Background. Plastic, expressive aspects of human behaviour remain underresearched by psychologists. The focus on practices of improvisation is determined by the fact that they show most vividly how expressive movement comes into being.
Objective. The aim of the study is to provide psychological analysis of improvised dance action, to identify the conditions of its generation. The hypothesis put forward concerns the formation of overall personal attitude that makes one ready to perform expressive movement in the context of musical-motional improvisation. It seems probable that the principles of movement organisation within free dance practices concern the formation of attitude that lets one perceive spontaneous, involuntary impulses to movement, changes of tonus and breath.
Design. The study is a piece of theoretic-psychological analysis of improvisation dance practice. In terms of methodological and theoretical basis the study relies on cultural-historical psychology and theory of action, as well as on N.A. Bernsteins conception of movement building. There theories allow to reconstruct the conditions of expressive movement generation in the context of musical-motional improvisation.
Results. The analysis performed has shown that the principles of movement organisation, the technical aspects of the practices studied are aimed at increasing the degree of freedom of movement. It allows to enhance the receptivity to spontaneous reactions and impulses and to widen the orientation within the context of musical-motional improvisation. It makes one move in a more meaningful way and to integrate the personality into improvisation.
Conclusions. Alongside with the practices of structured dances and reproductive approaches to mastering expressive movement, there are cultural-historical practices of improvisation dances. The analysis of such practices allows to single out psychological conditions and and peculiarities of movement organisation that make one generate spontaneous actions, find and try new objectives, plastic forms. Generation of spontaneous movement and musical-plastic improvisation are possible due to tuning up the whole human personality. Openness as personal attitude has its meaningful as well as motional component.
Background. The relevance of the study is determined by the limited and sometimes contradictory studies of the views of preschoolers about the elderly. Stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination against older people can manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the nature of the formation and the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known.
Objective. The aim of the study was to study the features of the image of an old person in a children’s sample, depending on the (in) ability to communicate with their grandparents. Research hypothesis: preschoolers with a lack of communication with the older generation will demonstrate a rather neutral image of an old person, and the presence of an emotional component will be expressed in the constructor of the image of children with a sufficient level of communication with their grandparents.
Design. The research involved 67 child-parent dyads: 67 preschoolers aged 5 to 6.8 years (56.7% girls and 43.3% boys); 67 parents (85.1% of mothers and 14.9% of fathers) aged 23 to 59. As research methods to study the representations (image) of an old person in the childrens sample, the projective method of the drawing test was used. “Directed associative experiment “ method and questioning were used in the parental sample. The questionnaire included questions aimed at studying the relationship of the grandparents with the child and the opinions of parents about the problem and (non) participation of grandparents in raising grandchildren.
Results. In the childrens sample, the image of an old person is rather stereotypically neutral, but at the same time has certain specific features. The importance of the quality of communication between a child and his grandparents was shown, which determines the emotional coloring of the perception of the forming image of old people and old age in general. For children who experienced “lack of communication” with their ancestors, the image of an old person is personalized with “strangers” or “nobody’s old men.” In the parental sample the presented associations demonstrate a view of the “negative and positive” image of an old person through the prism of (non) preservation of vital competence, functional well-being, and a dynamic health / illness system. A neutral image is represented by respondents as a variant of entering the new status of a retiree and grandparent. No mutual influence was found between parental and childish views.
Conclusions. A child of preschool age can demonstrate his own unique view of an old person, which is not at all identical to the views of his parents, those around him and social stereotypes. The experience of a constructive relationship between grandparents and grandchildren can serve as a reliable basis for constructing a positive image of an old person and old age in general by young children. The prospect of further research can be the study of the problem of psychological culture and the readiness of an elderly person to dialogue with a child; problems of organizing effective “combining old and small” programs, mutually enriching the dialogue of generations.
Background. Russia is the world leader in the number of women who are members of management bodies in top achievements sports. At the same time, the professional motivation of women engaged in boxing activities and its connection with psychological well-being have not yet been object of a special study. However, targeted management of staff motivation could help to increase their professional efficiency, satisfaction with their performance in the professional sphere and, as a result, achieve sustainable psychological well-being.
Objective. To study the peculiarities of professional motivation of women who are employees of the Russian Boxing Federation (RBF), and its connection with psychological well-being.
Design. The survey involved 39 women aged 23 to 59 who hold positions in the FBF. The tools used were: the Questionnaire of professional motivation by E. Desi and R. Ryan (adapted by Osin E., Ivanova T., and Gordeeva T), and the Questionnaire of psychological well-being by K. Riff (adapted and modified by L.V. Zhukovskaya and E.G. Troshikhina).
