Background. Our understanding of the world is largely based on the image of the native state, i.e. 'a small homeland' that shapes the development of a person, and identifies their social identity. The development of the information society provides more and more powerful tools for the media to influence the recipient's view of the world and representations of the human society as a whole. A man has to get all the information about the territory of the rest of their country, except for'the small homeland', via the media content. This content is cropped up with stereotypes and leads to the disintegration of society. Therefore, it is important to study the features of such media influence, their strength and validity.
Objective is to study regional images of Russia among young people from different Russian regions, and to identify the media role in shaping of regional images and image of Russia as a whole.
Design. This pilot research has a limited sample. 30 recipients (Mage=22.6 years, SD=2.78; 11 males from 15 regions of Russia) took part in this research.
The methods included a survey and a series of detailed interviews, psycho-semantic scaling and projective methods. The psycho-semantic research assumed description of the following regional images: the North of Russia, Central Russia, the South of Russia, the Northern Caucasus, the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East.
Results. It is shown statistically that participants of the research tend to evaluate their personal views differently from those that, they believe, are shaped through the media. The images generated by the media are rather positive and point mainly to the advantages of territories, not to mention their possible disadvantages. The majority of respondents have very little personal experience of interacting with Russian regions. Their understanding of regions mainly correspond to the regional images shaped through the media. Moreover, these images are stereotypes and highlight the emotional side. A categorical structure of the perception significantly differs in factor content from the structures shown in the study results of an integral image of Russia and separate states (Matveeva, 2010; Mitina, Petrenko, 2009). It has its own specific features and is not reduced in the aggregate to the overall image of Russia.
Conclusion. When building regional images and the overall image of Russia, the respondents focus on the moral evaluation which helps to construct their personal image, and then they go on with the representations shaped through the media. These image of Russian region differ from the overall image of Russia. The paper represents the results of a pilot study, therefore, the results can hardly be extrapolated to a wider sample, but they can be considered in further research.
Background. Imagination is necessary to create a plastic image in the theatre, choreography, cinema, and aesthetic sports. There are studies of the psychophysiology of imagination in the process of artistic creation using EEG, fMRI, and stabilometric platform. However, comprehensive studies of method acting using objective quantitative methods have not become widespread.
The Objective of the study was to reveal the relationship between stabilometric and electrophysiological parameters in actors when imagining the two opposed objects, the tower and the jellyfish, while maintaining a vertical posture.
Design. The study was conducted over two days on 12 volunteers (4 males and 8 females aged 20-22), students of the Higher School of Performing Arts (K.Raikin Theater School). Asobjects for imagination and mental transformation the participants were o ered two images: a jelly sh and a high stable tower. The tasks for the actors were set in a randomized order. Participants were asked to complete the “Romberg Test” on a stabilometric platform (European feet position), and mentally represent a behaviour (movements, actions, emotions) that an actor could perform on a stage to show a given image. All actions had to be performed mentally only, while the original vertical position of the body should not be changed. Simultaneously, the multichannel EEG was recorded.
Results. The normalized index of the mechanical energy (Av) and the surface area of the centre of pressure uctuations (S) were significantly lower while maintaining a vertical posture in the process of representing the tower compared to the representation of the jelly sh (p <0.05, Wilcoxon Test). Other stabilometric parameters were also lower in the image of the tower but did not reach the level of signi cance (p> 0.05). As to EEG spectral parameters, the representation of the jelly sh compared to the tower was characterized by a signi cantly lower power frequency of 3-4 Hz in the right hemisphere, frequencies of 8-9 Hz in the anterior temporal leads symmetrically (except for Fp1 and Fp2), 11-12 Hz symmetrically except for the posterior leads (O1, O2, T5, T6), 12-13 Hz in the right hemisphere except for Fp1 and Fp2, and, nally, less high-frequency power of 20- 21 Hz on almost all leads (except Fp1 and Fp2), 24-25 Hz on the right (except Fp2) and frequencies above 24 Hz in both occipital leads (all p <0.01).
Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that the mental representation of the tower provides a more stable posture and reduced the physiological cost (energy consumption) of this process. There were also identified some differences in the central mechanisms (according to the EEG parameters) of maintaining a vertical posture with the mental representation of the two opposed images. The main di erences between the EEG in the image of the tower and the jelly sh were observed in the central and parietal leads, corresponding to the localization of the somatosensory cortex, vestibular areas, and the body scheme representation. The results of the study could be used to objectify the effectiveness of different programs of ideomotor training of actors.
Background. It is a generally shared belief that “Bednaya Liza” (1792; "Poor Liza") of N.М. Karamzin is a classic example of the Russian sentimental school. Actually it is not sufficient just to attribute this story to the particular genre. A careful reading of “Poor Lisa” we will appear to allow identifying basic, archetypal psychological mechanisms that determine the characteristics of modern artistic perception in a latent form. The work continues the line of psychological research on the interpretation of a literary text identified by L.S. Vygotsky as ‘reader's criticism’. A number of psychological techniques and hermeneutic methods of text analysis are used.
The Objective is to reveal explicit or implicit literary techniquesused by Karamzin, e.g. plot construction, speech and behaviour characters, description of the landscape, etc., and also to consider the psychological characteristics of the real behaviour of the characters, i.e. motives, affective reactions, behavioural norms, social expectations, moral and ethical assessments, worldview, etc.
Design. The paper provides an artistic and real analysis of the story used by the author to play two games with the reader. Both of them are played by the author and the reader simultaneously, where both artistic and real plains are combined on "one playing ground", i.e. the ground of the literary piece, which making different combinations determine the reader's experience.
Results. A number of psychological phenomena are highlighted that are quite clearly manifested in the perception of the story "Poor Liza". The phenomena are compared with the text features and those artistic techniques that generate them. The issues concerning the study of authentic psychological mechanisms, authentic artistic experience and eliciting their meaning when reading a story are considered. The author brings together the explanatory models and concepts used in philological and psychological works in order to clarify the genuine sentimental feelings
Background. Nowadays, the research of playing activity in the home environment is insufficient. Meanwhile, theoretical and empirical analysis has shown the importance of the play in the development of executive functions, and the results obtained in the study can be used as practical recommendations for preschool specialists and parents of senior preschool age children.
The Objective is to study the relationship between the components of executive functions and children preferences in the play and its duration at home.
Design. Children aged 5-6 years (N=163, 52% of males) and their mothers participated in the study. In the first stage, the development of the following components of executive functions in preschool children was assessed: inhibition, verbal and visual working memory and cognitive flexibility. Information on children's play preferences at home were obtained as a result of parents filling in a specialized questionnaire, which contained questions about the duration of play and its content.
Results. Analysis of play preferences revealed that the majority of preschool children in our sample have favorite toys (85%): males prefer games in constructing materials and transport, while females prefer puzzles and sets for creativity, as well as play with soft toys and dolls, and also pretending ‘family’ members games. It was found that girls successfully coped with tasks on cognitive flexibility, inhibition and verbal working memory than boys. The most preferable type of games for senior preschoolers are board games and active games, and also construction sets. Children who prefer constructing materials and transport were less successful at cognitive flexibility task than children who don't play construction games. Children who prefer soft toys and sets of figures perform a lower level of spatial working memory than children who prefer other kinds of games. Children who prefer to play board games have a higher level of inhibition. Children whose favorite character often changes were more successful in inhibition task than children who have one steady favourite character.
Conclusion. The study showed that board games, puzzles, and playing with different subjects and pretending various characters have the most developing potential for older preschoolers. No differences in game duration depending on the level of development of executive functions were found.
Background. The results of the contemporary research on the psychological characteristics of graduates of closed institutions indicate that adolescents who are brought up in closed institutions have distorted ideas about the family and range from idealized to supernegative. After their graduating from closed institutions, the ideas about the family lie in the basis for establishing their own family, resulting in graduates creating reliable family relationships, leading an asocial lifestyle, sending their children to the same institutions that they have graduated from. The study of the causes of family image distortions in adolescents left without parental care will allow us to work with the causes and, render aid help graduates of closed institutions to shape a complete, structured family image and thus help them socialize in the human community.
