Introduction. Interest in the issues of spirituality, moral background is objectively determined by the transformations in all spheres of life and human activity in recent decades, including fundamental changes in the value-based system.
The Objective is to describe an experimental program of studying the level of spiritual and moral education in children of preschool age. Based on the analysis of the data and considering the spirituality and morality in children as a complicated integrative education, we identify intellectual, cognitive, value-based, motivational and behavioural components. The main hypothesis of the study is the assumption of the dependence of the spiritual and moral level on the determined systematic work of the spiritual and moral potential of the person, their culture and valued at each age stage. The basic levels of ontogenesis are emphasized.
Procedure. The first stage of the research included analysis of the works in the field of «spirituality» and «morality», which allowed us to determine the specific features of spiritual and moral education of the 5-year-old children and to design a program of experimental study. The second stage was based on the comprehensive program of experimental research, i.e. a system of test methods aimed at studying the selected components of the spiritual and moral education. The population consisted of 90 five-year-old children.
Findings. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the experimental data obtained at the third stage of our study showed that a high level of spiritual and moral education is recorded only in 21% of the respondents. The majority of respondents (57%) scored the average level of spiritual and moral education. 22% of the respondents score a low level of spiritual and moral education.
Conclusion. The study showed that less than one third of the respondents demonstrated a high level of spiritual and moral education. The majority of preschool children did not know about the spiritual and moral norms of social behaviour, and also they lacked regular rules of behaviour, which suggests that the majority of the research participants did not correspond to age-related opportunities and require targeted psychological and pedagogical assistance.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
Background. Studying students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of the teaching and upbringing process is important in connection with the modernization of school education. Their attitude to these issues characterizes the social psychological context that determines the role of school in cultural and value-based education of adolescents.
The Objective of the research is to determine the differences between the students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education in relation to the three areas of analysis: between students and teachers, between members of schools types (general education, in-depth study of particular subjects, gymnasium and lyceum), between generations of teachers and students as of 1991 and 2017.
Design. The paper presents the results of survey questionnaire conducted by the Centre for Sociology of Education, IEM RAE, Moscow, Russia, in 2017. The sample included 11 803 students of 7-11 grades and 4 999 school teachers. The data are further compared with the results of the survey 1 conducted in 1991 (sample included 162 students and 681 teachers). Questions concerning goal orientations of school education are considered at two levels: pragmatic ("What should school give to students?") and value-based ("Who should schools prepare their students for?").
Research Results. At the pragmatic level, students attach greater importance to the issues of professional identity, whereas teachers regard the traditional functions of education. At the value-based level for students, the individualistic attitudes are more typical, whereas teachers place a greater value on socially regular patterns. Members of the gymnasia and lyceums more often note the importance of the cultural development as well as communication and interaction between students. Unlike gymnasia and lyceums, general education schools put a greater emphasis on normal behaviour and participation in public life. The admission requirements have increased for socializing functions and training, and also the individualistic attitudes in modern education compared with 1991 have been in the focus of attention. Simultaneously, the importance of creative activity is decreasing and education is aimed at supporting social institution. Factor analysis has revealed three meaningful juxtapositions in relation to which the goals of school education are structured: "norm – self-actualisation", "convention – principle", "romantic approach – pragmatic approach".
Conclusion. This research reveals particular goals and purposes for modern school education in students’ and teachers’ minds that allows them to improve the educational process.
Background. Sports activities set high demands on the personal qualities and abilities of athletes, which increases their emotional tension, and negatively affects their self-esteem, self-confidence and motivation. Studying manifestations of the personal emotional sphere of athletes allows choosing effective methods of psychological work to adjust their competitive states up to an optimal level.
The Objective of the research is to learn the specific features of the personal emotional sphere as a regulator of the functional state in young athletes.
Design. The paper analyzes the manifestations of personal emotional sphere of females aged 11-13 years involved in rhythmic gymnastics (N = 20). The results of the relationship and the ratio of the athletes’ personal parameters are presented.
Research Results. A direct significant relationship (p = 0.01) of the anxiety level in athletes with neuroticism, irritability, suspiciousness and sensitivity is revealed. A positive significant relationship (p = 0.01) of guilt and aggressiveness expressed mainly indirectly is established. The obtained features of the relationship of the studied characteristics of young athletes are generally consistent with the results of similar studies performed by other specialists.
Conclusion. The results can be viewed as manifestations of the adaptation mechanisms of young gymnasts in the tense conditions of sports activities, as well as fear of disapproval from a significant circle of people. The revealed emotional-personal characteristics of young sportswomen are probably due to psycho-physiological changes associated with adolescence and the specifics of sports activities. The results of the study generally raise additional questions and allow us to outline areas for further research on the problem under discussion. It is important to study the influence of the emotional state in athletes on the ability to fully recover from intensive physical burnout and follow sleep and rest schedule.
Introduction. The relevance of the subject is primarily due to the high frequency of anxiety disorders in the population. According to various schools of psychology and psychotherapy, the motivation of the patient, their deep-seated attitudes and values play a significant role in the emergence and development of anxiety disorders. But nowadays there is a lack of empirical studies that consider achievement motivation and perfectionism in connection with anxiety disorders.
Objective. On the one hand, the study is focused on the relationship between the direction and the achievement motivation in motivational conflicts, and on the other hand, the authors illicit the general level and structural characteristics of perfectionism in people with anxiety disorders.
Procedure. The study involved 21 patients with anxiety disorders undergoing inpatient treatment at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia, and 20 healthy subjects. In order to measure achievement motivation, the authors used TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) modified by H. Heckhausen (Heckhausen, 1963, 1967; Magomed-Eminov, 1987). In order to identify the degree of manifestation and features of the structure of perfectionism, the Kholmogorova-Garanyan perfectionism questionnaire (Garanyan, Yudeeva, 2008, 2009) and the Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional scale of perfectionism were used (Hewitt, Flett, 1998; Gracheva, 2006). An intergroup comparison was performed in terms of the severity of the characteristics assessed, and also a correlation study of the perfectionism and motivation indicators was conducted in each group.
Results. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with anxiety disorders show a higher level of general perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as reduced achievement motivation. They revealed a greater discrepancy between the motives for achieving success and avoiding failure, which suggests that their activity is directed to the motive of avoidance than to the motive of achievement. The overall level of perfectionism in both groups negatively correlates with the severity of the achievement motive, however, in healthy people, perfectionism is associated with the hope of success, and in patients with anxiety disorders it is associated with the fear of failure.