Results of the study made it possible to determine the attractiveness factors of activities in the FBF: the main ones are “interest in activities,” “opportunities for professional development”, and “team”. Internal professional motivation dominates, which is consistent with the data on the attractiveness of the activities performed in the RBF due to interest in it, the possibility of personal development, a sense of psychological well-being from the process and the results of activities. Positive correlation of autonomous professional motivation with psychological well-being has been established.
Conclusion. The data obtained made it possible to describe the peculiarities of professional motivation of women-employees of the Russian Boxing Federation and its connection with psychological well-being.
Background. In many countries frontline emergency workers of different specialties face the need to inform people of their relatives’ death and to support them during the acute period following the message. The need for psychological training in this area is evident. However, the research in this area is not only complicated in terms of logistics, but also hindered by a number of ethical difficulties.
The analysis presented in this paper has significant practical value and draws on the unique professional perspective of the EMERCOM emergency psychologists who provide psychological support to people experiencing loss in an acute period — relatives and loved ones of those who died in emergencies.
Objective. To give an outline of approaches to psychological support in cases of loss, of the factors influencing adaptation to a loss, and of the opportunities for early psychological interventions.
Design. The theoretical overview presents the analysis of foreign experience and main approaches to announcing the death of a relative. The following section describes and analyses the main approaches and practical experience of the EMERCOM psychologists. The conclusion outlines the possibilities of a systematic approach to providing emergency psychological aid in cases of loss.
Results. The study presents a list of characteristics of support providers, recipients and situations that need to be taken into account when choosing a strategy of work with people experiencing a recent loss.
Conclusion. The study allows to single out three main thematic blocks, the consideration of which is necessary when choosing a strategy for dealing with loss in an acute period. First, features of the situation; second, characteristics of the person experiencing loss; third, the characteristic of the support provider. The process of psychological support, as described in the paper, includes assessment and consideration of the objective characteristics of the situation, the recipient’s characteristics and response, and the characteristics of the specialist himself. The interpretation of relationship between these factors and their influence on the condition of the person who experiences a loss allows the psychologist to choose the most effective strategy for providing psychological support.
Background. The present state of COVID-19 pandemic has made the society face new challenges; it has created a number of crisis situations that regard both adults and children and that need prompt clinical-psychological solutions. Psychological data concerning children and adolescents in the pandemic context are notably few.
Objectives. The analysis of how different age strata react to the situation, with special attention to how children and adolescents react to the measures introduced to prevent further spread of COVID-19. Subsequent specification of directions in which clinical-psychological approach could help to develop the corresponding medical-sanitary discourses.
Results. It was found that whenever the population reacts and fulfils the corresponding recommendations in an inefficient way it can be explained by the fact that medical-sanitary discourse is not sufficiently elaborated in clinical-psychological terms. It is shown that there is a need for further analysis and development of constructive clinical-psychological approach to informing different age groups and for completing the existing medical-sanitary discourses on the basis of constructive clinical-psychological approach. The study singles out new system characteristics of a more productive medical-psychological approach to informing the public and influencing peoples behaviour in the present situation. Thus, it is shown that the informational-psychological characteristics of the discourse in question must be: exactness, credibility, systematic nature, teleological and behaviourial meaningfulness, as well as acceptability in terms of mental hygiene. It is extremely important to take into account that different age groups, such as children and adolescents, correspondingly, should be approached in different ways when informing them about the correct behaviour in the pandemic conditions. Apart from the mental hygiene issues, one should bear in mind the developmental aspects of construing information for children and adolescents. The clinical-psychological task here is to use the development of pandemic awareness in children and adolescents as an opportunity to create a new situation of psychic development, to form an impulse that not only could prevent them from developing a number of psychic disorders but could also favour their personality growth in the circumstances they find themselves in.
Conclusion. The study singled out the directions for developing a new constructive trend in clinical-psychological studies, namely, in child and adolescent clinical psychology.
Background. It is relevant to consider the possibilities and resources of the family in ensuring the proper development and correcting deficiency of a child with developmental disabilities. The analysis of interaction between an adult and a child as well as the definition of criteria and conditions of a child’s development, constitute theoretical basis for sustaining family resources, which is especially important for the early period of child development.
Objective: to describe the characteristics of interaction within the dyad “mother-early age child with developmental disabilities (resulting from neurological pathology)”, to construct a typology of interaction and to determine the conditions of developing interaction for young children.
