Background. Neuropsychological diagnostics and rehabilitation are among the fundamental practical tasks facing a clinical psychologist. Today, rehabilitation goes beyond the usual framework in which it was 40–50 years ago. The course of the disease, stressful influences radically change the physical, psychological and social functioning of a person. It is the functioning of a person (and not the state of his functions) in new, often limiting living conditions that becomes an object in the modern rehabilitation system, which is a joint activity of the patient, his relatives and specialists of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation team.
Objective: analysis and generalization of the diagnostic and rehabilitation experience accumulated in neuropsychological rehabilitation;identification of quality criteria for neuropsychological diagnostics and rehabilitation of patients with memory impairments in case of brain damage, which should be followed by a practicing psychologist in the process of rehabilitation work.
Results. Based on the analysis of applied research and practical guidelines, the recommended diagnostic tools for detecting memory impairments are presentedand the main directions and effective methods of rehabilitation work in amnestic syndrome are highlighted. It is shown that different degrees of severity of a amnestic defect requires the choice of an appropriate direction of work in the process of neuropsychological rehabilitation: the formation of new mnestic means; the organization of “suggestive and reminiscent” environments and new strategies for behavior in this environment; general (non-specific) principles of restorative learning.
Conclusions. The presented material can serve as a “support” in the practical work of a clinical psychologist with patients with memory impairments and brain lesions.The text outlines the main directions of diagnostic and rehabilitation work which a practicing psychologist must be aware of.
Sections: Developmental Psychology;
Keywords: clinical psychology; neuropsychology; memory impairment; amnestic syndrome; neuropsychological diagnostics; neuropsychological rehabilitation
Available Online 30.10.2020
(2001). World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disabilities and health (Short version).Saint Petersburg, Spb. Institut usovershenstvovaniya vrachei.
Akhutina T.V.(1975). Neuro-linguistic analysis of dynamic aphasia.Moscow, Publishing house of Moscow State University, 143 p.
Ben-Yishay Y., Diller L. (2011). Handbook of holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation: outpatient rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 141 p.
Bernstein N.A. (1947). Onbuildingmovements. Moscow, 253 p.
Brush, J.A., & Camp, C.J. (1998). Using spaced retrieval as an intervention during speech-language therapy. Clinical Gerontologist, 19, 51–64. doi: 10.1300/J018v19n01_05
Cicerone K.D., Langenbahn D.M., Braden C., Malec J.F., Kalmar K., Fraas M. et al. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil, 92, 519–530. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015
Evans J.J., Wilson B.A., Schuri U., Andrade J., Baddeley A., Bruna O. & Lorenzi L.A. (2000). Comparison of “Errorless” and “Trial-and-error” Learning Methods for Teaching Individuals with Acquired Memory Deficits. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation,10 (1), 67–101. doi: 10.1080/096020100389309
Glisky E.L., Schacter D.L., Tulving, E. (1986). Learning and retention of computer-related vocabulary in memory-impaired patients: method of vanishing cues. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology,8 (3), 292–312. doi: 10.1080/01688638608401320
Glozman Zh. M.(1990). Social rehabilitation of neurosurgical patients: problem and assessment methods.[Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta], Series 14. Psychology, 1, 13–24.
Goldstein K. The organism: A holistic approach to biology derived from pathological data in man. New York: Zone Books /MIT Press, 1934 /1995.
Goldstein K., Scheerer M. (1941). Abstract and Concrete Behavior: An Experimental StudyWith Special Tests. Psychological Monographs, ed. by John F. Dashell, 53 (2), 1–151. doi: 10.1037/h0093487
Halperin P.Ya. (2000).IntroductiontoPsychology. Moscow, Universitet, 336 p.
Haskins E.C., Cicerone K.D., Dams-O’Connor K., Eberle R., Langenbahn D., Shapiro-Rosenbaum A., Trexler L.E. (2012). Cognitive rehabilitation manual. Translating evidence-based recommendations into practice. ACRM, 132 р.
Kabanov M.M. (1985). Rehabilitation of the mentally ill. Leningrad, Medicina, 216 p.
KiyashchenkoN.K., MoskovichyuteL.I. et al. (1975) Brain and memory.Violation of voluntary and involuntary memorization caused by local brain lesions. Moscow, Publishing house of MoscowUniversity, 80 p.