Conclusion. The results can be used in psychotherapeutic practice treating patients with anxiety disorders. The study gives way for further research on patients with anxiety disorders, depressed patients, etc.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
Background. Individuals who aim at changing their health behaviour do not always handle the issue immediately. This discrepancy is usually referred to as the intention behaviour gap. Implicit processes are one of the factors which mediate between intention and behaviour. Compared to cognitive and affective implicit processes, motivational implicit processes are given a very little account in the modern science. Currently it is not quite clear how implicit and explicit values are focused on within the health-related decision-making process.
Objective. The present study shows how implicit and explicit values and their congruency are focused on health-related decision-making process in dilemmas. The dilemmas were described as situations within which the subjects report on making a choice: either to avoid losses related to health, or to avoid losses related to other values. Choosing health, the participant avoids losses related to it, whereas they acquire losses related to other values, and vice versa.
Design. The participants participated in the Schwartz’s Value Survey (measuring explicit values), Implicit Association Tests (measuring implicit values) and solve three types of dilemmas (health vs benevolence, health vs self-direction, health vs achievement).
Research Results. The research shows that implicit and explicit values are not related to each other and are differently related to decision-making process in dilemmas. Namely, implicit values of achievement, benevolence and self-direction are related to decision-making in dilemmas with low potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Explicit values are related to decision-making process in dilemmas with high potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Finally, it was found that high correlation between explicit and implicit values is positively related to decision making in favor of health.
Conclusion. The research shows that explicit and implicit values are differently associated with health-related decision-making in the participants.
Introduction. The massacres in schools and colleges committed by their students are initially associated with the United States, but in recent decades the phenomenon has spread to other countries including Russia. Such tragedies affecting children and adolescents are of particular interest to politicians, general public and professionals.
The Objective of this research is to summarize the foreign literature accounts of the phenomenon of mass school murders, the structure of this phenomenon, the stages of its development and factors that cause it.
Procedure. Research methodology included search and generalization of conclusions from scientific and applied publications on the issue. The search was carried out using bibliographic systems and scientific networks Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, Academia.edu, Mendeley. He author selected 55 scientific publications on specific cases and meta-analysis of data aimed at addressing socio-psychological factors of school shootings and prevention.
Findings. The main methodological approaches to the analysis of school shootings are described, the theories offering a systematic understanding of this phenomenon are presented, the stages of both social and personal predictors of school shootings are defined.
Conclusion. The analysis of the literature allows interpreting massacres in schools as an independent phenomenon, to reconstruct the events, to determine the main mechanisms and development stages, to offer effective ways to detect and prevent threats.
Background. The main problem the world faces today is the crisis of personal identity. It began with the events of the year 1968 that is considered to be the starting point for the postmodernist worldview and resulted in significant social cultural consequences.
The Objective of the paper is to discuss these consequences, to analyse how the ideas of pluralism, tolerance and the maximum actualisation of personal freedom that lie in the basis of the postmodern society cause radicalism, fanaticism and hypocrisy.
Design. The author examines socially disintegrating and disadaptation-related tectonic societal processes associated with the breakdown of customary values and attitudes, state forms, emergence of radical communities and migration issues, whose consequences are frighteningly unpredictable. It shows that the phenomenon of “escape from freedom” described by E. Fromm was embodied in the rudimentary forms of hyperidentity arising in the technological and information society.
Conclusion. Postmodernism today is becoming a mirror of the permanent crisis, either economic, political, intercultural, inter-ethnic, interconfessional, intergenerational ones. The result of the hopes of the year 1968 was a maladapted post-normal society that lost its ability to invent meanings and constructive models of self-identity further replaced by rigid and rudimentary forms of identity.
Background. In the context of mass communication research a special value is placed on the discussion of the connection between using various means of mass communication and their particular features. One of the important personal characteristics is the sociometric status of a person in a group.
The Objective of the empirical research presented in the paper is to reveal whether there is a connection between leisure media consumption and the sociometric status of a person in small groups. If the assumption about the unified nature of communication processes in interpersonal and mass communication is deemed as the initial theoretical premise, it is reasonably assumed that sociometric characteristics of a person should correlate with the parameters of his address to the means of mass communication.
Design. The study involved 110 people aged 25 to 28 years old, employed with 10 departments of two companies. According to the results of a special questionnaire used together with a sociometric questionnaire, media consumption parameters are determined: preference of media channels (print media, radio, television, the Internet)), intensity of access to these media channels, functional orientations (e.g. information, entertainment, cultural and educational). Based on the data obtained, special indices are calculated: sociometric status index; four indices of media channels preferences (print media, radio, television, the Internet); four intensity indices of media consumption (reading print media, radio listening, television watching, using the Internet); three indexes of functional orientation (index of information function, index of entertainment function, index of cultural and educational function).
Research Results. Popular respondents choose the print media much more often than others, while the unpopular ones choose television; more popular respondents use do print media and radio much more intensively, while unpopular respondents used television; with respect to the Internet, no significant differences were found; popular respondents are much more focused on cultural, educational and informational functions, and unpopular ones are focused on entertainment. For the sociometric status index, the following findings are true: strong direct relationship with the radio consumption index (R = 0.713) and with the print media consumption index (R = 0.693); mean value of television consumption index (R = -0.541); mean value of the Internet consumption index (R = 0.471).
Conclusion. The obtained results correlate quite well with the results of the research conducted in the 1980s, although they were obtained in other socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions, as well as in a different social group. This proves the existence of a connection between sociometric status and media preferences, not only in high school students, but also in young adults. Hence it is logical to assume that such kind of connections should be observed in other social groups. At the theoretical level, there is an issue of developing an explanatory socio-psychological model that would organically link the interpersonal communication and mass communication patterns.
preference for media channels;
functional orientations for media consumption;
popular members of the group;
unpopular members of the group;
Available Online: 30.12.2018
Introduction. In the context of the intensification of intercultural interaction as a key component of the global development of modern society, the understanding of personal characteristics that ensure success in intercultural communication is particular importance. Looking for the solution to this issue, American Professor Christopher Early and Professor Soon Ang, Singapore University of Technology, proposed the concept of cultural intelligence, defined as the ability to function and interact effectively across cultures. This concept has been recognized in foreign studies, but so far poorly covered in the Russian psychological science.
Objective: Analyzing the concept of cultural intelligence and selecting the main trends of the empirical research.
Procedure. The paper analyzes the theoretical background of the concept of cultural intelligence, provides an overview of empirical studies of cultural intelligence and other phenomena of intercultural interaction, examines the main methodological tools for studying cultural intelligence.
Findings. The key areas of empirical research on cultural intelligence over the past 15 years are highlighted, the main methods for measuring cultural intelligence are presented, and further research perspectives are proposed.