Design. Sample: the dyad “mother-child of early age.” Comparison sample (n = 51): children with normotypic development (NT), the average age 24.8 months. The main sample (n = 54): children with neurological pathology (NP); neurological diagnoses: the consequences of early organic damage of the central nervous system and cerebral palsy, the average age 25.2 months. Research method: video observation of mother and child interaction in the process of joint activity with a set of toys. The data of the primary analysis of video materials in accordance with the authors scheme were subjected to secondary analysis (assessment of differences between groups, correlation and factor analysis).
Results. 4 types of interaction in the dyad “mother — early age child” are singled out. The types differ in the parameters such as: position of the mother in the interaction, level of dialogic interaction, content of the actions of mother and child and their influence on each other, creation of the zone of proximal development. The optimal type of interaction that is favourable for the development of the child is characterized by activity of both the mother and the child, the involvement and productivity of the child. The type that could be regarded as favourable with certain restrictions is the type called “child dominance”, in which the activity of the child prevails, but the activity of the mother is insufficient. The unfavourable types are “mother dominance”, characterised by the predominance of mother s activity, the obsessive-violent maternal position and the subordinate position of the child, and the parallel type, in which there is no joint activity of mother and child.
Conclusion. The study established the relationship between the mother s actions in relation to the child and his/her productivity and activity, characterised the optimal type of interaction, which creates conditions for the development of the child and the correction of its deficiency. The task for future research is to develop programs that could be used to optimise mother-child interaction in those cases when the implementation of developing interaction is not entirely successful; such programs need to take into account the particular type of interaction within the dyad.
Background. The success of coronavirus vaccination programs is largely determined by people’s willingness to be vaccinated following the official guidelines, which depends on perception of risk, concerns about safety and efficacy, and trust in the source of the recommendations.
Objective. To study the subjective readiness for vaccination against coronavirus and its relationship with pandemic anxiety, protective actions, and attitudes towards vaccination.
Design. At the end of 2020, 525 people aged 18 to 65 lled out the scales of anxiety and protective actions in the situation of pandemic, anxiety and cognitive beliefs about vaccination, and replied to the questions about their and their relatives’ coronavirus disease experience and their readiness for vaccination.
Results. 13.2–17.0% of respondents were ready to be vaccinated against coronavirus, 18.5% had a flu shot in 2020. Low readiness for vaccination was not due to refusal (24.6–30.6%), but to doubts and mistrust (59.0–60.4%) in the context of such dominant emotions as anxiety about the possible negative consequences of vaccination, fear of not receiving medical care and fear of infecting one’s family or friends. Concerns about the need for vaccination are related to suspicions that vaccination is for someone’s benefit and that there are other, better ways of prevention, rather than than to doubts about the effectiveness of vaccination or its importance for health. Having more friends who experienced coronavirus disease is associated with higher rates of pandemic anxiety. Severe or fatal cases of coronavirus illness among personal acquaintances is associated with pandemic anxiety and manifestations of over-monitoring signs of illness.
Conclusion. The results of the regression analysis suggest that the decision to get vaccinated in the nearest future is based both on cognitive confidence in the importance and effectiveness of vaccination and on less pronounced anxiety about risks and side effects. The readiness to refuse vaccination is mainly due to cognitive beliefs.
Introduction. The sphere of the unconscious includes many phenomena that have a strong influence on human behaviour and cognitive activity. Although the importance of taking into account the unconscious is evident to most psychotherapists, its role is visibly underestimated in neuropsychology. In this regard, the present state of research on brain organization of unconscious processes is of interest.
Objective. The review aims to describe the current state of research on brain mechanisms of the unconscious.
Procedure. The present paper describes a variety of unconscious phenomena. It also outlines widespread points of view on the correlation between consciousness and unconscious and discusses the freewill problem. The question posed is whether the research programme of neuropsychology allows studying the unconscious phenomena. The study analyses the subject matter of neuropsychology and discusses the historical change of A.R. Luria’s views on psychology of the unconscious. The paper describes the studies of brain mechanisms underlying a variety of unconscious manifestations that have been conducted within different psychological schools. The aim is to consider the essential principles of neuropsychological research of the unconscious.
Conclusion. In foreign neuroscience there are numerous studies in the field of brain mechanisms of unconscious processes. Up to now, the leading positions in the sphere are taken by neuropsychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. In Russian neuropsychology the unconscious is barely investigated because it does not comply with the traditional research object, that is, the higher mental functions. However, in the current conditions, the research programme of neuropsychology allows studying the unconscious. The paper highlights the advantages of investigating the unconscious phenomena from the neuropsychological standpoint considering its evolutionary purpose.
Background. Intercultural marriages are micro-level models of intercultural relations and can help to understand the changing society of the globalization era.
The objective. Revealing attitudes towards entry into intercultural marriage and factors influencing the choice of a foreign cultural marriage partner among Russians and Buryats in the Republic of Buryatia.