Korsakova N.K., Balashova E.Yu., Roshchina I.F. (2009). Express-method for assessing cognitive functions during aging. [Psychologicheskiye issledovaniya: electronni nauchnii zhurnal], 3 (5). Available at:: http://psystudy.ru/ (accessed 21.06.2020).
Krotkova O.A. (1988). The main directions of the rehabilitation of patients with impaired memory. Problems of rehabilitation of neurosurgical patients. Moscow, Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, 63–72
Krotkova O.A., Karaseva T.A., Naidin V.L.(1983). Quantitative assessment of memory impairments in neurological and neurosurgical patients.Methodical Guide.Moscow, Ministry of Health of the USSR,30 p.
Krotkova O.A., Semenovich A.V.(1994). Some features of the cerebral organization of human visual memory images and the mechanism of the occurrence of confabulations. Psychological journal[Psychologicheskii zhurnal], 15 (1), 97–108.
Leontiev A.N.(1975). Activity.Consciousness.Personality.Moscow, Politizdat, 304 p.
Leontiev A.N., Zaporozhets A.V. (1945). Restoring movements.A study of the restoration of hand functions after injury, Moscow, 231 р.
Luria A.R.(1947). Traumatic aphasia.Moscow, Publishing house of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, 367 p.
Luria A.R.(1948). Recovery of brain functions after military trauma. Moscow, Publishing house of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, 236 p.
Luria A.R.(1962). Higher cortical functions of a person and their violations in local brain lesions.Moscow, MGU, 431 p.
Luria A.R.(1974) Neuropsychology of memory.In 2 vol. Moscow, Pedagogika, Vol. 1, 311 p.
Luria A.R.(1976). Neuropsychology of memory.In 2 vol. Moscow, Pedagogika, Vol. 2, 192 p.
Prigatano G.P. (1999). Principles of neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 356 p.
ShklovskyV.M., VizelT.G. (2000).Restoration of speech function in patients with different forms of aphasia.Moscow, Association of Defectologists,96 p.
Solso R. (2000). Models of memory. Psychology of memory: A reader for university students.Moscow, CheRo, 547–582.
TsvetkovaL.S. (1979). Problemsof aphasiaandrestorativelearning. Moscow, Publishing house of MoscowUniversity, 162 p.
TsvetkovaL.S. (1985).Neuropsychologicalrehabilitationof patients.Moscow, Publishing house of MoscowUniversity, 263 p.
Tsvetkova L.S.(1995). Brain and intelligence.Violation and restoration of intellectual activity.Moscow, Prosvesheniye, 304 p.
Tsvetkova LS, Glozman Zh. M., Kalita N.G. et al.(1980). Socio-psychological aspect of rehabilitation of patients with aphasia / Under gen.ed. L. S. Tsvetkova.Moscow: Publishing house of MoscowUniversity, 82 p.
Tulving E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. Organization of memory. Tulving E.; Donaldson W. (Eds). New York: Academic Press, 381–403.
Tulving E. (1995). Organization of memory: Quo vadis? Gazzaniga MS, ed. The cognitive neurosciences.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 839-847.
VygotskyL.S.(1982). Psychologyand thedoctrine ofthelocalizationof mentalfunctions.L.S.VygotskyColl.Works. In 6 vol.Moscow, Pedagogika, Vol. 1, 168–174.
VygotskyL.S. (2000)Psychology. Moscow, EKSMO-Press,1008 p.
Wilson B.A., Gracey F., Evans J.J., Bateman A. (2009). Neuropsychological rehabilitation: theory, models, therapy and outcome. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 368 p. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511581083
Zangwill O.L. (1947). Psychological aspects of rehabilitation in cases of brain injury. British Journal of Psychology?, 37 (2), 60–69. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1947.tb01121.x
Baulina M.E., Varako N.A., Kovyazina M.S., Zinchenko Yu.P., Mikadze Yu.V., Skvortsov A.A., Fufaeva E.V. (2020). Neuropsychological diagnostics and rehabilitation of patients with memory impairments in amnestic syndrome as a result of brain damage of various etiologies. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (13)4, 137-147. doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0411