Conclusion. The concept of cultural intelligence that appears across modern theories of intelligence by H. Gardner and R. Sternberg is extremely relevant to the modern world of global processes in the context of “culture and intelligence” issues. Cultural intelligence is very effective in a specific context, e.g. intercultural relations, the importance of which increases across cultures. Cultural intelligence is studied on a par with other types of intelligence, and also personality traits (Big Five personality traits). This concept has received particular popularity in the research field of organizational and management psychology. Nevertheless, there are a number of significant phenomena of intercultural communication, including ethnic identity, which offers new research points in relationship with cultural intelligence.
Available Online: 30.12.2018
Background. Psychological characteristics of gamers (video games players) is an extremely relevant field of research today, because prevalence of gaming is wide and growing, covering all current generations (Avetisova, 2011; Bogacheva, Voiskunsky, 2014; Snodgrass et al., 2017).
Objective. The study reveals the explicit real-life motives in online gamers and the reasons why they choose certain leisure compared to other passtimes.
Design. The sample includes 10,916 Russian-speaking gamers from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other CIS countries. The main explicit motives in the real-life gamers are considered: motives of cognition and motives of achievements. The discriminant analysis method identified and described three groups of players: with motives of cognition and motives of achievements of a rational type, motives of cognition and motives of achievements of an indefinite type. A comparison was made between male gamers and male non-gamers according to the degree of explicit motives. High mean on the Likert scale are observed in non-gamers within motives associated with communication and interaction with other people (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01) and in motives aimed at perception of beauty, significance and grandeur (Wilcoxon test, p≤0,001). The gamers have a higher assessment of situations related to the clarity of the tasks, and perform significantly less interest in situations within which they can influence something (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01).
Research Results. A scale for assessing real-life motives is designed to estimate the empirically identified motives in gamers on multiple choice scales and then on a five-point Likert scale. There are three groups of gamers with different types of motivation have been identified and described, a comparison of the severity of these motives in male gamers and male non-gamers has been made.
Conclusion. Cognitive motives and motives of achievement for male gamers and male non-gamers were expressed in equally high figures, which may be due to the universality and significance of the values of knowledge and achievements in modern society. Perhaps computer games are the most available leisure to gamers that satisfy their needs for cognition and achievement. A further task is set to test these assumptions using other methods (for example, in-depth interviews).
Introduction Informational socializing of modern adolescents influences the form of communication as the main source of development and self-determination as the major developmental factor in adolescence. The investigation of links between personal features and moral values and Internet involvement allows defining the problem of correlations between personal and cognitive component of development and prevent cyberbulling and communication on-line risks.
The Objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between basic attitude and moral values of adolescents and the productivity of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that adolescents with a positive attitude to the mediated world and a high level of moral values reveal greater productivity of cognitive methods of processing social information obtained on the Internet. One of the goals of the research was to identify the relationship between basic beliefs and the Internet addiction in adolescents.
Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: 1. Basic Belief Scale by R. Yanoff-Bulman (Kalmykova, Padun, 2002); 2. Methods of diagnosing moral values "Fair-Care" (S. Molchanov, A. Podolsky); 3) the author's method of cognitive assessment of social information on the Internet, based on the Crick and Dodge model (Crick, Dodge, 1994); 4. Method of diagnosing Internet-dependent behavior by S.H.Chen. The population aged 13 to 18 years accounted 175 adolescents (49% males and (51% females).
Results. Three groups of adolescents were different in the nature of basic assumptions and the level of development of moral values optimists, pessimists, and ego-centered pessimists, and Internet addicted. Comparative analysis of the cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet, as well as signs of Internet addiction was carried out.
Conclusions: The hypothesis that positive attitude to the mediated world and belief that they control life, a high level of moral values associated with more productive cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet has received confirmation. A group of adolescents identified as “pessimists” (perception of the world as hostile, negative image of themselves, lack of confidence in the world and success, low level of moral values) reveal signs of Internet addiction in behaviour.
Available Online: 30.12.2018
Background. The paper deals with understanding success in terms of generation value gap, transitivity and high social uncertainty as a component of self-determination of an individual acquires particular relevance, determining the vector of a person’s personal development.
The Objective of this research is to study the ideas of modern adolescents about success linked with self-esteem and assessment of their own success in significant spheres of life, i.e. education career and interpersonal relations. The study is based on the assumption that the notions of success as self-development will be associated with a higher level of self-esteem and assessment of success in adolescents.
Design. The study involved 500 adolescents (291 girls and 209 young men), students of the 10th and 11th grades of schools and gymnasiums (average age 16 years), Moscow, Russia. To study the ideas of adolescents about success, Adolescent Representations of Success (ARS) questionnaire was developed. To study the self-esteem of adolescents, the method of Dembo-Rubinstein was used in the modification A.M. Prihozhan, as well as a purposefully designed questionnaire to study indirect evaluation of success.
Results Three models of success that characterize the attitude of adolescents to the success are identified: success as social recognition, success as fulfillment of external social requirements, and success as self-development and self-actualization. The differences in the self-esteem of adolescents with different ideas about success are revealed.
Conclusion. The research confirmed the hypothesis and showed that varying perception of success in adolescents is closely related to self-esteem and evaluation of their own success. Understanding success as self-development and self-actualization is associated with a higher level of self-esteem and assessment of own success which promotes psychological well-being in general. Adolescents who share a model of success as fulfillment of external social requirements associate success with achieving goals with overcoming obstacles and satisfaction with results and place value on luck. For adolescents who are focused on the model of success as social recognition it is typical to place value on their personal authority among the peers, thus having high assessment rates of their success as a whole.
Background. The necessity of youth policy development is caused by negative social tendencies not only in Russia but all over the world. Control of social behavior may be one of the guidelines in its development and determining problem areas.
Objective. The objective of the paper is to study social representations about «the contemporary hero» in students of the psychology and teacher-training specialty. The main issue of the research is the difference of social representations about «the contemporary hero» in students of different specialties and different values.
Design. The methods include the author's questionnaire for revealing social representations that consists of incomplete sentences, open and associated questions, and also the technique for identifying Schwartz’s values. The sample consists of 96 students representing 4 careers (physical training, psychology, defectology, elementary education).
Research Results. The results of the study show that within the given groups insignificant statistical distinctions on values are revealed. However, character and discrepancy of values are different within the 4 groups under consideration. In the groups with inconsistent structure of values social representations are also inconsistent: the students have no example for identity, they cannot identify names of particular persons to the hero image, definition of the hero and the specified persons do not coincide. In contrast, within the group of harmonious structure of values specified persons, exemplary models for imitation coincide with that definition of “the contemporary hero”. The most harmonious structure of values and less inconsistent social representations about «the contemporary hero» are revealed in Physical Training students, whose most inconsistent values and social representations are revealed in the group of Psychology students.