Design. The study was conducted in 2020 in the Republic of Buryatia using a socio-psychological survey on online platform. The convenience sample was used (the “snowball” method). The sample included representatives of 2 groups: Russians (N = 111) and Buryats (N = 102).
Results. The analysis showed that the attitude towards entry into intercultural marriage in these groups is above average, while no significant differences were found between the groups. The negative attitude towards intercultural marriages among Buryats to a greater extent than among Russians was determined by factors reflecting the acceptance of intercultural marriages by relatives, loved ones and society in general, which was more significant for the Buryats. Among the Russians, more than among the Buryats, negative attitudes were interconnected with factors reflecting personal characteristics of the future spouse (values, norms of behavior) and interpersonal communication. For both the Russians and the Buryats, negative attitude towards entering into intercultural marriages is associated with the importance of proximity of cooking traditions, naming, raising children and their identity, as well as religious beliefs.
Conclusion. The general favorable “Zeitgeist” in Buryatia towards intercultural marriages contributes to the tolerant attitude towards the creation of such married couples among both the Russians and the Buryats.
Background. The phenomenon of “happiness” is characterized by semantic indeterminacy and is mainly considered from the correlative viewpoint. The present study proceeds from the idea of relevance and potential of multimodal approach to the analysis of multilevel socio-psychological phenomena. With this perspective in mind, social representationsof happiness were researched with the use of visual analysis of photographs as one of the qualitative methodology tools. The second method of collecting empirical material consisted in semi-structured interviews.
Objective. The aim of the study was to describe social representationsof happiness. The procedure was as follows: the sample consisted of two groups of students from 21 to 24 years old. The groups were coordinated as to their composition and socio-economic status. At the first stage of the study test subjects were asked to make a photo report consisting of five to seven photos on the topic “happiness” within a month. The data were analyzed in the light of comprehensive strategy for interpreting visual data, including hermeneutical, semiotic, structural, and discursive analyses. The scheme of photo processing and examples of empirical material are presented below. At the second stage semi-structured interviews were conducted with another group of test subjects and subsequently analyzed in the framework of thematic approach. The data obtained by different research methods were compared and subject to analysis with respect to the potential and limitations of verbal and visual methodological approaches.
Results. The study revealed the core and periphery of social representationsof happiness, and the corresponding structure and content were presented graphically. The results obtained by qualitative analysis of the photo material reflected those factors in the content of social representationsof happiness that were considered insignificant in quantitative studies. The emotional variability of the concept under study was revealed due to its visual presentation.
Conclusion. The study design presented in the paper implies both the analysis of visual data and the interview method. It has proved effective for studying complex socio-psychological phenomena. Further research could be conducted in several directions: content analysis of the phenomenon under study for other age groups; variation of study design by using other verbal methods or approaches to discourse analysis; modifying the visual data interpretation strategy for studying other multimodal phenomena.
Background. In the present situation, which certain studies describe as a crisis in the system of research staff training and which is characterized by low number of postgraduate students filling up the staff of scientific institutions, it is extremely important to study the specifics of motivation and value sphere of postgraduate students’ personality.
Objective. Analysis of the socio-psychological characteristics that postgraduate students' values have.
Design. The study is based on a monitoring questionnaire survey of graduate students conducted in 2019 by employees of the RAO Information and the analytical center. The empirical data were processed using methods of mathematical statistics (statistical software packages SPSS and StatSoft Statistica).
The study involved students of postgraduate research bodies that train postgraduate students in the field of education sciences, as well as postgraduates of pedagogical universities situated in Moscow, St. Petersburg and in other regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 803 respondents were interviewed.
The study was aimed at assessing the hierarchy of life values in graduate students and the influence of socio-demographic factors, social stratification, and socio-psychological factors on the relevance of postgraduate students’ life values.
Results. The results of the study indicate that the leading positions in the structure of postgraduate students’ life values are occupied by basic values (“family”, “good health” and “material well-being”) and by the most relevant values associated with self-actualization. It is shown that the value orientations of postgraduate students are determined by the influence of a number of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, presence and composition of the family), social stratification (financial status, educational status of parents) and socio-psychological factors (having or not clear-cut future plans, emotional assessment of one’s prospects, having or not emigration plans) factors. The comparison of the opinions of postgraduates and research staff showed that postgraduates are more focused on values related to self-actualization, as well as on traditionalist values.
