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The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Molchanov S.V.

Ph.D in Psychology
Moscow, Russia


DOI Number:

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Voiskounsky A.E., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Role of personality features of adolescents in processing information via social network communication.. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4, 3–15. doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0401

Introduction Informational socializing of modern adolescents influences the form of communication as the main source of development and self-determination as the major developmental factor in adolescence. The investigation of links between personal features and moral values and Internet involvement allows defining the problem of correlations between personal and cognitive component of development and prevent cyberbulling and communication on-line risks.

The Objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between basic attitude and moral values of adolescents and the productivity of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that adolescents with a positive attitude to the mediated world and a high level of moral values reveal greater productivity of cognitive methods of processing social information obtained on the Internet. One of the goals of the research was to identify the relationship between basic beliefs and the Internet addiction in adolescents.

Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: 1. Basic Belief Scale by R. Yanoff-Bulman (Kalmykova, Padun, 2002); 2. Methods of diagnosing moral values "Fair-Care" (S. Molchanov, A. Podolsky); 3) the author's method of cognitive assessment of social information on the Internet, based on the Crick and Dodge model (Crick, Dodge, 1994); 4. Method of diagnosing Internet-dependent behavior by S.H.Chen. The population aged 13 to 18 years accounted 175 adolescents (49% males and (51% females).

Results. Three groups of adolescents were different in the nature of basic assumptions and the level of development of moral values optimists, pessimists, and ego-centered pessimists, and Internet addicted. Comparative analysis of the cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet, as well as signs of Internet addiction was carried out.

Conclusions: The hypothesis that positive attitude to the mediated world and belief that they control life, a high level of moral values associated with more productive cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet has received confirmation. A group of adolescents identified as “pessimists” (perception of the world as hostile, negative image of themselves, lack of confidence in the world and success, low level of moral values) reveal signs of Internet addiction in behaviour.

Received: 11/24/2018

Accepted: 12/07/2018

Pages: 3-15

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0401

Keywords: basic assumptions; moral values; cognitive methods of social information processing; adolescence; Internet dependence;

By: Molchanov S.V.; Almazova, Olga V.; Voiskounsky A.E.; Poskrebysheva N.N.;

Available Online: 12/30/2018

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 3, 57-68.

Background. Within the conditions of information socialization that is transforming communication and placing high demands on the ability of the individual to search, select, critically comprehend social information for decision-making and carrying out moral choices, a new social situation has developed. The research of the relationship between cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet and shaping the worldview and ideas about the moral regulation in adolescents makes it possible to study the patterns of personality development in the unity of the cognitive and value-moral spheres.

The Objective of the research is to identify cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet as a factor of developing a picture of the world in adolescent users with varying degrees of involvement and the risk of Internet addiction and moral regulation of relationship between them.

Hypothesis. Cognitive methods of processing information on the Internet are connected with the level of Internet addiction - a high level of Internet addiction corresponds to the low efficiency of cognitive methods of processing information. These methods influence the emerging system of major beliefs and worldview characteristics, and level of sensitivity to situations of moral choice.

Design. The author’s method of assessing social information on the Internet based on Crick and Dodge model (1994), Chen method for diagnosing Internet-addictive behaviour, «The scale of basic beliefs of the person» of R. Yanoff-Bullman (Kalmykova , Padun, 2002), and the author’s method of assessing moral aspects were used. The study involved 84 adolescents from 13 to 18 years (46% males and 54% females).

Results. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles was conducted and gender differences were revealed. The relationship between Internet addiction and the effectiveness of cognitive processing methods of information on the Internet is verified. The significance of interpretation, behaviour assessment and the ability to construct social adaptive behaviour in communication to shape the major beliefs and moral attitude in adolescence are shown.

Conclusion. There are differences in the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles of information. High efficiency of short-term, long-term, medium-term perspectives and behavioural responses and the ability to choose adequate social behavior corresponds to a relatively low productivity of interpretation. Internet addiction is interrelated with the low productivity of interpretation. Moral attitude is mediated by the age features of adolescent self-awareness and is related to the effectiveness of information interpretation, the evaluation of behavioural consequences and the choice of appropriate ways of social interaction.