The Objective. Research on the relationship between identity and family image among graduates of closed institutions. We assumed that there is a connection between identity, in terms of its components, and the family image of graduates of closed institutions.
Design. The paper analyzes personal identity and the family image in closed institution graduates, as well as the relationship between the components of identity and the family image of graduates of closed institutions.
Results. The hypothesis was confirmed. The personal identity in terms of structural components (the communicative ‘self’ and the material ‘self’) is associated with the image of the family in closed institution graduates.
Conclusions.The study revealed the need to study the relationship between the components of personal identity and family image.
Background. Neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation are among the fundamental practical tasks facing a clinical psychologist in accordance with applicable legal documents. The modern rehabilitation system is a partnership between patients with brain injuries, their families and various specialists involved in the rehabilitation process. Sick patients and their family continue living in the society of other people, and they have to solve issues of social interaction in a new status and with new limited opportunities. Cognitive and emotional, psychological and behavioural problems are interconnected, and neuropsychological rehabilitation should be appeal to all these problems.
The Objectives of the paper are: analysing and generalization of diagnostic and rehabilitation experience accumulated in neuropsychological rehabilitation; identifying of quality criteria for neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients with impaired cognitive functions in brain injuries, which should be followed by a practicing clinical psychologist in the process of rehabilitation work.
Results. Based on the analysis of applied research and practical guidelines, the recommended diagnostic tools for identifying thinking disorders are presented, the main directions and methods of rehabilitation work with thinking disorders that have been shown to be effective, including the organization of the dynamics of thought processes, the organization of the operational side of thinking, the organization of the regulatory side of thinking.
Conclusion. The findings can sustain practical work of a clinical psychologist with patients with disturbed thinking and brain damage. The findings outline the main directions of diagnostic and rehabilitation work for the practicing psychologist.
Background. The paper presents results of a study about perception of school bulling among Russian students. Being a type of aggressive behavior, bullying needs to be interrupted by psychologists, teachers and parents, preventive intervention is also required. However, there are few studies about dynamics of bulling perception in males and females a few years after graduation. It is during this period that not only participation, but also the intensity of the experience of school bullying as a significant event of the past, can affect the further choice of a career, success in life, and psychological and emotional state.
Objective. The study is aimed at solving several problems. The prevalence of different types of bullying (social aggression, verbal bullying, physical bullying, cyberbullying) in high school was analyzed, and bullying was assessed in terms of the distribution of roles. We also studied the influence of socio-demographic factors of bullying and conducted a comparative analysis of two age groups (high school students and primary school students) and a retrospective analysis of students' perception of school bullying.
Design. The sample included 700 junior students from a number of Russian cities (males – 12%; females – 88%). During the research, the following methods were used: online questionnaire, methods for evaluating bullying (Adolescent Peer Relation Instrument, Social Bullying Involvement Scales, Cyberbullying and Online Aggression Survey).
Findings show, that every second school student took part in school bulling, and there are positive correlations between bulling roles (aggressor, victim, witness). There are gender and socio-economic differences between respondents who were involved in bulling or avoided participation in bullying. With age, there is a tendency to decrease the number of respondents who participated in physical bullying, however, there is still a high percentage of participation in other types of bullying.
Conclusion. High level of adolescent bulling underscores the necessity of preventive intervention at school of including teenagers in bulling underscores the necessary of preventive intervention at schools.
Background. 75 years passed after the Second World War finished. What do we remember about these years? What are the sources of our memories? What do we know about the life and activity of our teacher in psychology?
The Objective of the paper is to analyze the professional activity of the famous psychologists, future professors of the Moscow State University Psychology Department during the Second World War.
Design. The paper describes the professional activity of famous Russian psychologists (A.R. Luria, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Halperin, A.V. Zaporozhets, B.V. Zeigarnik and others) aimed to rehabilitation of brain damaged Russian soldiers. The value of this work for the development of the psychological science and for the mentality of psychologists all over the world is underlined.