Conclusions. The core of postgraduate students’ life values structure if formed by the basic values and, in addition, the values related to self-actualization of individual. The value orientations of postgraduate students are determined by a number of socio-demographic factors, social stratification and socio-psychological factors. It was found out that at a certain age the structure of life values in postgraduate students changes significantly, in accordance with the aims of age development. It is shown that changes in graduate students’ family status make them reconsider the structure of life values. It is also noted that the restructuring of life values in graduate students, when if it proceeds in accordance with the values of natives in “Western” countries, contributes to the formation of emigration attitudes.
Background. The study of the psychological characteristics of social fears during the first wave of COVID-19 indicated that Russian citizens were massively in a state of fear. The persisting threat of a pandemic throughout the year, the inconsistency of managerial decisions in the absence of a coherent strategy to combat COVID-19, obviously create growing social tension in Russia, which is projected onto the psychological level of the state of modern society.
Objective. To identify the dynamics of social fears among Russian citizens during the first and second waves of COVID-19. Hypothesis: there is a tendency for the growth of social fears among Russian citizens during the second wave of COVID-19, while the media continues to form a depressive and depressing “picture of the world”.
Design. Psychodiagnostics was carried out remotely using Google forms. Sample size: 497 people. At the first stage (the first wave —March / April, 2020), 253 people were tested. At the second stage (second wave —October / November, 2020), 244 people passed testing, of which 150 took part in the periods of both the first and second waves, and 94 —only during the second wave. At the third stage, statistical analysis was carried out in order to identify the dynamics of social fears.
Results. From the moment COVID-19 began to the peak of the second wave, Russian citizens showed negative dynamics, characterized by: 1) an increase in the experience of social fears associated with failure and defeat, as well as rejection and suppression; 2) an increase in the imbalance of trust caused by the growth of trust in the world and others, as trustworthy sources of information about the current danger, against the background of a steadily reduced trust in oneself; 3) a decrease in optimism and faith in the future with an increase in the intensity of emotional stress, as well as a desire to delegate responsibility for the events of one's own life; 4) a general decrease in efficiency (based on the results of self-report).
Conclusion. The information broadcast by the media about COVID-19 has a systemic psychological impact through the demonstration of a pessimistic “picture of the world”, which, creating an aggressive information field literally enveloping the psyche, destroys its self-confidence, social ties and group cohesion, and also fills it social fears, increasing the sense of social deprivation. The intended consequences will send the psychological community to develop a predictive model for overcoming this situation. In our opinion, the main thing in the work with the consequences of the pandemic is psychological assistance, the basis of which should be the methods of correction of the cognitive-affective sphere of the individual —the return of self-confidence and the transformation of the “picture of the world” of the present and future into a positive one. Particular attention should be paid to increasing collective cohesion and setting group goals that outline the future positive “picture of the world” of Russian society.
Background. Successful management of the tasks that have to do with ensuring people’s security in all situational contexts is dependent on how people deal with dangers. One of the most important aspects here is one’s susceptibility, or sensitivity, to dangers.
Objective. A review of the existing research; summing up and highlighting the most relevant scientific publications in the field of danger sensitivity in the last 25-30 years.
Design. The theoretical model used to assess danger sensitivity was the system-dynamic one that views security as activity (Zinchenko, 2011), while danger sensitivity is viewed as mediating factor of the influence that external causes produce on the inner state of a person (Kharlamenkova, 2013). The factor in question is determined by the experience of finding discrepancy between the expectations and the actual circumstances (Jonas, 2014). This approach guided the choice and analysis of literature on the problem of danger sensitivity.
Results. The research was reviewed and grouped in accordance with the following aspects: 1) danger sensitivity as ability to detect signals of danger; 2) danger sensitivity and vigilance; 3) danger sensitivity and types of response in dangerous situations; 4) correlation between danger sensitivity, external and internal factors.
Conclusion. The study reviewed the discussion topics having to do with the role and meaning of danger sensitivity in the context of people’s perception of danger and of the possibility to form such a perception. The conclusion made within the present study regards the importance and actuality of further research in the field of danger sensitivity as something relevant to solving the psychological problems of providing security.
Background. The change in the paradigm of information-psychological confrontation caused changes in the content and architectonics of information-psychological impact, and determined the new trends in the forms of their practical use.
Identifying the features of information and psychological impact in the context of strategic communications will make it possible to ensure the information and psychological security of person and society in a more targeted way.
Objective. To identify the types, features and trends in the application of information-psychological impact in the context of the strategic communications paradigm.
Results. The study reveals the essence of strategic communications as a paradigm of information-psychological confrontation. It analyzes architectonics and content of the main types of information and psychological impact. The study also discusses the main trends in the development of methods and forms of information and psychological impact.
Conclusions. The context of strategic communications extends the understanding of information and psychological impacts. It is advisable to consider it as a deliberate dissemination (promotion, blocking and/or selection) of information, interaction and movement between participants in the communication process.
