The paper presents the results of the self-assessment study in patients with aphasia and dysarthria after stroke or traumatic brain injury. All the patients were neurorehabilitation course. Self-esteem is considered as important parameter in the study of the psychological status of patients. This article describes the differences in the quantitative and qualitative parameters of self-esteem in patients with various speech defect (motor aphasia, temporal aphasia, dysarthria). The actual self-esteem is evaluated in the retrospective (before disease) and is compared with the ideal indicators. Self-esteem is studied using three methods that allow to reveal both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of self-esteem.
To obtain a complete picture of self-esteem changing in the disease situation, the actual self-confidence state in the retrospective (to disease) and an ideal self-evaluation are studied. Patients with logaphasia are characterized by low self-esteem in the present and in the ideal plane on a background of retrospective self-esteem. Patients with temporal aphasia showed the opposite picture of self-evaluation at present and in the ideal plane. Violation of the speech expressive aspect is the most debilitating factor which places significant restrictions on such social sectors as career, friendships, physical attractiveness. Restrictions on communicative possibilities in patients with compensated logaphasia first choice of moral and ethical qualities to characterize themselves at the time of illness are observed. Comparing the results of different methods revealed the declared self-esteem (for others) and self-esteem for oneself. The results indicate that the quality of the speech defect is a significant factor in the study of self-esteem.
This work is devoted to the study of coping strategies in patients after blood stroke and traumatic brain injury. The disease is considered as a critical situation in a person’s life that requires the mobilisation of personal resources and coping. It is hypothesized that the coping strategies will vary depending on the etiology of the disease and the patient’s experience. On the basis of specific nosology data, the stages of the rehabilitation process (from 0.5 years to 1 year, 1 year to 3 years, and from 3 to 14 years) were identified. The study involved 78 patients under rehabilitation (primary or repeated rehabilitation) at the Center for Speech Pathology and Neurorehabilitation. The study identified coping styles in patients with different stages of the disease: in the first period, dysfunctional coping strategies prevail in all patients; in the second period, problem-focused strategies prevail in patients after traumatic brain injury; and dysfunctional coping strategies prevail in patients after blood stroke. In the third period, emotion-focused coping strategies predominate in all patients. Significant differences in coping strategies were obtained, depending on the length of the disease and the differences in trends between the groups of patients, with the etiology of the disease considered.
The results of this research will allow to build the typology of coping behaviour, reasoning goals, objectives and methods of psychological care to patients undergoing rehabilitation after blood stroke and traumatic brain injury.