Received: 08/03/2018

Accepted: 08/25/2018

Pages: 57-68

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0306

Keywords: cognitive methods of social information processing; Internet addiction; world-perception; basic assumptions; moral attitude; adolescence;

By: Molchanov S.V.; Almazova, Olga V.; Poskrebysheva N.N.;

Available Online: 09/30/2018

Karabanova O.A., Molchanov S.V. (2018). Risks of negative impact of information products on mental development and behavior of children and adolescents. National Psychological Journal. 3, 37-26.

Background. The high importance of the media as an institution of socializing the new generation in the modern information society is highlighted. Along with positive opportunities created by the media and the Internet for training and education, it is necessary to point to the growing risks associated with the ambiguity of the impact of the media on the mental and psychological health and also child and adolescent development.

The Objective of the paper is to consider the risks of socialization associated with the openness and accessibility of the information space. There are psychological features of   child and adolescent perception of information products containing aggression and violence, information products of sexual content, products that cause fear and anxiety, and also methods used in the media to justify morally antisocial, deviant, aggressive behaviour and violence.

The Results of the analysis allowed to identify the conditions that determine the degree of vulnerability of the child to violence in media and the desire to mimic aggressive behavior and also forms of cognitive restructuring the moral content of aggressive and deviant behaviour.

The negative consequences of perceiving violence expressed in behaviour, emotional state and cognitive image of the world of children are determined. The effects of adolescent perception of information of sexual content are revealed. Age features of experiencing fears in children aged 3-18 years are shown.

Conclusion. Perceiving violence in the information space by children and adolescents creates risks of mimicking aggressive behaviour, fears and increased anxiety, desensitization to phenomena of violence and aggression and distortion of the worldview, when violence is perceived as a compulsory and natural regulation of relations between people in society. Factors influencing the nature of the perception of violence include age factor, individual psychological and personality features, motives and preferences, genre of information products and the context within which violence is depicted.

Received: 08/03/2018

Accepted: 08/25/2018

Pages: 37-46

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0304

Keywords: perception of information products; adolescence; child age; media violence; aggression; fear and anxiety; moral justification of aggression;

By: Karabanova, O. A.; Molchanov S.V.;

Available Online: 09/30/2018

Molchanov S.V. (2017). Personal factors of moral responsibility in adolescence. National Psychological Journal, 4, 114–120

Background. Responsibility as a measure of individual freedom comes only under the condition of freedom of choice and the ability to anticipate and take into account the consequences of acts. Therefore, personal factors play a key role in taking moral responsibility. Scholars have studied the personal bases of responsibility that comprises autonomy, independence, confidence, the locus of control, the motivation to achieve a goal, the level of aspiration. However, the role of the moral self and moral identity in the determination of responsibility is not sufficiently studied. 

Objective. The objective of the research is to study the relationship between the moral identity of the individual and the willingness to accept moral responsibility in adolescence. Proceeding from the general hypothesis about the essential role of moral identity in adopting and actualising themoral responsibility, two specific hypotheses are articulated, specifying the role of values and moral self-esteem in taking moral responsibility. 

Design. An empirical study of adolescents aged 13–17 years was conducted. Subjects are students of educational institutions of general education in Moscow (a total of 314 subjects). The study poses the challenges of studying the readiness to accept moral responsibility by adolescents in the situation of a moral dilemma, the connection of the moral and value orientation of adolescents and the willingness to accept moral responsibility, the connection of self-esteem of moral qualities and the readiness of adolescents to accept moral responsibility. The methodology for assessing moral responsibility in the situation of solving the moral dilemma «Moral Situations from Real Life» (MORS), a modified version of M. Rokich’s method for evaluating value orientations, the method of structured moral self-esteem (A.I. Podolsky, P. Heymans, O.A. Karabanova) are used. 

