The soul concept has been forbidden to use in the academic psychological literature for over a hundred years. It was replaced (suppressed) by the concept of “psyche”, “consciousness”, “self-esteem”, etc. The paper raises the issue of the need to reconsider the concept of human soul as the fundamental basis of human mental activity. We emphasize the multidimensional concept of soul, a number of traditional fields of theoretical and applied psychology the directly being attributed to it, for example, the study of thinking, memory, perception, sensations, emotions, etc. We discovered that among the accepted meanings of the soul (more than ten listed in the paper) only one is known to fall out of the academic and psychological requirements, namely understanding the soul in terms of “spiritual part of human beings”. The fundamental conclusion consists in the fact that the soul properly never escaped the issues of academic psychology. On the contrary, it has been in the focus of scholars. In order to differentiate between the competence of psychology and theology we propose a distinction between “inner” and “outer” psychic manifestations. Within such a divide, the “outer” side will face the entire material world almost directly and entirely meet the requirements of the subject matter of science, whereas the “inner” side is connected with psychology through the reality, habitually referred to as spirituality, which in addition to theological interpretations can be deemed in terms of moral and philosophical value sphere and intelligible reason of human existence.
This approach allowed us to consider the issue of “spiritual” and “personal” relations, to establish relationships between personality psychology and the religious and secular approaches. It is shown that without taking into account the methodological correlation with these approaches the psychological category is reduced to simply identifying personal individual features, and motivational and volitional performance.
An important feature of the present stage of human knowledge development is the introducing psychology in the spiritual context. An interest in the scientific community to such spiritual and psychological realities as subjectivity, individuality, personality, “spiritual I” consciousness, conscience, human morality is increasing. These concepts are united by the fact that they do not fit in the objectively oriented areas of psychology that study the general properties and regularities of mental functioning. To consider them properly we have to differentiate the diverse scientific types and processes for obtaining psychological knowledge.
The paper presents a historical and methodological review of studies on the problem of human psychology. We identified and analyzed methodological orientations of psychological human anthropology: theocentric, and sociocentric personcentric. For each of them we found certain philosophical and ideological concepts that define the fundamental principle of human in man, which were fruitfully absorbed by psychology and allowed to deploy the relevant areas of research.
Correlation of sociocentric and personcentric scientific approaches allows to raise the issue of insufficient research of theocentric methodology for the problem of human psychology. Psychological anthropology is an implementation of theocentric methodology at the present stage of rational psychological knowledge development.
Psychological anthropology has become a new methodological platform endowed with considerable heuristic potential.
The content of psychological anthropology is a description of the phenomena of the inner world of a human individual, revealing the bases and conditions for the development of subjective reality in the ontogeny. The article defines the basic categories and formulated the basic provisions of the psychological anthropology. We justified a new interpretation of the principle of development in psychology. The results of structural and content analysis of human subjectivity, normative models, marginal quality, and the superordinate form of human existence are presented.
The paper, based on the book “The Evolution of Physics” written by A. Einstein and L. Infeld, analyzes the contribution of the great physicist in psychological science. The author who supports his arguments by quotations convincingly proves that Einstein could enrich the psychological knowledge in the field of scientific creativity. In the above mentioned book he has done a huge work to identify the inner side of the scientist, the mechanisms of creativity in science. Having analysed the materials of “The Evolution of Physics” E. Klimov demonstrates that they are an invaluable material for the researchers of psychology of creativity, as the authors of the book pay special attention to the general scientific determinants of the scientist’s research, omitting terms, specific notions or complex mathematical apparatus, which is a working arsenal of physics.
The article also shows how values have developed the concept of Einstein’s creative activity for the development of the modern education system, how it can be possible to overcome formalization which is inherent in today’s schools, and eventually makes educational process boring and uninteresting.
The author concludes that Einstein’s work produces an “infecting” impact on the reader, attaching the reader to the world of search and fulfillment of creative discoveries in science. In psychology, especially for psychology of education, its practical significance is to reveal the content of the professional activity of the scientist. This content as a kind of “standard” should be the basis of the learning process, so not only the Russian soil but also the local education system could give birth to “quick-minded Newtons”.