Conclusion. Stereotypical interiorized social representations about “«the contemporary hero” are dominant in the student, which does not allow them to transfer that image to the future subordinates. The major part of the students do not see examples for imitation and for identification among celebrities. Researches on a more vast sample will allow to specify the data to develop recommendations for updating the youth policy in this field.
Background. The paper describes the results of the experimental study of working memory in early schoolchildren and adolescents. The capacity of working memory develops through preadolescence to adolescence, while the developmental changes of representations of serial order are not clear enough so far.
Objective. The accuracy of delayed reproduction of movements (the open polygonal chains, trajectories) reveals. The sample included 32 early schoolchildren (mean age 10.4±0.75 years old) and 25 adolescents (mean age 14.6±0.3 years old). The subjects reproduced trajectories of different length (from 4 to 6 elements) using the graphical tablet. Another factor in the experiment carried out was a mode of stimulus presentation: the trajectories in were presented either as a static line-drawing (static mode) or a small moving pointer (dynamic mode).
Design. The errors of reproduction in two age groups and in different conditions were analyzed. We distinguished three types of errors: (1) severe distortions which are caused by inability to keep the sequence in working memory; (2) insertions or omissions of elements of the trajectory which are related to the problems of encoding the visual spatial information in the motor representation; (3) distortions of proportions of the trajectories, which are related with visual-motor coordination during motor reproduction of the sequences.
Research results showed that in adolescence the accuracy of delayed reproduction is better than in early ages. The most obvious difference in accuracy between the groups of early schoolchildren and adolescents were observed in dynamic mode. The analysis of different types of errors revealed that adolescents less often make insertions and omissions of elements. It may be caused by development of executive functions in adolescents.
Conclusion. The study showed that the capacity of working memory increases in adolescents. In addition, the precision of the representation of serial information are higher in adolescents in the more complicated dynamic mode.
Background. Classical psychology has considered forgetting as a negative process of failure of memorization and extraction, but did not deem it a separate mental process with specific features. The pioneer studies of intentional forgetting were conducted only in the late 1960s. Therefore, it seems to us relevant to present an analysis of the research methods that have been used to study purposeful forgetting.
The Objective is to analyze thoroughly intentional forgetting in modern cognitive psychology and to justify the assumption that the productive development of intentional forgetting issues should be associated with the priority attention to the regulating function of the mnemonic goal and its structure. A hypothesis lies in the fact that a particular operation of the mnemonic action of forgetting consists in disconnecting the content links between the constituent mnemonic elements made during memorizing process.
Design. Two of the most common experimental procedures for inducing the effect of reducing the reproduction of stimulus material after the "Forget" instruction are described: the item method and the list method. The results show four ways of interpreting the intentional forgetting effect: the aspirations of the subjects to meet the experimenter's expectations, selective encoding and selective processing of the material presented, the mechanism of active "retrieval inhibition" and eliminating the mnemonic trace. The concept of mnemonic action introduced in the works of P.I. Zinchenko and the concept of the mnemonic scheme as a program for the subsequent reproduction of V.Ya. Lyaudis are considered.
The Research Results suggest that when trying to perform an inadequate mnemonic query, the subject is forced to implement an additional operation, which may be attributed to potential forgetting operations. The development of this hypothesis consists in the theoretical description of operations that destroy the existing mnemonic scheme, followed by an empirical test of their amnesogenic effectiveness. Such an approach can be used in further studies of intentional forgetting.
Conclusion. Encoding and processing of mnemonic material, extraction, and the mechanism for inhibited reproduction play a role in shaping the effect of intentional forgetting. Considering the fact that the mnemonic trace can fade over time or for other reasons, forgetting is deemed as a multifaceted process. Prospects for the development of this subject area should be conducted using the mnemonic construct.
Background. The question about nature and essence of psyche and psychical form of reflection till now is opened in spite of effort of many scientists. As a result the problem of scientific definition of psyche and its nature is being one of the most fundamental problems in psychology.
The Objective of the research is to show: a) where the complexity of solving the problem of psyche lies; b) what logic options of solving this problem that are offered in national psychology, particularly in the works of А.N. Leontev and N.I. Chuprikova, can be adduced and why they are insolvent; c) how it is possible to solve the problem of psyche and mental form of reflection using the major concepts of the reflection theory and adequacy concept of behaviour in constantly changing conditions of reality.
Design. The term “psyche” as a theoretical concept is introduced to explain the ability of living organism (opposed to lifeless) to react to external impact by various activity. Critical analysis of natural-scientific definitions of psyche in the works of А. N. Leontiev and N.I. Chuprikova is presented.
Their discrepancy and insufficient scientific background are shown. Main assumptions of the reflection theory are coined, and further definitions of non-mental forms of reflection (e.g. biochemical, physiological, neurophysiological) and also essence of psyche and specific features of psychical forms of reflection are shown. The paper presents a model that reverberates the author’s idea about the dynamics of the evolving psyche and mental processes (e.g. cognitive, emotional, volitionary) due to which mental forms of reflection and of behaviour regulation are fulfilled.
Results. The analysis of natural-scientific definitions of psyche and mental form of reflection that the national psychology dwells upon show their inconsistency and scientific insolvency. The author's version of solving the problem of psyche and determining specific features of mental form of reflection are given an account based on the major concepts of the reflection theory and the need for behaviour adequacy.
Conclusions. In order to shape the essence of psyche, specific features of mental form of reflection and features of mental processes it is necessary to distinguish forms of reflection, allocation of their functions and constraints. Reflection which can be attributed to non-mental (e.g. biochemical, physiological, neurophysiological) form, does not allow to provide behaviour adequacy in a rapidly changing conditions of reality. Based on reflection, behavior always occurs with certain delay in time. If eliminated, this drawback is provided by occurrence of a brain and a property named “psyche”, which provides mental form of reflection as reflection of the near future of objective reality.
Background. The issue of the nature and origin of human psyche as a universal puzzle does not have a final solution for today. So, ideas about the subject matter of psychology, the issue of nature and the origin of human psyche discussed by A.N. Leontiev have not lost their significance for modern psychology.
Objective is to introduce the original assumptions of A.N. Leontiev that he coins discussing the nature of human psyche psyche and its origin in the course of the evolution of living beings.
