The author of the paper raises the issue concerning the need for a more profound theoretical and methodological foundations of health psychology as a new developing area of psychological knowledge, with special emphasis on the research potential of the cultural activity paradigm. The model of psychological research of health, based on the general psychological ideas of L.S.Vygotsky, A.N.Leontiev, S.L.Rubinstein, P.Y.Galperin and others, is proposed.
Human health as a higher mental function is the base of the model. Levels of regulating the individual’s interaction with the outer world are marked out. The formation of a coherent and consistent system of functioning of the levels is considered as a basis of general and psychological health of a person. According to the author the basic mental disorders of a man are connected with the change of the initial conditions of mental regulation (which were developed in the process of biological evolution) and subsequent change of the role of psyche in the conditions of social life. The author suggests a hypothesis of the connection between psychosomatic disorders and the mechanism dysfunction of mental image-based regulation of behavior. The existence of a close connection between physical and social health of a man is stated. The notion of “social physiology” is introduced.