On a par with the analysis of the Russian history of psychology development the paper characterizes academic research and teaching profession of one of the greatest contemporary historians of psychology Antonina Nikolaevna Zhdan, Distinguished Professor of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Education. The paper shows her contribution to the international and national history of psychology, historical and scientific research of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the history of psychology teaching at the Department of General Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University. We give an account of the origin of the historical and psychological research in the Russian empire and Soviet times: Psychological Institute (1914) of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University (established in 1966). The role of A.N. Zhdan in finalizing the encyclopedias devoted to the 250th anniversary of Lomonosov Moscow State University is distinguished. We mention Antonina N. Zhdan’s teacher, Peter Ya. Galperin, who was the first to develop a training course on the history of psychology that serves as a basis for creating and then publishing a university course curriculum and a manual. The paper highlights the constructive role of academic research and teaching profession of A.N. Zhdan to develop the first Russian university fundamental textbook on the history of psychology which she positioned from the perspective of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural historical psychology, A.N. Leontiev’s theory of activity and P. Ya. Galperin’s concept of orienting activity.
We analyze the work of A.N. Zhdan on various aspects of the history of psychology and the establishing theoretical principles of its research and development. The significance of A.N. Zhdan’s works for developing methodology of psychology is emphasized. It is particularly stressed that this line of research characterizes the academic school of the history of international and Russian psychology with her active participation.
Available Online: 30.12.2014
The objectives of this paper are as follows: argumentation feasibility of developing structural dynamic model of emotion regulation within the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm of the development of human mind and promoting a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in health and disease (Part 1), the description of the model of emotion regulation (Part 2). The paper introduces the author’s definition of emotion regulation as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that are used to preserve human capacity to induce productive activity in a situation of emotional stress, to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions, to maintain the excitement at the optimum level.
In the first part, the paper summarizes the concepts and paradigms in which the problem of emotion regulation is viewed: psychoanalytic and cognitive approaches, concepts and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of regulating emotions by J. Gross with the release of emotion regulation strategies and efficacy assessment, analyzes its capabilities and limitations. Based on a review of the today research, the conclusion is as follows: within the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies the issue of the psychological mechanisms of their use still remains open.
In the second part, the author suggests the possibilities to address this issue on the basis of the construction of structural and dynamic models of emotion regulation in the methodology of cultural activity approach to the study of the mind and capacity of this theoretical paradigm of integrated methodological approach to the experimental study of the regulation of emotions.
Keywords: emotion regulation;
procedure model of emotion regulation;
structural dynamic model of emotion regulation;
emotion regulation strategies;
cognitive strategy reassessment;
strategy of suppressing expression of emotions;
The paper is devoted to the concept of narrative in social psychology. The problem of lack of unity in the understanding and application of this concept in the research methods is discussed. The goal is to systemize the approaches to narrative from the perspective of the identity research. Narrative is a concept that is beginning to be widely used in the study of personality, self-perception, communication, and the study of various social practices; that is why it is necessary to determine which properties of narrative can be applied to the study of identity. The paper performs a review of four most common approaches to the narrative: narrative as a particular mode of thought (J. Bruner), narrative as a metatheoretical paradigm (T. Sarbin), narrative as a life story, narrative as one of discourse genres. The features of the narrative in each approach, as well as the main problems of research are analized. Two criteria of the narrative are discussed: specific temporal structure and transformation criterion. The following features of the concept of narrative in psychology are focused upon: discursive understanding of narrative, the importance of incorporating interactional and cultural contexts within the study of narrative, functional approach to the definition of the narrative. We discuss the potential of the narrative as a psychological construct in the study of identity and define two promising approaches to the narrative: the analysis of separate life events (e.g. turning points and complex actions) and the analysis of narration as a discursive practice and an interactional process which is sensitive to local context and to wider social practices.
The paper presents the research results that deal with the dependence of individual adolescent autonomy on the characteristics of the social situation of development, i.e. the nature of parent-child relationships and relationships with peers from the perspective of the developmental approach (L.Vygotsky). Non-linear nature of the development and heterochronic components of adolescent autonomy are shown. The highest rates are identified for the evaluative and cognitive components of autonomy, while the lowest ones are identified for emotional components at a fairly low level of behavioural autonomy. Individual autonomy develops functional unity of all the components that form its value-affective and operational-technical component. Advanced development of cognitive autonomy due to the transition to the education and career with elements of self-education is the basis of the formation of behavioural and value autonomy. The latter determines the vector of motivation and sense of identity and consequently also creates conditions for achieving emotional autonomy by adopting self-worth and self-sufficiency. Features of relations with parents and peers in five groups of adolescents, whose individual autonomy level and structure vary, are identified and described.