Virtual reality technology is used nowadays in various areas of science, and psychology, in particular. Successful work with virtual reality systems requires that a sense of presence emerges in the user, i.e. the subjective experience of the reality of being located in the artificially created environment and interacting with it. The lack of this experience or its insufficiency result in the interaction possibilities a virtual environment being unexploited. As a psychological phenomenon the sense of presence is caused by various psychological factors besides technological factors. In this paper, the reference literature review shows that the sense of presence is conditioned by demographic, cognitive, personality, and motivational variables. In particular, the sense of presence is dependent on differences in cognitive abilities and personal features, although in the last case the evidence is contradictory. The paper highlights a special role of cognitive control, i.e. metacognitive processes that are responsible for adjusting cognition to the context of the current task, thus emerging the sense of presence. The usage of expertise of psychological factors of the sense of presence in the development of virtual environments allowing effective user interaction is considered. The usage of psychological factors of the sense of presence as criteria for selecting users to operate in virtual environments is discussed. The directed research of various psychological factors that affect the sense of presence will not only support the development of general psychological theory of the sense of presence but also will allow to create effective solutions for fundamental and applied problems using virtual reality technology.
The paper researches the possibilities and limitations of coping behaviour in children and adolescents on the Internet and the assistance of significant adults (parental mediation) in the context of the new social situation of development mediated by modern information and communication technologies, in particular, by the Internet. The study based on the EUKidsOnline II project was conducted in 11 regions of 7 federal districts of Russia (1025 “parent-child” pairs).
According to the research results the most common risks include dealing with negative sexual content, fraud and identity theft, meetings with online friends. Features of experiences and coping with risks online depend on the adolescent dominating activity on the web: those focused on their studies are less exposed to the risks mentioned, whereas their feelings are deeper and more enduring, they more frequently seek solutions using passive strategies. Those who fall into “content consumers” category are most exposed to the risk of coming across sexual content on the web as actively use various Internet resources including search engines. They experience fewer negative emotions, more frequently they actively seek to solve the problem almost without offline support.
The opportunity of parental mediation at the present moment is rather insignificant: a strategy of prohibitions associated with reduction of collision risks especially for research of teenagers; while the strategy of positive reinforcement and explanation is used effectively with adolescents doing various things on the Internet, it can be associated with a more realistic risk assessment and child using active coping strategies and social support. According to the data received the Internet could be considered as a complex psychological “instrument” that is internalizing by the child in his/her development. This internalization process determines his/her activities and self-regulation including his/her aptitude to coping with difficult life situations.
The paper discusses changes introduced in the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association in May 2013. The DSM-5 was subjected to a flood of criticism already at the time of its preparation. The authors examine the reasons for revising the previous edition of DSM and provide examples of structural and diagnostic changes introduced in the DSM-5. Special attention is paid to those innovations, which have initiated controversy and debate in the professional community. The paper gives consideration to criticism of the changes in the DSM-5 and urges to the development of a new methodological approach to mental health.There are examples of structural and diagnostic changes in the DSM-5 including removal of the five-tier multi-axis, replacement of comprehensive assessment scales of functioning to the scale evaluation that refer to activity restrictions of World Health Organization. Special attention is paid to issues of gender and cultural differences including semi-structured interviews on issues related to cultural differences. The paper gives an account of the new Manual of Diagnostic Categories and Abolition or Consolidation of those previously existing.
The paper is devoted to the study of coping behavior of adults with cystic fibrosis, who manage stressful situations, and also individual and specific strategies for healing cystic fibrosis regarding subjective illness perception as either moderate or expressed threat to life and health. Cystic fibrosis is regarded as a real threat to life and health, which launches the cognitive and emotional processes of its regulation and influence on the choice of coping with the disease. We suggest that healing cystic fibrosis in adult patients will be differentiated regarding the subjective illness perception as a threat to life and health.