Design. In this paper, the early representations of A.N. Leontiev about the nature and origin of human psyche are analyzed. The heuristic assumption of A.N. Leontiev about some living beings possessing the ability to react to external influences by displaying deep emotion or changing their primary sensation of various modality, which can be considered a pre-mental (biological) reflection, which further sets as reflection. The external objective activity of living beings changes their feelings as if they refer organism condition. The activity allows not only to create a motor image of the behaviour space, but also to use the primary experiences (feelings) to create ideas about the objects.
Results. These assumptions make it possible to view the psyche as a representation of the subject of activity and perception about the objective conditions and integral objects of the behavioural space that create the illusion of opening up the space for one's behavior. Such illusion arises due to the actual physical interaction of the subject of behaviour with the real objects of the external world.
Conclusion. A.N. Leontiev’s assumptions about the nature and origin of human psyche allow to elaborate a number of important provisions on this issue, which will be of great interest for modern psychologists and will occupy a worthy place in the theory of psychological science.
The Objective of the research is to study the characteristics of character properties, emotional intelligence, social psychological adaptation of Internet addicted adolescents and adolescents addicted with drugs.
Design. A comparative study of the psychological properties of cannabinoid addicted adolescents (n = 20) and Internet addicted adolescents (n = 20), and also healthy adolescents without symptoms of addiction (n = 20) is conducted. The following methods are used in the study: Barratt’s impulsiveness scale (BIS-11), 1987, adapted by T.I. Medvedeva and S.N. Enikolopov, 2015, Cloninger temperament and character questionnaire (TCI-125), 1991, adapted by N.A. Almaev and L.D. Ostrovskaya, 2005, the methodology for diagnosing emotional intelligence MSCEITV 2.0 2002, adapted by E.A. Sergienko, N.I. Vetrova, 2009, the methodology for diagnosing the social psychological adapted by K. Rogers and R. Diamond, 1954, adapted by A.K. Osnitsky, 2002, Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), 2003 adapted by V.L. Malygin and K.A. Feklisov, 2010
Results. Adolescents with Internet addiction and adolescents with cannabinoid addiction have a certain similarity in a number of characteristic features. They are characterized by a more pronounced motor impulsiveness, low self-control, low self-esteem, dependence on other individulas and circumstances, lack of clear life goals. In general, if compared to healthy adolescents they appear to be infantile individuals, socially maladjusted, more often experiencing emotional discomfort, which can result in pathologies, i.e. particularly various types of addictive behaviour. Simultaneously, Internet-dependent adolescents are significantly different from those with cannabinoid addiction. They are characterized by a lower level of transcendence and a lesser inclination to spiritual practices and transpersonal experience accordingly. They have a low level of search for novelty, which characterizes them as conservative, rigid and passive individuals.
Conclusion. The data obtained reveal certain differences in the psychological mechanisms of Internet addiction and dependence on drugs. Psychological mechanisms of adolescent Internet addiction and dependence on cannabinoids have significant differences.
Available Online: 30.09.2018
Background. Presence phenomenon is aт important component of human interaction using virtual reality. Virtual reality is used actively in such spheres as Education, Research, Psychotherapy, Surgery, Entertainment and Games. The hidden part of the presence experience phenomenon deserves great interest. The researcher has to answer the following questions when conducting a research: 1. what exactly does the person experiencing the presence feel? 2. how much does a person "forget" about what is happening around them in the real world? 3. is it possible to simultaneously feel one’s presence in both worlds – real, where a person is physically present, and virtual, where a person is immersed by specific hardware and software that generate virtual reality?
The Objective of the paper is to provide a description of the subjective presence experience, to show features of presence experience types.
Design. The paper includes the review of modern research on the presence phenonmenon. The course of the study is described: conditions for experiencing the phenomenon of presence (e.g. virtual flight over the city) were designed to coincide with theoretical factors that enhance or weaken the experience of the phenomenon of presence. Following the first stage, the subjects were interviewed using structured interviews in order to systematize their subjective experience. The paper provides a qualitative analysis of the test subjects' answers. The study involved 18 people, 5 males and 13 females aged 18 to 28 years.
Results. The influence of factors contributing to the emergence of presence is reflected in the subjective experience, types of experiencing different types of presence (e.g. environmental, social, personal) were highlighted. The contradictory notions about the position of one's body, the location of other people and other components of the phenomenon of presence are shown.
Conclusion. The phenomenon of presence is a complex experience within which the perception of time, space, body, physical laws is distorted.
Background. Within the conditions of information socialization that is transforming communication and placing high demands on the ability of the individual to search, select, critically comprehend social information for decision-making and carrying out moral choices, a new social situation has developed. The research of the relationship between cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet and shaping the worldview and ideas about the moral regulation in adolescents makes it possible to study the patterns of personality development in the unity of the cognitive and value-moral spheres.
The Objective of the research is to identify cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet as a factor of developing a picture of the world in adolescent users with varying degrees of involvement and the risk of Internet addiction and moral regulation of relationship between them.
Hypothesis. Cognitive methods of processing information on the Internet are connected with the level of Internet addiction - a high level of Internet addiction corresponds to the low efficiency of cognitive methods of processing information. These methods influence the emerging system of major beliefs and worldview characteristics, and level of sensitivity to situations of moral choice.
Design. The author’s method of assessing social information on the Internet based on Crick and Dodge model (1994), Chen method for diagnosing Internet-addictive behaviour, «The scale of basic beliefs of the person» of R. Yanoff-Bullman (Kalmykova , Padun, 2002), and the author’s method of assessing moral aspects were used. The study involved 84 adolescents from 13 to 18 years (46% males and 54% females).
Results. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles was conducted and gender differences were revealed. The relationship between Internet addiction and the effectiveness of cognitive processing methods of information on the Internet is verified. The significance of interpretation, behaviour assessment and the ability to construct social adaptive behaviour in communication to shape the major beliefs and moral attitude in adolescence are shown.
Conclusion. There are differences in the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles of information. High efficiency of short-term, long-term, medium-term perspectives and behavioural responses and the ability to choose adequate social behavior corresponds to a relatively low productivity of interpretation. Internet addiction is interrelated with the low productivity of interpretation. Moral attitude is mediated by the age features of adolescent self-awareness and is related to the effectiveness of information interpretation, the evaluation of behavioural consequences and the choice of appropriate ways of social interaction.
Available Online: 30.09.2018
Background. Diagnostics of the schoolchildren digital competence is now an important educational task that requires an index applicable to children of the early school age and brief enough for population studies. The Digital Competence Index (DCI) as a component of social competence was proposed for measuring knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility / security online in each of the following areas: content, communication, consumption, and technologicalsphere.
Objective. The development and subsequent verification of a brief and screening versions of DCI, and also the study of DCI in children under 12 years of age.