Strategic communications use impact methods related to “hard power” meta-strategies based on coercion and “soft power” using attraction technologies. The implementation of these meta-strategies is accompanied by trends reflecting the transition from influence on the military enemy to impact on civilians; from “hard” to “soft” methods of exposure; from monological forms (dissemination of information, influence) to dialogical forms (communication); from an open invasion of consciousness and human behavior to more hidden forms of influence; from tactical forms designed for immediate effect to strategic forms aimed at a distant outcome; from monotype forms of influence to diverse, difficult, complex ones.
To ensure the information-psychological security of the person and society, knowledge and consideration of the peculiarities of information and psychological impact are necessary within the framework of the current paradigm of information-psychological confrontation.
Background. Coronary artery disease (CHD) remains the most common disease and a common cause of death worldwide. In this regard, much attention is paid to preventive measures in relation to coronary heart disease. Providing high-quality and timely psychological rehabilitation as part of secondary prevention programs has the potential to improve the prognosis of patients with coronary disease. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the measures of psychological rehabilitation.
Objective: review and analysis of data from modern foreign and domestic studies on the psychological rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease (within the framework of complex cardiac rehabilitation).
Results. Despite the obvious, recognized by experts, benefits of rehabilitation programs, there is a problem of insufficient active participation of patients with coronary heart disease in such programs. Research is needed to identify factors and develop methods that improve patient motivation to participate in and complete rehabilitation activities. The main targets of psychological rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease include the correction of such psychological characteristics as: hostility, emotional tension, manifestations of depressive and anxious behavior, maladaptive personality traits. The importance of dealing with anxiety and depression is emphasized. According to scientific literature, the most effective and appropriate methods of psycho-correction in the system of psychological rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease are cognitive-behavioral methods, as well as the use of an integrative approach. It is important to develop and implement general organizational standards for psychological rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease, as well as the inclusion of positions of medical psychologists in the staffing of cardiological medical institutions.
Conclusions. Despite the use of modern methods of treatment and rehabilitation, the mortality rate from CHD remains high. Therefore, it is necessary to continue research aimed at optimizing treatment and rehabilitation measures with the expansion of the set of psychological rehabilitation.
Background (context). The individual characteristics of reptiles have been studied less than that of other classes of animals.One of the basic properties of their individuality, impulsivity, on which behavior and the solution of cognitive tasks in humans and animals significantly depend, has not been practically investigated.
Objective. To study manifestations of impulsivity in decision-making in visual recognition in three types of reptiles.
Design. In ten experiments, each of six individuals of three reptile species chose one of two paths in the task of distinguishing geometric shapes in mazes.The indicators of the percentage of erroneous choices and the average time for making choices were evaluated relative to the corresponding median values, similar to the study of a person's impulsivity when choosing among similar visual images in the Kagan test.
Results.Among the individuals of each species, four individual typological groups were distinguished: impulsive, slow –accurate, fast –accurate, and slow –inaccurate. This confirmed the authors' hypothesis based on their study of color recognition in common grass snakes. In slow –accurate and slow –inaccurate individuals, repeated turns to the stimuli being compared were observed before they made a decision, apparently reflecting the expanded analysis of visual information, unlike in most impulsive and fast-accurate individuals.
Conclusions. The four individual-typological groups identified in the three types of reptiles in the task of visual recognition are similar in terms of impulsivity to the known groups of people identified in a similar task. The differences in the behavioral reactions of individuals of the four typological groups of reptiles before making a decision correspond to the different psychological content of such a choice in these groups. Our results, which were obtained for reptiles for the first time, confirm the concept of impulsivity as one of the fundamental biologically determined characteristics of individuality, which is valid for other species of animals and humans. In the future it would be useful to find out: 1. Whether the following methods of studying impulsivity evaluate the same individual characteristic of animals: the well-known method of choosing the type of reinforcement and the auto method of choosing the path in the labyrinth with visual discrimination; 2. Do the assessments of impulsivity by these methods correlate with assessments of courage in reactions to a new object, territory and food? The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that knowledge of the individual characteristics of reptiles allows us to develop scientifically based recommendations for maintaining their well-being in zoos and nurseries.
Background. Neuropsychological diagnostics and rehabilitation are among the fundamental practical tasks facing a clinical psychologist. Today, rehabilitation goes beyond the usual framework in which it was 40–50 years ago. The course of the disease, stressful influences radically change the physical, psychological and social functioning of a person. It is the functioning of a person (and not the state of his functions) in new, often limiting living conditions that becomes an object in the modern rehabilitation system, which is a joint activity of the patient, his relatives and specialists of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation team.