The research involved 86 male and female patients (mean age – 23.7 ± 4.8 years) with cystic fibrosis, with severe and moderate course, receiving inpatient or outpatient treatment. The research identified adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping with cystic fibrosis and ways of overcoming their difficult life situations. We confirmed that perceptions of cystic fibrosis as a moderate threat to life and health contributes to psychological adjustment to problem life situations and illness proper due to moderately intensive use of adaptive coping strategies and more rare reference to the maladaptive coping strategies avoidance. The perception of cystic fibrosis as expressed threat to life and health is associated with decreased psychological adjustment to problem life situations and illness caused by the rise of cystic fibrosis avoidant behaviour and suppression of optimistic illness acceptance.
This article analyzes the content and formal dynamic performance of management vision, their relationship to the personal characteristics of the chief executive, and also the description of management types of managerial vision identified in the empirical study of the Russian middle and senior managers.
The managerial vision is deemed as the understanding of the future by the chief executive of the organization, which includes the anticipatory image of the company’s future and willingness to inform the employees about it. The empirical research is based on the conceptual framework of studying the managerial vision of the organization as a social psychological phenomenon in which we have identified its basic features and determining factors. According to the conceptual framework of the research, the managerial vision performance refers to its content (the structure of vision) and formal dynamic characteristics.
The paper deals with the psychological types of managerial vision: focused on the business strategy, focused on the external environment, focused on experience, focused on staff, focused on creating team vision.
When describing and analyzing these issues we considered several parameters to develop the typology basis: a significance content components vision, his formal dynamic characteristics (clarity of vision, the vision of his/her role of the chief executive in the future of the organization, optimism about the future image, creating team vision and longitude of the prospective), particular attitude of managers to the characteristic of time (character of temporal orientation), value orientation of the chief executive, the level of corporate confidence.
The paper presents the results of a longitudinal research of personal traits of actor students of the Moscow Tabakov Theatre College. The research has been carried out since 2010 till the present yaer and is a continuation of the scientific program which began in 1976. The results of the research are based on Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors Test. The total number of participants is 312.
We discuss the gender influence on the enrollment peculiarities and student training in the Theatre College. Also we compared the Cattell’s test data of those participants who entered or failed to enter the Theatre College (males and females). We are comparing the distinctive features of males and females who entered the College. Using cluster analysis we consider peculiarities of the personality types of actor students who do the first year.
The obtained results show that teachers’ rates of males are more diverse in respect of direct and natural behaviour. However, female assessment of teachers is based on the appearance factor. Analysis of the personal data shows a reversal of trends in gender stereotypes. The cluster analysis based on the personal data according to Cattell’s 16 PF test for males who do the first year reveal seven cluster groups. Those groups include emotional, behavioural factors, and also group orientation of actor students.
Psychological research of career life is usually devoted to individual choice of a career and career development. With the introduction of the concept of “career satisfaction”, and the definition of its types, components and factors into the scientific sphere, it is now possible to study the psychological characteristics and patterns of career satisfaction.The objective of the research is to reveal the psychological characteristics of career satisfaction in adulthood.
The sample comprises 100 adults from 25 to 45 years of various jobs (teacher, shop assistant, commercial director, freight handler, psychologist, journalist, etc.). The research revealed that among the participants the average level of job satisfaction is observed (63 per cent). High level of job satisfaction is found in 7 per cent of the participants. Low and very low levels of job satisfaction is typical for 30 per cent of the participants.
The comparison of the results in groups with different levels of job satisfaction in reference with the level of personal self-actualization (harmonious, adaptive and inert/ irrational) determines its basic indicators and identifies factors that allow career satisfaction, including both career-based and emotional ones. There are no significant differences in the content of career satisfaction in males and females.
Significant differences were obtained within different age groups for personal barriers, internality and sociocentrism. The statistical analysis also shows that within “person-symbol” qualified employees indicators of activity, vigor, and internality are higher.