The paper provides a detailed definition and basic facts about the phenomenon of synaesthesia of natural development (developmental synaesthesia). On the basis of modern discovery and historical data of the research indicating selective synesthetic reactions and their definite advantage in some types of cognitive activity, there are theoretical foundations to research synesthesia efficiently along with private methods of researching sensory mechanisms and more complex representations of individual dynamics of properties and mechanisms of individual cognitive sphere with features of synaesthetic perception.
As a hypothesis the paper uses functional genetic paradigm which includes the notion of age sensitivity (N.S. Leites), interpretation of synaesthesia in studying individual properties (B.G. Ananiev) and the idea of system genesis abilities (V. D. Shadrikov).
Empirical studies presented the thesis that it is more rational to consider synaesthesia as a system property on a par with cognitive, creative and personal values. Thus, synaesthesia is interpreted as an isomorphic mechanism, but with varied content (“cognitive strategy”), which develops out of a specific deposit and manifests itself in super-early ontogeny as rudimentary object, the special ability of the elemental type (property of perception). On the individual (phenomenological) level, this property is shaped as an additional response of a homogenous sensory quality, consistent and categorical in perceived involuntarily accompanying phenomena: symbolic systems (language, music, etc.), symbolically organized phenomena of reality (time-calculation, etc.), and partially perceived physical systems (odors, etc.).
Keywords: synaesthesia of natural development;
structure of personality;
functional genetic approach;
Available Online: 30.09.2013
The paper presents the book “Island of Utopia: pedagogical and social engineering of postwar school” (M. Mayofis, P. Safronova, & I. Kukulina (Eds.) (2014) Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie) which is currently in press. This collective monograph is the result of a research project relevant School of Humanitarian Studies of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
The work is devoted to a particular period of history of education (1940s-1980s), but in scope, it inevitably goes beyond the period mentioned, forcing to think about what was happening in the Soviet education before this period after, i.e. in the post-Soviet education.
The author defines the genre of the book mentioned, as non-fiction pedagogy literature. Previously non-fiction pieces had no analogues among the historical and pedagogical works.
On the one hand, the genre of non-fiction involves precision, rejection of many myths rooted in human consciousness. On the other hand, it allows multiple interpretations. Therefore, the author notes that the text of the paper cannot be regarded as a professional review with a brief overview of the diverse collective heads of academic monographs. This is a reflection on the book that offers readers the opportunity to join a meaningful conversation, complete the piece with their own stories that clarify and specify the message of the book, and sometimes even disagree with the authors of the book.
The book is written by serious Russian and foreign authors. It enables a sober assessment of the Russian education system with all its ups and downs. The book convinces the reader that despite education being a sphere of activity is very dependent on the state of politics and ideology, it allows a certain breakthrough which results in emerging relatively autonomous pedagogical utopias.
A great number of pages devoted to the reform of education outside Russia show that the only correct solution accepted by absolutely all the players on the field of education (the state and the teachers, parents and their children) is found nowhere in the world.
Keywords: history of pedagogy;
the Soviet school;
education system in the USSR;
outstanding teachers of the past;
Available Online: 30.09.2013
The goal of this work is to justify the urgency of career choice at the present stage of societal development and also to show that in terms of social and cultural modernization of education based on the implementation of the major methodological approaches in the human science there raises the possibility of establishing an effective system of psychological support of career choice.
Analyzing the main content of the systematic, activity-based, dynamic, anthropocentric, and acmeological approaches in the context of the problem, the author defines their capabilities within the research of career choice. The need to integrate methodological approaches for the development of a unified scientific theory of career choice is emphasized. The result of this integration was the view of the author that the basic principles of modern theoretical approaches to anthropology are extremely focused on the concept of the “social situation of development” by L.S. Vygotsky.
The paper shows that the optimization of the social situation of development is the main vector of psychological support for of senior students in career choice. To identify specific directions of career choice the ideas of Russian psychologists of the social situationof development are analyzed and presented in the paper. The author as a main component of the content structure of the social situation of development highlights the psychological readiness for career choice, i.e. cognitive, behavioural, motivational, personal preparedness. Reference is made to the positive author’s experience of psychological preparedness for professional career choice of children in a particular social situation of development, e.g. orphans, adolescents with deviant behaviour, children who show giftedness.
The paper is devoted to empirical research of representations of Chinese students about the «typical Russian person» and the «typical Chinese person». The participants are Chinese students who take a four year term of studies in the Far Eastern Federal University.
To study the representations of Chinese students used the method of semantic differential, i.e. unipolar 64-bar graph semantic differential developed A.G. Shmelev to assess personal traits. The results were subjected to factor analysis procedures and calculation of semantic universals method by E.Yu. Artemieva and V.P. Serkin. Factor structures were compared with the content and structure of universals. Factor structure of representations of Chinese students about the «typical Russian person» and the «typical Chinese person» were interpreted, defined, and their common and specific features were identified. In this paper, a comparative analysis of structural and content characteristics of semantic universals, i.e. a «typical Russian person» and a «typical Chinese person», are identified.