Objective: analysis and generalization of the diagnostic and rehabilitation experience accumulated in neuropsychological rehabilitation;identification of quality criteria for neuropsychological diagnostics and rehabilitation of patients with memory impairments in case of brain damage, which should be followed by a practicing psychologist in the process of rehabilitation work.
Results. Based on the analysis of applied research and practical guidelines, the recommended diagnostic tools for detecting memory impairments are presentedand the main directions and effective methods of rehabilitation work in amnestic syndrome are highlighted. It is shown that different degrees of severity of a amnestic defect requires the choice of an appropriate direction of work in the process of neuropsychological rehabilitation: the formation of new mnestic means; the organization of “suggestive and reminiscent” environments and new strategies for behavior in this environment; general (non-specific) principles of restorative learning.
Conclusions. The presented material can serve as a “support” in the practical work of a clinical psychologist with patients with memory impairments and brain lesions.The text outlines the main directions of diagnostic and rehabilitation work which a practicing psychologist must be aware of.
Background. Currently, there is an increase in the popularity of the volunteer movement among young people. The motivational basis of volunteer activity plays an important role in the analysis of the level of volunteer involvement, readiness for constant participation in helping behavior.
Objective of the research: studying the characteristics of motivation among young people to participate in volunteering as well as analyzing the ideas about digital volunteering.
Design. The study involved 47 full-time studentsof Moscow colleges 18 to 23 years old (M = 20.1, SD = 2.3). We used a questionnaire for analyzing volunteering motivation(VFI). The questionnaire aimed at studying the volunteer activity of respondents and understanding the content of volunteer activity in different areas wasused as well as a diagnostic tool.
The VFI questionnaire was usedfor the first time in a Russian sample. The translation was done independently by three experts. Aftercoordinatingtheirversions, a reverse translation was made into the original language, followed by a comparison of the original version with the resulting double translation.
Results. The results obtained made it possible to identify 3 groups of motivational preferences in the field of volunteering for young people. The group of “active volunteers” is characterized by a high significance of most of the possible motives for helping behavior. The largest group in terms of number was the group of “pragmatists” volunteers focused on “volunteering as a career opportunity” and “volunteering as a source of development”. A group with a low level of understanding of possible options for volunteer activity was also identified – a group of “passive volunteers”. The nature of the relationship between real behavior and awareness of motivation can be two-way – on the one hand, the presence of motivation can stimulate participation in volunteering, and on the other hand, the experience of participation can help reflect the personal meaning of the process for oneself. The living experience of helping behavior determines the emphasis on “the absence of live direct interaction” as a lack of digital volunteering, especially among active volunteers and pragmatic volunteers. A certain inconsistency in ideas about the merits and limitations of digital volunteering was revealed – from assessing the capabilities of the digital form as broader, to assessing the space of self-realization in the distant online form as much narrower than in the offline form.
Conclusions. The priority types of motivation are highlighted. Volunteering allows you to realize value attitudes, and is also viewed as a source of competence development. At the same time, the use of volunteer activity as a way to protect and compensate for psychological experiences is the least in demand. The concept of digital volunteering is rather vague – general characteristics of the distant form of helping behavior are indicated with a pronounced low level of awareness of volunteer structures in the Internet.
Background Planning a professional career as an important step of professional self-determination at the stage of entering adulthood can be considered as the projection of a life path by a person in the conditions of the transitivity of modern society.
Objective: to identify the personal factors of building a professional career by students during the period of entering adulthood. Tasks: 1) identifying the types of building a professional career; 2) identifying the features of motivation for professional development depending on the type of professional career; 3) analysis of the relationship between the type of professional career and the status of professional identity; 4) study of the relationship between the time perspective and the type of professional career; 5) study of the connection between life-meaning orientations as an indicator of the meaningfulness of life and the type of professional career.
Design. The sample of the study consisted of 167 students enrolled in universities in Moscow and Penza, aged 17 to 22. We used the author’s methodology of the questionnaire “Life plans – family and professional careers” (FPC); the questionnaire of the time perspective by F. Zimbardo; D. Marcia method of determining the status of identity in the profession (modified by V.R. Orestova and O.A. Karabanova); methodology of life-meaning orientations (D.A. Leontiev).
Results. The following 4 types of professional careers that are different in the nature of their motivation have been identified: “the conscious construction of a professional career in the unity with the individual's life plans”; “focus on a professional career”; “uncertainty of a professional career” and “uncertainty of professional choice”. It is shown that the type of professional career is associated with the status of a person's professional identity. The status of the achieved identity is consistent with the conscious construction of a professional career; the status of a pre-decision is consistent with a focus on a professional career; a moratorium is consistent with uncertainty in professional choice. It was found that high indicators of the meaningfulness of life are characteristic of the conscious building of a professional career and a focus on a career. The time perspective of the respondents who belong to the type of conscious construction of a professional career is distinguished by a more positive perception of the past and an aspiration to the future.
