By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 30.12.2014
Keywords: emotion regulation;
procedure model of emotion regulation;
structural dynamic model of emotion regulation;
emotion regulation strategies;
cognitive strategy reassessment;
strategy of suppressing expression of emotions;
By: Pervichko Elena I.;
The paper is devoted to the concept of narrative in social psychology. The problem of lack of unity in the understanding and application of this concept in the research methods is discussed. The goal is to systemize the approaches to narrative from the perspective of the identity research. Narrative is a concept that is beginning to be widely used in the study of personality, self-perception, communication, and the study of various social practices; that is why it is necessary to determine which properties of narrative can be applied to the study of identity. The paper performs a review of four most common approaches to the narrative: narrative as a particular mode of thought (J. Bruner), narrative as a metatheoretical paradigm (T. Sarbin), narrative as a life story, narrative as one of discourse genres. The features of the narrative in each approach, as well as the main problems of research are analized. Two criteria of the narrative are discussed: specific temporal structure and transformation criterion. The following features of the concept of narrative in psychology are focused upon: discursive understanding of narrative, the importance of incorporating interactional and cultural contexts within the study of narrative, functional approach to the definition of the narrative. We discuss the potential of the narrative as a psychological construct in the study of identity and define two promising approaches to the narrative: the analysis of separate life events (e.g. turning points and complex actions) and the analysis of narration as a discursive practice and an interactional process which is sensitive to local context and to wider social practices.
The paper presents the research results that deal with the dependence of individual adolescent autonomy on the characteristics of the social situation of development, i.e. the nature of parent-child relationships and relationships with peers from the perspective of the developmental approach (L.Vygotsky). Non-linear nature of the development and heterochronic components of adolescent autonomy are shown. The highest rates are identified for the evaluative and cognitive components of autonomy, while the lowest ones are identified for emotional components at a fairly low level of behavioural autonomy. Individual autonomy develops functional unity of all the components that form its value-affective and operational-technical component. Advanced development of cognitive autonomy due to the transition to the education and career with elements of self-education is the basis of the formation of behavioural and value autonomy. The latter determines the vector of motivation and sense of identity and consequently also creates conditions for achieving emotional autonomy by adopting self-worth and self-sufficiency. Features of relations with parents and peers in five groups of adolescents, whose individual autonomy level and structure vary, are identified and described.
A relation of autonomy level and its individual components to the nature of the adolescent relationship with parents and peers is identified. The most important parameters for autonomy development are as follows: parent-child relationship as parental control, freedom and autonomy in parent-child relations, cooperation. Relationships with parents and peers play different roles in developing adolescent autonomy. In relations with parents, adolescents get aware of the need for autonomy and motivation. In relationships with peers, the need for autonomy, approbation, role experiments with value choice and decision-making, their behaviour and activities become subjective.
Available Online: 31.12.2014
Using objective methods of formal analysis revealed fundamental similarity of audio signals of several types of apes and monkeys, i.e. chimpanzees, rhesus monkey, baboon, siamang (gibbon) with manifestations of emotions in human speech. It is shown that the developed system (based on the principle of the relative crossfrequency amplitude-variable encoding) of formal parameters for assessing emotions in human speech is well applied as an experimental procedure for objective evaluation and interpretation of beeps monkeys (in accordance with the system of human emotions). This is confirmed by corresponding formal assessments with observations of animal behaviour in different situations. The proposed anthropomorphic method of analysis of audio signals animals is based on four-dimensional spherical model of human emotions and principles of information encoding in the nervous system. The proposed model can serve as a common classification system for emotional phenomena that combines both physiological concepts of brain mechanisms of emotional control, and psychological well-known classification based on diverse experimental data. It also quantitatively explains all possible nuances and soft emotion mutual transitions, with representing each specific emotion as a linear combination of the selected basic physiological parameters. Positive agreement between the parameters of the speech signal in not only humans but also monkeys with psychophysiological parameters confirm the theoretical issues of the principles of encoding information in the nervous system and efficiency of the proposed anthropomorphic approach to the development of technical systems, in particular methods for speech signal processing. On the other hand, the coincidence of the detected pattern confirms the previously identified psychophysiological parameters, which further substantiate preference (compared with others described in the scientific papers) reveals in a classification system of emotions in terms of both the dimension and orientation of the axes in relation to the model space. On the whole, the results suggest that the emotional regulation system is very old and preserved in humans without change throughout history and co-existing with the system of feeling expression and also with the independent speech sound system. Furthermore, it is shown that in the majority of the surveyed types of apes and monkeys (chimpanzees, rhesus monkey and baboon), the entire repertoire of sound signals is reduced to the above mentioned emotional regulation. However, we that some types of apes and monkeys, e.g. siamang (gibbon), are able to diverse their repertoire of sound signals and create additional channels of sound signals in a relatively free frequency domain, so as not to interfere with the system of signals shared with other types of apes and monkeys (and also humans). Apparently, this additional sound system is based on the same encoding principle as the general emotional system.
This paper focuses on studying the specific features of using figurative expressions in the texts of television announcements based on the usage of words in a figurative sense aimed at enhancing pictorialism and expressiveness of oral speech. Various uses of tropes, nonce words and set phrases in the texts of modern television announcements. The figurative media mentioned are shown to contribute to implementing a journalistic strategy of a language game, which can greatly influence the mindset of a general audience.
Today television journalism is undergoing dramatic changes. Not just the genre structure of modern television discourse is subject to transformation, but each individual genre as well. The need for highlighting linguistic stylistic peculiarities of promo genres that previously were given a brief account of (in particular the analysis of figurative meanings that have become a popular mechanism for creating a language game in the texts of television announcements) seems to be quite topical. This article offers an in-depth analysis of figurative expressions in texts of television announcements in light of communicative stylistics of journalistic speech. A journalist as an author consciously selects particular means to fulfill his/her communicative task using the resources of the Russian language. The psychology of his/her audience taken into account, the phenomenon of a language game may be considered as a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Through a language game, an implicit impact on the mass audience is produced.
This article makes a significant contribution to modern scientific media stylistics and opens up broad prospects for the research of modern television genres included in the so-called promo discourse, and can be widely used in education syllabus within the course of television language, speech culture, media linguistics, media psychology, etc.
Abstracts of the articles published in German
Abstracts of the articles published in French