Conclusion. The results revealed the influence of the participants’ moral dilemma and the nature of the consequences (damage or profit to the participant of the dilemma) on the adolescents’ willingness to accept moral responsibility, as well as the role of moral value orientation in the principle of care and moral self-esteem. It was revealed that the self-esteem of such moral qualities as responsibility, honesty, responsiveness, caring is higher in adolescents, showing a high willingness to accept moral responsibility in a moral dilemma. Moral identity is proved to be a desire to maintain a high positive self-esteem of moral qualities according to the accepted system of values develops the basis of the normative moral self-regulation of the individual.

Received: 10/04/2017

Accepted: 10/30/2017

Pages: 114-120

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0411

Keywords: responsibility; moral identity; moral dilemma; moral-value orientation; self-estimation; adolescence;

By: Molchanov S.V.;

Available Online: 01/01/2018

Molchanov S.V. (2017). How to develop the internal responsibility according to P.Ya. Galperin’s concept. National Psychological Journal. 3, 136-143.

The paper presents the ideas of P.Ya. Galperin on the nature of moral behaviour and the basic patterns of internal responsibility in childhood and adolescence. Distinctive features of objective and subjective responsibility, internal and external responsibility are highlighted. It is argued that internal responsibility expresses the person’s attitude to society and social groups and might be developed only if involved in certain relations and implemented in socially useful activities, i.e. if it is significant for other people. The psychological roles of cooperation for of responsibility are compared in J. Piaget’s works and P.Ya. Galperin’s scientific theory. The research results of internal responsibility in primary school students and adolescents conducted by P.Ya. Galperin and T.V. Morozkina are discussed. The decisive role of value orientation and motivation in solving «affective type» problems and in moral behaviour is shown. According philosophy issues, responsibility is considered as a perceived necessity, which assumes a free moral choice. Three criteria of moral responsibility are introduced: the causal relationship between the subject’s behaviour and its consequence, subject’s ability to predict the possible consequences of his/her behaviour, the possibility of free choice. The psychological content of responsibility is the subject’s commitment and further response regulated by a certain system of norms and regulations on the basis of moral choice and self-regulation. The distinction between the action device and motive as the accepted moral basis for behaviour has been introduced. Accordingly, responsible behaviour is considered as willful behaviour. The genesis of strong-will behaviour is associated with social relations and moral values and is developed in the course of cooperation. Conditions of orientation in moral choice as a prerequisite for actualizing the individual’s internal responsibility are discussed.

Received: 07/12/2017

Accepted: 07/26/2017

Pages: 121-135

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0315

Keywords: objective and subjective responsibility; retributive justice; orienting activity; moral choice; will; Galperin P.Y.;

By: Molchanov S.V.;

Available Online: 10/10/2017

Karabanova O.A., Molchanov S.V. (2017). Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood. National Psychological Journal. 2, 92-97.

Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

Received: 03/16/2017

Accepted: 03/23/2017

Pages: 92-97

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0210

Keywords: parental attitudes; parental position; expected family; family life cycle; student youth; family values; gender differences;

By: Karabanova, O. A.; Molchanov S.V.;

Available Online: 06/28/2017

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebysheva N.N., Zapunidi A.A. (2017). Personal autonomy as factor of developing responsibility in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 1, 84-90.

The paper describes the research results of relationship between personal autonomy and responsibility level in adolescence. The theoretical idea of unity of freedom and responsibility can be regarded as link between personal autonomy and level of responsibility in adolescence. The hypothesis of correlation between level of responsibility and autonomy in adolescence is realized. The sample includes 368 school students aged from 13 to 17, Moscow, Russia. The questionnaire to diagnose autonomy defines emotional, cognitive, intellectual and behavioural components of autonomy. The second questionnaire describes the responsibility level using the example of different moral dilemmas. The results of the empirical research describe the hypothesis on the relationship between personal autonomy and level of responsibility. Personal autonomy includes value, emotional, cognitive and behavioural components. Cluster groups with different levels of autonomy are defined: high autonomy, intellectual autonomy, low autonomy and disharmonic type of autonomy. Higher level of a number of autonomy components correlates with higher level of responsibility. Analysis of moral norm deviation shows that type and content of moral dilemma play an important role in responsibility acceptance. Gender differences in level of responsibility is defined in the following way: females show higher level of responsibility than males.

