis of their main ability (the ability to learn), is proposed.
Educational technology in the activity paradigm achieves educational results that are legitimated in the Federal State Educational Standards. The model of developmental education has been probated within the educational program “Small Academy of Lomonosov Moscow State University”, and also in the works of a number of school experts who were involved in the experiment.
The paper presents the book “Island of Utopia: pedagogical and social engineering of postwar school” (M. Mayofis, P. Safronova, & I. Kukulina (Eds.) (2014) Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie) which is currently in press. This collective monograph is the result of a research project relevant School of Humanitarian Studies of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
The work is devoted to a particular period of history of education (1940s-1980s), but in scope, it inevitably goes beyond the period mentioned, forcing to think about what was happening in the Soviet education before this period after, i.e. in the post-Soviet education.
The author defines the genre of the book mentioned, as non-fiction pedagogy literature. Previously non-fiction pieces had no analogues among the historical and pedagogical works.
On the one hand, the genre of non-fiction involves precision, rejection of many myths rooted in human consciousness. On the other hand, it allows multiple interpretations. Therefore, the author notes that the text of the paper cannot be regarded as a professional review with a brief overview of the diverse collective heads of academic monographs. This is a reflection on the book that offers readers the opportunity to join a meaningful conversation, complete the piece with their own stories that clarify and specify the message of the book, and sometimes even disagree with the authors of the book.
The book is written by serious Russian and foreign authors. It enables a sober assessment of the Russian education system with all its ups and downs. The book convinces the reader that despite education being a sphere of activity is very dependent on the state of politics and ideology, it allows a certain breakthrough which results in emerging relatively autonomous pedagogical utopias.
A great number of pages devoted to the reform of education outside Russia show that the only correct solution accepted by absolutely all the players on the field of education (the state and the teachers, parents and their children) is found nowhere in the world.
Keywords: history of pedagogy;
the Soviet school;
education system in the USSR;
outstanding teachers of the past;
Available Online: 30.12.2013
The paper analyses phenomenon of the exchange of emotions in human communication. It is emphasized that the exchange of emotions is one of the basic components of all kinds of human communication. It is proved that the exchange of emotions occurs at three levels: conscious level – by means of words, at extramental level – by means of nonverbal communication (looks, gestures, etc.), and at unconscious level – by means of the olfactory channel. We come out with the assumption of existence of emotionally olfactory language as the mechanism of an exchange of emotions at unconscious level. Transfer is deemed as unconscious as firstly the person does not understand the emotions transferred by means of smells, but they influence mood of the person. Secondly, the smells that contain the information on emotions are very weak, they are not perceived as aromas. Thirdly, such transfer does not occur on the level of consciousness. It is supposed that each of the basic emotions is connected with a specific base odour; when the person feels this emotion his/her physiological reactions are launched, these reactions are compatible with corresponding base odour. In turn, the base aroma which is separated from the human organism causes the same basic emotion in other people. Specific interrelations «emotion - a smell» are offered. We assert that the similar mechanism can cause such phenomena as a mass panic, etc. Complex feelings also can be made of a combination of basic emotions, and are then transferred by means of combinations of the basic smells to the interlocutor. Such phenomenon of human psyche as empathy can be based on this transfer.
The paper discusses various approaches to the definition of «success» and types of success. It also presents the results of the pilot study of success representations in modern adolescents: semantic universals are identified, the notion of «success» is defined, the most important characteristics of success in adolescents are highlighted. Using authorized techniques the “definition of success” highlights the notion of “success” to be the most consistent characteristic of “the achievement of goals”. One of the most significant characteristics is “self-realization”. Adolescents also define success as the experience of “joy and satisfaction from the work done” and as “a sense of welldeserved happiness”. It is of particular interest that such category as “popular in the society” is the least important in determining the success of a given sample. The most interesting part of the research is to analyze particular cases of success in famous personalities who are significant for adolescents, i.e. representatives of show business, modern business (e.g. Bill Gates), or members of the family and friends. The sphere of politics is less popular, and the sphere of science, art and sports are so rare for adolescent sources of success patterns.
The research is able to communicate ideas about the success of adolescents with the experience of meaningfulness of their lives. Those adolescents who evaluate their past, present and future life as meaningful and loose enough do not feel the strength to manage their own lives, regard themselves as not very successful people and the very success is seen as volatile and rare. The image of success in adolescents who consider their life meaningful are positive and bright: they do not consider it such a rare and changing phenomenon, probably because more than once they have experienced success in various areas of their lives.
As a result, a correlation representation of adolescents about the success with the experience of the meaningfulness of their lives is established.
The paper is an attempt to present a new approach to anxiety research, namely to describe social psychological determinants of anxiety in adolescents, and also to present teachers’, parents’ and students’ views on “anxiety-causing” situations in adolescents are compared.
The article presents a brief description of the main concepts related to the subject of anxiety: the interpretation of the phenomenon of anxiety, differences between the concepts of anxiety and fear, causes described by various authors. The author also pays attention to various types of anxiety: situational vs personal, adequate vs inadequate anxiety, anxiety in various fields of human life, and in particular at school.
The paper describes the results of the empirical study devoted to the communicative situations in which adolescents experience anxiety and the estimation of these situations by teachers and parents are presented.
The research is qualitative and consisted of several stages: focused interviews with teachers and then with the adolescents’ parents, focus groups of adolescents (the questionnaire is presented in respective part of the article). The study involved 6 teachers, 6 parents, 15 adolescents aged from 12 to 14 years. Based on the research results the set of situations that cause anxiety in adolescents is identified and the perception of these situations by parents and teachers is analyzed. The article also presents the similarities and differences of the perception of adolescents’ communicative anxiety in the three categories of respondents.
The results of the study show that the interactional situations causing anxiety among adolescents primarily involve social estimation of an adolescent both by peers and adults.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the role of identification with «father figure» on a par with its symbolic functions in the development and formation of child self-identity. Particular attention is paid to the potential application of cultural historical psychology and modern psychotherapeutic approach in studying the processes of internalization and identification. The empirical study was conducted in 3-4 and 4-5 years children using Children’s Apperception Test (CAT) by S. Bellak and L. Bellak. the Methods of phenomenological analysis were used, elements of content analysis were applied to the results of perception, projective comments and stories of children after the third CAT table by S. Bellak and L. Bellak was produced to them, and also qualitative analysis of child behaviour are presented. The results have revealed the change of «father figure» perception, which is an external marker of identification deeper processes. Particular material gives basis to discuss qualitative transformation of «father figure» identification taking into account age-related categories, and also the mechanism of identifying and assigning the appropriate emotional experience. By identifying the «father figure» as prior aggressive category the child affirmation receives a meaningful and socially accepted form of manifestation that marks an important stage in the development of self-identity.
The paper presents the analysis of interventions for language development for English-speaking preschoolers. Two types of interventions are analyzed in the article: those conducted by academic communities and those designed by education practitioners. There are several factors which explain the existence of such a large number of interventions: significant growth of migration flows with developing multicultural and multinational communities; large number of children with speech, language and communication needs and specific language impairments; as well as evidence suggesting the influence of level of language development on subsequent educational difficulties. Interventions designed by research groups aim to address specific aspects of language development. Interventions implemented as part of research projects are based on the evidence for mechanisms and conditions of language development and principles of language interventions. Such interventions are mainly aimed at receiving evidence concerning mechanisms and conditions of language development, and also its subsequent performance in designing effective interventions. Interventions conducted by education practitioners are based on language difficulties in children and are aimed to solving specific problems in children in the shortest period of time. The interventions are implemented by state and private preschool centers, as well as by charities.