The paper is devoted to the issue of mechanisms of learning for understanding the nature of the human mind. Learning is regarded as a special activity that is important for developing the human mind in a specific cultural and historical setting and indirect activity. The author’s understanding of the ideas developed by the psychological theory of activity for establishing the principles of developing the human mind is highlighted. Interpretation of dialectical connections of brain processes and mind, and also the objective activity that emerges them is provided.
According to the activity theory, the causes of the students’ psychological difficulties and the low efficacy of learning within predominant reproductive method or the use of the trial and error method are revealed. Thus, a new understanding of the renowned didactic principles of scientific rigour, accessibility, objectivity, the connection of learning with life and others is offered. The contribution of the psychological theory in organizing and managing the studies, increasing teaching activity and awareness, and the growth of the internal causes of motivation are shown.
Particular attention is paid to the issue of intellectual development and creative abilities. The author believes the creative abilities of the student and the way the latter are taught are interconnected. At the same time, the developers and educators should make efforts to develop in the students a systemic orientation in the subject, primarily mastering the method of system analysis. Once the method of system analysis has been mastered, it becomes a general intellectual and developing tool through which activities are organized to solve any teaching problems with whatever type of content and difficulty level.
Summing up, the organization and disclosure to the student of the process of learning as an activity with its social, consciously transformative and sense shaping meaning, the conditions of its development and their significance for consciousness development and the organization of life, opens the possibility for students to move to the top of the personality development.
In his report, the author examines the science of psychology with an unusual perspective – as the science of variability, which generates variable concepts. He puts emphasis on the first underestimated works carried out on a par with the problems highlighted by Bernstein Severtsev, Leontiev, Rubinstein, Blonsky, Vernadsky, Bergson, Berg and others. The article highlights the main challenges of the historical and evolutionary approach of social constructivism: a selection considering the class of purposeful activity as a universal form of life existence, the allocation of the communicative discourse categories of activity, which is interpreted as the basis for the existence of biological, social and psychological systems. The concept of activity as a process of generating diversity at various levels of the system is disclosed. The works of such scholars as Gurevich, Batkin, Gergen, etc. that help to see how the evolutionary significance of diversity are mentioned. The higher one rises through evolution, the more divergent model programs of his/her behaviour are, and there appears a set of variable programs. The author shows that through the activity approach many phenomenological issues of culture are perceived, the development of cultural activity paradigm leads to the fact that psychology goes beyond the scope of a separate science, and serves as a unique paradigm of the future. Since the A.N. Leontiev veiwed psychology as a kind of workshop to support diversity, where the psychologist is as an expert in designing new worlds. The author concludes that the research of activities by which the development of diversity in this world of uncertainty is meant is incredibly important.