Design. During the first stage based on the first sample of DCI approbation, items with the highest correlation with each subscale were selected. Digital competence was assessed on the basis of the Index as well as the solution of experimental tasks. User activity was assessed using EU-Kids online methodology. During the second stage, the methodwas verified in the sample of children aged 7-11 and parents of children of primary school age. User activity was measured as well. The children also filled measure of Excessive Internet Use from EU-Kids online methodology and the Dembo-Rubinstein scales assessing their general and online self-esteem.
Sample. The first study included 1203 adolescents aged 12-17 and 1209 parents. The second sample included 50 children aged 7-11 years old and 100 parents of children aged 5-11 years.
Results. In the first study a brief version (32 points) allows to reliably (alpha 0.69-0.85) evaluate the four components and index ensuring the prediction accuracy of more than 90%. The screening version (16 points) makes it possible to reliably (0.71-0.73) estimate the overall index with the prediction accuracy of more than 85%. Both versions reproduced the basic patterns of the differences between correctly and incorrectly solved digital competence tasks by teenagers and parents. According to the second study, brief and screening versions can be used with the primary school age, although the screening version allows to estimate only the general index, but not the components of digital competence. The average digital competence of children 7-11 years old is 30% of the maximum possible, parents take 46%, which demonstrates the improvement of digital competence in the recent five years. Digital competence in both children and parents is associated with greater user activity, and in children – with a more positive self-esteem online and signs of excessive Internet use. In parents correct answers to the digital competence tasks were associated with greater competence, primarily on the components of responsibility/safety and skills.
Conclusion. The data support the possibility of using the screening version of the Digital Competence Index to obtain the general indicator in diagnosing adults and children of the primary school age, whereas a brief version of the DCI can be used not only as an overall index but also of its components.
Background. The high importance of the media as an institution of socializing the new generation in the modern information society is highlighted. Along with positive opportunities created by the media and the Internet for training and education, it is necessary to point to the growing risks associated with the ambiguity of the impact of the media on the mental and psychological health and also child and adolescent development.
The Objective of the paper is to consider the risks of socialization associated with the openness and accessibility of the information space. There are psychological features of child and adolescent perception of information products containing aggression and violence, information products of sexual content, products that cause fear and anxiety, and also methods used in the media to justify morally antisocial, deviant, aggressive behaviour and violence.
The Results of the analysis allowed to identify the conditions that determine the degree of vulnerability of the child to violence in media and the desire to mimic aggressive behavior and also forms of cognitive restructuring the moral content of aggressive and deviant behaviour.
The negative consequences of perceiving violence expressed in behaviour, emotional state and cognitive image of the world of children are determined. The effects of adolescent perception of information of sexual content are revealed. Age features of experiencing fears in children aged 3-18 years are shown.
Conclusion. Perceiving violence in the information space by children and adolescents creates risks of mimicking aggressive behaviour, fears and increased anxiety, desensitization to phenomena of violence and aggression and distortion of the worldview, when violence is perceived as a compulsory and natural regulation of relations between people in society. Factors influencing the nature of the perception of violence include age factor, individual psychological and personality features, motives and preferences, genre of information products and the context within which violence is depicted.
Available Online: 30.09.2018
Background. Digital technologies have long become an integral part of everyday life. Internet and Social Networking Sites (SNS) are considered to be one of the socialization institutions along with traditional school and family.
Objective. The research is concerned with studying the peculiarities of teenagers’ social psychological well-being when using SNS. The analysis aims at revealing the impact of demographic, social stratifying and social psychological factors on the type of adolescent self-performance at SNS, their attitude towards regulations of interaction at SNS, their concern about potential risks and also opinions about the effects of SNS socialization on their personality.
Design. The paper is based on the results of 2074 school-aged adolescent survey conducted in 2016 in Moscow region, Russia.
Results. According to the survey, the adolescent well-being when using SNS depends on the type of their self-presentation. The data showed that affective significance of social networking for adolescents who seek the attention of the strangers produces a negative impact on their emotional well-being: those who refer to their SNS profile as “provocative” are more likely to feel the “addiction to virtual interaction and other’s opinions” – 17.4% (mean 7.1%; p≤ .0004), being disturbed by “more popular profiles” – 21,7% (mean 4.2%; p≤ .00001).
Conclusion. The survey showed that nowadays adolescents deem the SNS as the most important communicative field where the fundamental age-related changes take plaare foundce. The tendency to expand social contacts by means of virtual communication was found to produce negative impact on adolescent personal development and social interaction in real life.
Available Online: 30.09.2018
Background. In the period of adolescence, friendship plays the key role for developing the adolescent personality, for determining their psychological well-being now and for further living. There is lack of data about the actual size of their online friend zone, adolescent perception of real and virtual friendship, and factual features of their relationships with different categories of users, primarily with virtual friends, who adolescents communicate only in the Internet.
Objective. The quantitative research of the online circle of contacts of Russian adolescnts in social media, their perceptions of real and virtual friendship, and regular features of their communication with real friends and acquaintances, and virtual friends.
Design. The survey among adolescents from Moscow, Russia, and Moscow region, Russia, was conducted (N=366, aged 13-16 years old) using the questionnaire of 43 questions about their friend list size and number of online followers; youths’ relationship with real friends and acquaintances, and virtual friends; the method of the unfinished sentences with the following content analysis aimed to investigate adolescent perception of real and virtual friendship. For comparison, we also used data of the All-Russian survey Kids Online II (N=604) conducted by the Foundation for Internet Development (2010).
Results. The results show that 50% of adolescent contacts (aged 15–16) and 43% aged 13–14 outweighs the lower limit of the Dunbar number (100 social connections). Thus, they are almost equivalent to the quantity of social contact of an adult. Friend zone extension occurs due to real friends and acquaintances, and ‘unknown’ virtual friends (whom the adolescent has not seen in real life), hence raising the issue of such relationships’ quality. The results of the content analysis of adolescent answers about differences between real and virtual friendship show that real friendship is more important to them as it contains Direct interpersonal contact (tactile and visual), Emotional exchange, Trust, Co-Activities, Mutual support. Virtual friendship has been characterized through absence, significant lack and/or negative inversion (e.g. from Trust to Mistrust) of these components. Simultaneously, each second youth has virtual friend, whom he/she trusts enough to share private topics, so that such virtual friends play the role of ‘by chance companions’. Adolescents discuss with them life problems and conflicts with parents (35%), real friends and teachers (51–53%), and also their beloved ones (47%).