A relation of autonomy level and its individual components to the nature of the adolescent relationship with parents and peers is identified. The most important parameters for autonomy development are as follows: parent-child relationship as parental control, freedom and autonomy in parent-child relations, cooperation. Relationships with parents and peers play different roles in developing adolescent autonomy. In relations with parents, adolescents get aware of the need for autonomy and motivation. In relationships with peers, the need for autonomy, approbation, role experiments with value choice and decision-making, their behaviour and activities become subjective.
Moral choice in adolescents is determined by the interaction of cognitive, emotional and personal factors that prescribe the orientation on the justice principle, or the principle of care, exercised in certain social psychological and situational conditions. Some features of the of moral dilemmas solution in L. Kohlberg’s concept of moral development and N. Eisenberg’s theory of prosocial behaviour are considered. The following types of moral choice dilemmas are identified: personal choice and decision-making within uncertain moral norms as a behaviour regulating tool; moral choice within competitive moral norms; the dilemma ofalter altruism.
Conditions and factors of solving moral dilemmas in adolescents are identified and described: the social psychological conditions (culture, socioeconomic status, family, school); individual features (moral values, moral feelings and emotions, e.g. guilt, sympathy, empathy and distress, presence of socio-cognitive conflicts in past experiences, the proximity to the victim and identifying oneself as a victim, age, sex); level of cognitive development and attribute processes (regarding prosocial behaviour of other people as «good» and identifying oneself as «good»; being aware of altruistic motives of one’s behaviour and the nature of one’s behaviour as showing care for welfare of others; adequately assessing the needs of another person for further assistance and identifying its objective necessity); situational factors and structural and content limitations of the moral dilemmas (according to the degree of involvement, either personal or social, according to the extent of meeting social expectations, i.e. antisocial, prosocial dilemmas and social pressures).
The paper discusses traditional and modern approaches to the study of the separation-individuation process in late adolescence, which is considered as the central developmental task (R. Havighurst) of this developmental stage. Within the family psychology the process of separation-individuation in late adolescence is recognized as normative family crisis. The results of mother and father roles research in the development of boys and girls individuation are described using the Russian and Ossetian culture conditions. Gender and culture characteristics of individuation are presented. Russian adolescents are more successful in individuation, compared with Ossetian adolescents. Russian students have more difficulties in individuation in mother relationship as compared with the father relation. In contrast, Ossetian students have more difficulties in individuation with father than with mother. The complementarity of father and mother roles for successful individuation of a child during adolescence is shown. The results presented basic and intermediate types of culture that reflects the dynamic development of contemporary Russian culture (the transition from one type of culture to another). Russian students are characterized as representatives of the modern culture type while Ossetian students are characterized as representatives of traditional culture type. The adolescent individuation features of the representatives of different culture type of presented. Summing up, there is connection between the type of culture (by J. Townsend) and individuation characteristics in adolescence: the modern culture type is combined with a more harmonious process of boy’s and girl’s individuation.
In this paper we study the problem of weak processes regulating the activity in primary school children with learning disabilities. The study was conducted on children with severe learning difficulties (from 1 to 4-5 grades), and on the sample of first graders with varying success in learning. The main method was Luria’s neuropsychological assessment adapted for 5 – 9 years old children (Akhutina et al., 2008/2012; Polonskaya, 2007). It is shown that the children of both samples can be divided into three groups according to the function states that regulate the activity: children with hyperactivity-impulsivity disorder, children with fatigue and low tempo characteristics, and children without a significant deficit of the unit I functions. The close relationship of unit I functions deficit and school performance was demonstrated. It was revealed that children with hyperactivity disorder characterized by severe weakness of programming and controlling processes and visual and visual-spatial functions (with weak left analytical hemisphere and right-hemisphere which is responsible for holistic strategies of processing information). Children with sluggish cognitive tempo are characterized by less pronounced weakness in programming and controlling functions and also by prominent audioverbal and kinesthetiс difficulties (weakness of the left hemisphere which is responsible for analytical strategy of processing information). Various components of higher mental functions in children with learning disabilities show uneven age dynamics: from 1 to 4-5 grade the symptoms of fatigue, low rate and kinesthetic difficulties practically do not manifest positive dynamics in contrast to all other components of the higher mental functions.
Available Online: 31.12.2014
Using objective methods of formal analysis revealed fundamental similarity of audio signals of several types of apes and monkeys, i.e. chimpanzees, rhesus monkey, baboon, siamang (gibbon) with manifestations of emotions in human speech.