Conclusions. The relationship between the type of professional career and the status of identity is that the status of achieved identity corresponds to a mature type of professional career; pre-decision corresponds to the focus on a professional career, and a moratorium corresponds to uncertainty in professional choice. The type of professional career as a project of a life path determines the way a person reflects on the meaningfulness of life.
Background. Distorted development as a variety of psychological dysontogenesis (autism spectrum disorder, among others) can combine elements of general underdevelopment, delayed, damaged and accelerated development of single psychic functions, which brings in considerable difficulties in organizing the study of cognitive and personal features in such children and imposes a number of restrictions on the researcher. Thus the specific kind of personal sphere organization in children with the distorted type of psychological dysontogenesis with its multiple manifestations still remains a subject not yet studied in depth.
Objective. Characterizing the specific features of self-image content in primary school aged children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and preserved intelligence in comparison with their coevals who develop normally. Hypotheses put forward:
Design. The study, which is of the comparative-descriptive nature, was focused on the state of self-image components in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disabilities, on the one hand, and their normally developing peers, on the other hand. The experimental group included 14 boys aged 8 to 11 who have ASD without intellectual disabilities. The control group included 14 boys aged 8 to 11. The methods applied were: conversation, observation, “Sally and Anne” false belief test (Simon Baron-Cohen, Alan M. Leslie, and Uta Frith), “Age-gender identification” method developed by N.L. Belopolskaya and modified by T.I. Kuzmina, “Drawing a human” (with subsequent interpretation according to E.V. Svistunova’s table), “Who am I?” method by Manford H. Kuhn and Thomas S. McPartland in T.V. Rumyantseva’s modified version, “Complete the sentence” method by T.I. Kuzmina (modified version of Sachs–Levi’s “Unfinished sentences” method).
Results. Statistically relevantdifference between the two groups, the experimental and the control one, was found in the state of the following identity components: perspective I, physical I. The relevance of the difference in the communicative I is not certain. Children with autismspectrumdisordershow a variety of manifestations of distorted self-concept formation. Those children whose mental structure has not developed correctly have difficulties in the formation of the perspective I, fragmentary or absent conceptions of themselves in future; they are unable to imagine their social and age group role in the remote future, in contrast to the children with ASD who have an intact mental structure. Children with intact manifestations of internal representations show an ambivalent self-relation: their reflexive I embraces both positive and negative esteems connected to the attempts at assessing their estrangement and differences from the others, especially if their parents are reluctant to reveal their diagnosis and give the reasons for their children’s problems.
Conclusions. Theresults obtained within the present study allow to take a broader view of autism as a distorted variant of psychological dysontogenesis. They also show the necessity of further variative studies that could assess the specific character of such children’s personality structure with respect to gender specificity, as well as the necessity to establish the basis for differentiated organization of person-oriented interaction with the children in question within psycho-correctional, pedagogical and educative contexts.
Background. Categorization is one of the cognitive processes that ensure objects definition based on selected key features. Studying the aspects of categorization of bodily sensations allows to investigate the making sense of bodily sensations which seems promising in the context of exploring pathological bodily sensations.
Objective: to study the aspects of categorization in psychodermatological disorders.
Design. The study involved 113 patients with mental disorders with complaints of pathological bodily sensations (63 patients with psychodermatological disorders: delusional infestation (n = 33), neurotic excoriation (n = 30); 50 patients with depression with somatic symptoms). There were used the “Short Health Anxiety Inventory” and the psychosemantic method “Choice of descriptors of intraceptive sensations” with instructions: to choose bodily sensations of the healthy state, to classify sensations according to their similarity.
Results. In psychodermatological disorders, health anxiety was lower in comparison to depression with somatic symptoms. The analysis of bodily sensations categorization of the healthy state revealed a significantly smaller descriptors number from classes of general somatic sensations, dynamics sensations, exteroceptive sensations and pleasant bodily sensations in psychodermatological disorders. In bodily sensations classification two general categories of bodily experience were distinguished: bodily sensations associated with the illness experience and bodily sensations of habitual functioning.
Conclusion. Although there were the differences in health-anxiety and specificity of clinical manifestations in patients with mental disorders with complaints of pathological bodily sensations, the comparability of categorical structures of bodily experience was described, which manifested itself in features of general categories of bodily experience in psychodermatological disorders and depression with somatic symptoms.