Conclusion. The number of online social connections among adolescents exceeds the lower limit of the Dunbar range, comparing with similar indicators in adults. Expansion of the virtual circle of communication occurs both at the expense of real friends and acquaintances, and virtual friends unfamiliar to the child in everyday life, which puts the question of the quality of these relations. Virtual friends act in the role of "casual fellow travelers", because with their help adolescents satisfy the needs for intimate contact. This happens even though the children themselves are aware of the disadvantages of online communication compared to offline relationships. The phenomenon of a virtual friend, therefore, occupies one of the key places in the system of interpersonal relations of a modern adolescent and requires further study. On the whole, the phenomena of the ‘unknown friend’ holds one of the key places in the adolescnet system of relationships, thus requiring special research.
Available Online: 30.09.2018
Background. Since the end of the 60s of the 20th century, the development of digital technologies has initiated the emergence of a vriety of intellectual movements that shaped the "sociocultural metasoft" of the information society, i.e. cyberculture.
The Objective of the paper is 1. to consider the phenomenon of cyberculture as a consequence of the developed digital technologies in the information society, 2. to show that cyberculture is intertwining ideologies of subcultures whose hallmark is the belief in the boundless possibilities of computer technology in terms of realizing individual freedom.
Design. The paper shows that historically the development of ideological movements of information and network technology users overlapped the postmodern worldview that has become a reflection of the social cultural and technological realities of the information society. The term "libertarianism" is suggested to characterize the ideology of the network community, whose slogan is "information wants to be free". As an illustration of the social cultural implications of digital technologies, the ideology of hackers is highlighted. The later cyberpunk movement which shaped a science fiction trend where human and technological issues are melded and brought to the fore. Cyberpunk should not be identified only with young generaion or science fiction trend, but rather should be deemed as a lifestyle in which computers, network technologies and virtual reality hold a special place.
Conclusion. It should be borne in mind that network libertarianism fueled by postmodern relativism and poststructuralist rhizomorphism turns into traps of total depreciation, becomes an obstacle to the realization of personal choice and promotes development of pathological forms of identity.
Background. The paper presents the results of a sociological study that focuses on the attitude towards the reform of the Russian researcher sphere in education. Much attention is paid to the influence of various stumbling blocks that influence the efficacy of research work. The relevance of the study is due to the psychological barriers for understanding the features of the creative self-actualised researcher.
Objective. The influence of age and social factors of professional status (e.g. scientific degree, scientific title, position) on the importance of various barriers that reduce the efficacy of scientists’ work is analyzed.
Design. According to the authorship questionnaire, which included 72 questions, 721 researchers were interviewed. The survey was conducted in different cities and towns of Russia, the respondents included those with different levels of scientific qualifications, and different experience of research work.
Results. The research showed that in the hierarchy of various barriers, those that are associated with the material and social status of the researcher are dominating. Psychological barriers themselves play an important role: lack of promotional opportunities, lack of professional communication environment, strained relations with management and colleagues. Correlation dependence between the barrier concerning funding of new projects and such motivational attitudes as aspiration to independence and professional self-actualisation are revealed. The upgraded position reduces satisfaction of material needs, and, on the other hand, the importance of those factors that concern career self-actualisation (e.g. funding a new research project) is emphasized. It is established that socio-psychological factors (satisfaction with the results of their professional activities, position in the scientific team) actualize the significance of barriers that fix the unfortunate socio-psychological relations in the team.
Conclusion. The obtained results allow to conclude that dissatisfaction with their material and social status for researchers are the most significant barriers preventing the research work. The study revealed a characteristic set of motivational attitudes related to the researcher’s desire for independence and self-actualisation. Te survey materials showed that the combination of reasech work and teaching is subjectively perceived as a barrier that prevents career self-actualisation.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0214
Available Online: 01.08.2018
Background. Key issues of approaches to the field theory of K. Levin within the nature (concept) of fractal and holographic construct are considered. At the beginning of the 20th century neopositivism, the newly-developed philosophical trend, proclaimed the language of physics as the only scientific one that has to be used as the translation language of psychology. However, K. Levin considered physics from a different angle. He was not interested in the operational procedures able to carry out data of psychological concepts to physical terminology, but in the intellectual methods. According to K. Levin, the aforementioned methods can contribute to developing new psychology. K. Levin introduced the concept of "psychological field" to describe not physical, but psychological reality where a person lives. In order to avoid interpretation of psychological phenomena, using a concept of the dynamic field K. Levin tried to pass from physics to geometry, in particular, to topology (that studies space transformations).
Objective. The fractal holographic construct will allow to present psychological phenomena in more generalized forms. For this purpose the most adequate topological (fractal geometry) and the physical (holography) nature of this construct are considered. Mathematical tools of fractal structures and holography are used. Mathematical tools of fractal structures will correspond to the Fibonacci sequence, the golden proportion, mathematical progression, non-Markovian random processes. Accordingly, the holography of self-similarity in the presentation of character information (Thue-Morsa sequence, Fibonacci sequence, Pribram's transformation).Conclusion. Tthe affected mathematical features of the construct mentioned above will promote an explanation of the mental nature and consciousness. This reveals a big scope for further research of various mental phenomena and the nature of human consciousness.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0213
By: Bogatykh B.A.;
Keywords: field theory of K. Levin;
non-Markovian random processes;
Available Online: 01.08.2018
Background. Currently in psychological rehabilitation the necessity of developing innovative methods for testing cognitive dysfunctions with via the modern sophisticated technology is becoming increasingly important. One of the urgent requests is associated with developing the methods of diagnostics and correction of spatial representations disorders, which are manifested by decreasing accuracy of spatial representations of the environment in particular.
Objective. To study this issue the method for evaluating the accuracy of spatial information using which the ability to memorize the three-dimensional complex scenes was developed. It was assumed that the accuracy of reproduction would differ significantly depending on the coordinate (egocentric or allocentric) system of mental reconstruction processing.
Design. The library of virtual objects and six unique virtual scenes were created. Each scene of seven objects was shown to the participants within the interval for 25 seconds. Thirty six subjects (aged from 18 to 26) participated in the experiment. They were told to memorize the objects and their locations, and then to reproduce the memorized scene using the given viewpoint of the scene. Three viewpoints were chosen: the "front" (to reproduce the scene from the egocentric position); the "left" and the" above" (to reproduce the memorized scene from on the left and above imaginary allocentric positions, respectively). To perform the task the participants chose objects from the library of virtual objects using the flystick 2 and placed them in virtual space in accordance with the memorized scene. The object locations in virtual space were recorded. Moreover, the accuracy of egocentric and allocentric representations in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters were calculated.