The research reveals that the factor structure of the estimated features of a «typical Chinese person» and a «typical Russian person» are similar. The group of common factors is reconstructed: evaluation, tact, diplomacy; ease-of hypocrisy (pandering); attractiveness (beauty); activity; perseverance; volitional characteristics; intellectual performance. Summing up, Chinese students mainly used the same criteria for evaluating themselves and Russian people among whom they live and study.The overall view of Chinese students about Russians is positive. This proves their success of their adaptation in Russia. Despite the obvious difficulties Chinese students chose the Far Eastern Federal University for getting higher education and were quite successful to get with Russians, and generally adapt to the Russian culture. They have a positive attitude to Russian, which is a good prerequisite for further personal and working relationships, and also positive attitude to Russia.The results can be applied in the development of adaptation programs of foreign students in the Russian cultural environment and used in further research of semantic representations of expats in Russia.
The paper analyzes the problem of the image of the Russian North. The image of the North is quite popular in the Russian society and performs objective reality. This image is created by the combination of rational experience and artistic perception. Psychologist V.P. Zinchenko said that «picturesque consideration» is not a metaphor in causing the image of «visual thinking». The ratio of quantitative and qualitative characteristics and the artistic perception changes over time and is highly dependent on the worldview of the person or society who creates this image, its level of culture, ethnicity, etc. In recent years, the image of the Russian North has become increasingly popular with politicians, who are in search of Russian civilizational identity, with geographers, who develop the basis of the new understanding of the cultural outline, and also with social scientists, who strive to use it in order to reconstruct the historical memory of the Russian people that was significantly undermined in the post-perestroika period.
The possibilities of shaping the image of the Russian North using only objective geographical characteristics and also their synthesis with artistic perception are considered. The former approach is marked as lacking potential, although it prevails in the Russian geography. The history of shaping the image of the Russian North is traced. The examples the image of the Russian North in literature, painting, music are adduced.
Nowadays the development of the theory of the cultural outline, which originates in the early twentieth century and then forgotten for the ideological reasons, allows to re-connect the natural sciences and the humanities characteristics of the territory mentioned, which contributes to shaping the entire image of the Russian North. Being juxtaposed to the spiritual nihilism of modern technological culture, the image of the Russian North in the memory of the Russian people is deemed as a metaphysical “Island of Salvation” possessing moral healing power. Recognizing the distinguished image of the Russian North with the Russian people allows to consider it as virtual cultural heritage of Russia.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of surprise from the perspective of social psychology. Surprise is an emotion that occurs in response to an unexpected event. The components of surprise are as follows: (1) the trigger event of surprise, (2) the expression of surprise and (3) the emotional experience of surprise. Various approaches to the trigger event of surprise and criteria of its analysis are emphasized: the first criterion whether the trigger event is influenced by the probability of information or the activity of the subjects, and the second criterion is whether the event is included in the broader context. Paraverbal and facial expressions of surprise are described on a par with the environmental influence on the expression repertoire and intensity. The basic approaches to understanding the emotional experience of surprise are as follows: (1) descriptive approach, (2) psychosemantic approach, (3) discursive approach. Although surprise is mostly considered as a basic emotion, some researchers suggest that it plays an important role in social cognition of expectation-discrepant events. Models that explain the role of surprise in this process are as follows: (1) the attributional model of surprise developed by B. Weiner and colleagues according to which surprise is a consequence of the attribution to luck; (2) the process model of surprise developed by W. Meyer and colleagues in which surprise is included in the broader context of social cognition as a general emotional reaction to an unexpected event and the attribution and various processes of social cognition are considered as consequences of surprise. However, these models analyze surprise of isolated subject without considering the social interaction. The author defines the possibilities of analysis of surprise as a mechanism of assimilation and modification of social information stored in the prototypes, scripts and schemas.
The paper analyzes the relationship between adult siblings, their specificity and diversity, examples of relation typologies of adult siblings by American and Indian psychologists are adduced. The modern view of the attachment to the mother in adults and the conditions required for establishing close, trusting interpersonal relationships are briefly described. A succinct overview of modern foreign research in these fields of research is given. The national sample (N = 277) identified and described four types of relations between adult siblings: emotionally-positive (heart, harmonious) ones account 39 per cent of the sample; ambivalent (heart, conflictcompetitive ones account 32 per cent; debarred (not close, not conflict-competing) ones account 18 per cent; conflict (not close, competing conflict-up to hostile) ones account 11 per cent.
Comparison of the three typologies of adult sibling relationships (Russian, US and Indian). The intercouple comparison shows the reciprocity of sibling relationships in adulthood. The results of the empirical research reveal complex relationship features attachment to the mother with the nature of the relationship between siblings in adulthood. Thus there are adults with a reliable type of attachment to the mother with debarred or even conflicting relationships with older siblings, while adult sibling relationships are determined not totally emotional of the early relationship with the mother, and also depend on the sibling’s personality traits and personal history of relations. The influence of the attachment type to the mother is shaped in childhood and can be applied to the relationship between adult siblings.