Received: 02/07/2017

Accepted: 02/24/2017

Pages: 84-90

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0110

Keywords: responsibility; adolescence; personality autonomy; moral-value orientation; emotional autonomy; cognitive autonomy; value autonomy; behavioral autonomy;

By: Molchanov S.V.; Almazova, Olga V.; Poskrebysheva N.N.; Zapunidi, Anna A.;

Available Online: 03/30/2017

Molchanov S. V. (2014). Conditions and factors of solving moral dilemmas in adolescence. National psychological journal. 4 (16), 42-51.

    Moral choice in adolescents is determined by the interaction of cognitive, emotional and personal factors that prescribe the orientation on the justice principle, or the principle of care, exercised in certain social psychological and situational conditions. Some features of the of moral dilemmas solution in L. Kohlberg’s concept of moral development and N. Eisenberg’s theory of prosocial behaviour are considered. The following types of moral choice dilemmas are identified: personal choice and decision-making within uncertain moral norms as a behaviour regulating tool; moral choice within competitive moral norms; the dilemma ofalter altruism.
Conditions and factors of solving moral dilemmas in adolescents are identified and described: the social psychological conditions (culture, socioeconomic status, family,
school); individual features (moral values, moral feelings and emotions, e.g. guilt, sympathy, empathy and distress, presence of socio-cognitive conflicts in past experiences,
the proximity to the victim and identifying oneself as a victim, age, sex); level of cognitive development and attribute processes (regarding prosocial behaviour of other
people as «good» and identifying oneself as «good»; being aware of altruistic motives of one’s behaviour and the nature of one’s behaviour as showing care for welfare
of others; adequately assessing the needs of another person for further assistance and identifying its objective necessity); situational factors and structural and content
limitations of the moral dilemmas (according to the degree of involvement, either personal or social, according to the extent of meeting social expectations, i.e. antisocial,
prosocial dilemmas and social pressures).

Received: 11/29/2014

Accepted: 12/08/2014

Pages: 42-51

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2014.0405

Keywords: moral development; moral dilemma; prosocial behaviour and thinking; altruism;

By: Molchanov S.V.;

Available Online: 12/31/2014

Molchanov S. V.,Pervichko E. I. (2010). Close collaboration between Moscow and New York Universities: towards each other. National Psychological Journal,1(3), 39-41

The article is devoted to the theme of international collaboration between Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov (MSU) and State University of New York (SUNY). The main goals, directions and perspectives of international cooperation in the sphere of education are discussed.

Pages: 39-41

Keywords: international collaboration; Moscow Lomonosov State University (MSU); organizational psychology;

By: Molchanov S.V.; Pervichko Elena I.;

Asmolov A.G., Burmenskaya G.V., Volodarskaya I.A., Karabanova O.A., Molchanov S.V., Salmina N.G. (2011). Program of development of universal educational actions in high school.National Psychological Journal,1(5), 104-110

The article discusses the theoretical and methodological framework of the Program development of educational actions as a universal educational psychological and educational component of the project of the federal state standard of general education for senior level - the doctrine of psychological age (Vygotsky, El'konin) and the concept of developmental education, created in the frame of activity approach (Leontiev, Galperin, El'konin, Davydov). The basic types of universal educational action are determined, their characteristics and criteria of formation for older adolescents are presented.

Pages: 104-110

Keywords: system-activity approach; the psychological age; universal study actions; self-orientation; communicative action; cognitive actions; regulatory actions;

By: Asmolov A.G.; Burmenskaya G.V.; Volodarskaya I.A.; Karabanova, O. A.; Molchanov S.V.; Salmina N.G.;

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