Conclusion. The results show that the egocentric representations (the "front" viewpoint) were more accurate for all parameters in comparison with the allocentric representations (the "left" and the "above" viewpoints), and the “above” representations were more accurate compared with the “left” ones. The topological accuracy was much better than the measurements and depth accuracy. Regardless of the viewpoints, the topological space parameters are stored in memory much more accurately than the depth parameters, which, in turn, are reproduced more accurately than metric parameters. It was also shown that the accuracy of spatial representations differs for different allocentric viewpoints: the "above" view is reproduced much more accurately than the "left" view.
The method developed made it possible to reveal the features of encoding spatial information in ER and AP blocks in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters. It can be used in clinical rehabilitation to test impairments in the perception of space, and also violations of short-term memory. The results obtained allow refining the existing models of encoding spatial information.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0212
Available Online: 01.08.2018
Background. The relevance of the study is fueled by the emergence of new types of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, “rejuvenation” of children and adolescents who use drugs. The reference literature does not provide the information about those facts that narcotic substances contribute to maladjustment and trigger deviant behavior.
The Objective is to study the risk factors for deviant adaptation associated with drug abuse, the role of information on drugs and drug addicts in choosing a solution “for” or “against” using narcotic substances.
Design. A special questionnaire of 27 questions was developed. The questionnaire was aimed at finding out the level of knowledge about drugs, drug addiction and drug addicts before the first test. The frequency of drug use that could cause addiction was identified. The possibility of quitting using drugs, the presence of addicts in the social environment and their attitude to them on a temporary interval between the first use and the beginning of drug use were analysed. The sample included 34 active drug addicts at the age of 20-29 years, who are registered as drug addicts in Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria.
Research Results. The data analysis makes it possible to document the characteristics of drug addiction in those who have experience in drug use. The answers of active drug addicts and ordinary adolescents revealed their heterogeneity. The data obtained show the main factors that influence the heterogeneity are the age factor and the factor of ignorance.
Conclusion. The research results show the availability and relevance of information on drugs obtained from information sources, peers and adults, advertising the safety of small doses and “light” drugs. There are only superficial representations of drug addicts about drugs and their dangers prior to their consumption in adolescents. This allows to make a conclusion about the lack of systemic prevention of drug addiction in adolescents.
Background. The increased number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is observed worldwide today. Ambiguity of the reasons that cause the disorder, lack of the possibility to render effective medical care make actual the need of non-HCP (according to medical research full treatment cannot be found). The solution of this problem is possible by using effective mechanisms of child training in the society.
The Objective is to develop the complex model for ASD children rehabilitation in preschool education based on the analysis of various correction methods that are widely used in the USA Europe and Russia. There considered are possibilities and limitations, and their application in preschool education.
Design. The authors consider their own model for ASD children rehabilitation based on the direct practical experience with a specific ASD child suffering. The conditions for adopting this model in preschool education are described: creating a special environment that allows to compensate for missing skills and facilitate the child adaptation, psychological and educational support of all subjects of inclusive education, and teamwork of experts of different profiles (teacher, psychologist, speech therapist, and speech pathologist).
Results. Based on the analysis of foreign and domestic experience of rehabilitation, a comprehensive model for the rehabilitation of the ASD child in the conditions of an educational organization has been developed. The construction of the individual rehabilitation route of the ASD child considers specific features of mutism, child’s adaptation and behaviour, the accompanying disturbances complicating the development process, background and needs of the family, and also resources of the educational organization. The rehabilitation work emphasizes the development of the emotional sphere and communication skills.
Conclusion. Rehabilitation work with the ASD child in the conditions of the educational organization will be effective if to carry out it by the group of experts in the following ways: correctional work with the ASD child, work with peers, work with teachers and parental support.
Background. Near-death experience is an altered state of consciousness at the time when the person is on the threshold of death. Near-death experience has a specific structure which includes such elements as extra corporal experience, moving in a dark tunnel, seeing bright light, meetings with the deceased persons, panoramic life review and many others. The condition is quite common nowadays particularly due to the success of resuscitation and a high level of emergency care organization). Experience in itself and its some consequences derivate a lot of psychological problems at the person, which he is afraid to tell not only medical staff, but also relatives because of danger of interpretation his (her) near-death experiences as marks of psychic illness.
The Objective of the analytical theoretical research was to study the experience of working with such patients, accumulated in Western medicine, psychology and psychotherapy, the organization of the training process and also the organization of psychotherapeutic support for survivors and members of their families.
Design. This article analyzes the foreign (most publications on this subject is carried out in the United States) works on the problem of treatment with near-death experiencer and psychological support for them, the material contained in these works is structured and summarized on the main problems in this area.
Research results. Based on the review and analysis of the reference literature a preliminary Atwater's adaptation model of the near-death experience is proposed, the integration of this experience is viewed as the main goal to be implemented by the experiencer independently or in collaboration with a psychotherapist, the universal rules of treating near-death experiencers are elaborated. There are rules of treating different groups of experiencers and different categories of people interacting with them are identified and integrated: the rules of treating children with near-death, the experience of organizing psychotherapeutic assistance to their relatives.
Conclusion. The compliance with the rules by physicians, psychotherapists and relatives of near-death patients contributes to the decreased emotional and social problems in the patient, and sometimes even prevents their occurrence.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0209
By: Gordeeva O.V.;
Available Online: 01.08.2018
Background. The increase in drug use in the population of Russia and representatives of the youth in particular is a vital issue that is controlled and monitored by the federal state. The rapid rise in drug use in young citizens requires a systematic analysis of the causes, study of criteria and assessment of predisposition for drug use, and also the development of programs to prevent drug addiction in adolescents.
Objective. Determination of the psychological predisposition of young men to psychoactive substances using the personality profile of the Multidisciplinary Method of Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Research Progress. The research was conducted between 2008 and 2010 on the basis of secondary comprehensive schools, cadet corps, secondary professional educational institutions and universities in Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region, Russia. The sample included 338 males from 15-16 to 22-23 years old, whose average age is 17-18 years. The evaluation of information reported by applicants on the fact of presence / absence of psychoactive substance samples was made based on the results of the psychophysiological test using a polygraph.
Research Results. The results of the MMPI test were statistically analyzed according to the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, and to a single-factor analysis of variance. The research results show that the scores of the F-scale in the MMPI profile of young males who used psychoactive substances reveal a statistically significant increase (p = 0.008), compared to those who did not use psychoactive substances. The single-factor analysis of the F- MMPI scale did not show a statistically significant difference (p = 0.128).
Conclusion. The paper proposes to consider an increase in the F-scale in the MMPI profile as an indicator of individual predisposition to use psychoactive substances, but not to consider an increase in its indices as a cause that affects primary psychoactive substances in adolescence. The results obtained can be used by practical and clinical psychologists when working with adolescents and youths.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0208
Available Online: 01.08.2018