It is shown that the developed system (based on the principle of the relative crossfrequency amplitude-variable encoding) of formal parameters for assessing emotions in human speech is well applied as an experimental procedure for objective evaluation and interpretation of beeps monkeys (in accordance with the system of human emotions). This is confirmed by corresponding formal assessments with observations of animal behaviour in different situations.
The proposed anthropomorphic method of analysis of audio signals animals is based on four-dimensional spherical model of human emotions and principles of information encoding in the nervous system. The proposed model can serve as a common classification system for emotional phenomena that combines both physiological concepts of brain mechanisms of emotional control, and psychological well-known classification based on diverse experimental data. It also quantitatively explains all possible nuances and soft emotion mutual transitions, with representing each specific emotion as a linear combination of the selected basic physiological parameters. Positive agreement between the parameters of the speech signal in not only humans but also monkeys with psychophysiological parameters confirm the theoretical issues of the principles of encoding information in the nervous system and efficiency of the proposed anthropomorphic approach to the development of technical systems, in particular methods for speech signal processing. On the other hand, the coincidence of the detected pattern confirms the previously identified psychophysiological parameters, which further substantiate preference (compared with others described in the scientific papers) reveals in a classification system of emotions in terms of both the dimension and orientation of the axes in relation to the model space.
On the whole, the results suggest that the emotional regulation system is very old and preserved in humans without change throughout history and co-existing with the system of feeling expression and also with the independent speech sound system. Furthermore, it is shown that in the majority of the surveyed types of apes and monkeys (chimpanzees, rhesus monkey and baboon), the entire repertoire of sound signals is reduced to the above mentioned emotional regulation. However, we that some types of apes and monkeys, e.g. siamang (gibbon), are able to diverse their repertoire of sound signals and create additional channels of sound signals in a relatively free frequency domain, so as not to interfere with the system of signals shared with other types of apes and monkeys (and also humans). Apparently, this additional sound system is based on the same encoding principle as the general emotional system.
This paper describes the research aimed at examining the relationship between perceived organizational culture and values of personnel with different work experience. The interaction of corporate culture and values may change the employee’s behaviour, resulting in the gradual transformation of the priorities, needs and motives. This process is temporally based and there arises a necessity to revise notions of professional career. We hypothesize that the employee’s experience in different organizational cultures may determine personnel values.
The research is based on typological models of K. Cameron and R. Quinn “Competing Value Network” which reveals the severity of a particular type of culture to a certain company. It should be emphasized that the transformation of values may also be associated with age-related changes in a person’s beliefs, however, in this research the attention was focused precisely on the experience of employees in a particular company since dynamics in the axiological sphere occurs within a sufficiently long period of time. Moreover, the changes mentioned are connected with the process of value integration declared by the company, thus resulting in the personnel values. We used the semi-structured interview to look into the personnel values, which allowed a more detailed study of individual hierarchy of values. In addition, using complex techniques revealed some “transformation” of general and professional values by comparing the values of personnel with small work experience and those with vast work experience.
Also, as an additional task we assessed relationship between the professional and the common values of employees, and also we drew a comparison with perceived organizational culture and gender of the research participants. As a result, we developed hypothetical models reflecting the main trend of “changing” values of employees with different work experience in relation to the predominant type of organizational culture.
Such type of research allows further hypothesizing changing personality structures under the influence of external conditions.
This paper focuses on studying the specific features of using figurative expressions in the texts of television announcements based on the usage of words in a figurative sense aimed at enhancing pictorialism and expressiveness of oral speech. Various uses of tropes, nonce words and set phrases in the texts of modern television announcements. The figurative media mentioned are shown to contribute to implementing a journalistic strategy of a language game, which can greatly influence the mindset of a general audience.
Today television journalism is undergoing dramatic changes. Not just the genre structure of modern television discourse is subject to transformation, but each individual genre as well. The need for highlighting linguistic stylistic peculiarities of promo genres that previously were given a brief account of (in particular the analysis of figurative meanings that have become a popular mechanism for creating a language game in the texts of television announcements) seems to be quite topical. This article offers an in-depth analysis of figurative expressions in texts of television announcements in light of communicative stylistics of journalistic speech. A journalist as an author consciously selects particular means to fulfill his/her communicative task using the resources of the Russian language. The psychology of his/her audience taken into account, the phenomenon of a language game may be considered as a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Through a language game, an implicit impact on the mass audience is produced.
This article makes a significant contribution to modern scientific media stylistics and opens up broad prospects for the research of modern television genres included in the so-called promo discourse, and can be widely used in education syllabus within the course of television language, speech culture, media linguistics, media psychology, etc.
Abstracts of the articles published in German
Keywords: abstract of the article;
Available Online: 31.12.2014
Abstracts of the articles published in French
Keywords: abstract of the article;
Available Online: 31.12.2014