The work of the remarkable scientists in the rear evacuation recovery hospitals is described: in a hospital organized by A.R. Luria at the sanatorium in the village of Kisegach near the city of Chelyabinsk in the Southern Urals, as well as in the hospital in the village of Kourovka near Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), whose supervisor was A.N. Leontiev. It is shown how in Kisegach they solved the problems of cognitive impairment in wounded soldiers, and in Kourovka they were engaged in the restoration of motor functions. It is emphasized that, along with enormous practical activity, psychologists conducted significant theoretical work, in which the results of practice were generalized and analyzed.
The paper informs the reader about today’s psychologists around the world and how they appreciate the contribution of Russian psychologists who worked during the World War II and honour their memory. The V International Congress in memory of A.R. Luria, dedicated to the 115th anniversary of the birth and 40th anniversary of the death of Alexander Romanovich Luria.
Conclusion. The knots of memory do not only unite the generations but also become a fulcrum for all of us in understanding the personal sense and value of the Psychological Activity.
Based on the study of rehabilitation processes, Leontyev’s theory of activity and psychological practice proved that the analysis of mental functioning disorders is impossible without a systematic approach to the facts revealed.
Background. As a rule, something complicated and threatening to a person is associated with borderline disorder, something that even psychotherapists sometimes cause concern and an ambivalent attitude. Therefore, an understanding of the internal processes of a borderline disorder is especially important, as it reduces fears and promotes better interaction with people who live with this disorder.
The Objective of is to phenomenologically uncover the core of borderline, to present the psychotherapeutic methods of working with borderline patients.
Design. The disorder is described on the level of symptoms in an overview and is understood as a relationship disorder both inwardly as well as outwardly. A phenomenological approach to the specific suffering of Borderline patients reveals, in the depth of this impulsive, intense and unstable personality, an unendurable pain connected to the inner loss of self. The phenomenon of Borderline proves to be a fundamental being split accompanied by a split experience of the world. In this tension, the rearing up becomes comprehensible as a psychodynamic struggle essential for survival. Due to the painfulness and threat of these lacking and injured ego-structures this dynamic can only slowly be dismantled in therapy and replaced by increasing personal behavior. Finally, main features of treatment of the specific problems of Borderline happening are presented.
Conclusion. A professional approach allows breaking this destructive circle and offer patients (and their families) development prospects. This is the greatest task of psychotherapy. Such work can be a source of in-depth experience for the therapist that can be gained through successful therapy.
Background. Studying motivation, value orientations and personal qualities of volunteers in the digital world is very relevant today. It is designed to promote the broader involvement of youth in social volunteer projects. Participation in volunteering projects satisfies the needs of the individual in self-actualization, and also develops maturity and social recognition.
The Objectiveof the paper is to provide the reader with a theoretical analysis of volunteering as an event, in particular digital volunteering of today’s youth.
Design. The major classifications of motives for participation in volunteering are analyzed. The features of semantic aspects of youth participation in volunteer activities are discussed. The phenomenon of digital volunteering as a contemporary aid event is considered. The types of digital volunteering activities are proposed. The main advantages and opportunities of digital volunteering are presented, in comparison with the traditional form of voluntary activity.
Conclusion. The issues of psychological characteristics of a person choosing digital volunteering as a type of voluntary activity remain undisclosed. The prospect of empirical research should lie in the study of the moral and ethical values of youth involvement in digital volunteer work as citizenship and social responsibility.
Background. Virtual reality (VR) is becoming more and more widespread in various spheres of human life – in science, education, industry, and leisure. In particular, children are increasingly using VR. However, there is an insignificant number of methodological studies on the effects of virtual reality on children.
The Objective of this paper is to consider virtual reality technologies as a tool of developing a modern child. In accordance with the goal, the tasks were set to analyze the results of the application, the possibilities and limitations of using VR as a tool that mediates the process of mental development.
Design. The paper considers the qualitative features of Virtual Reality technologies in contrast to other digital technologies. The analysis of the VR impact on children of different ages in terms of finding the limits of VR applicability is given. It is noted that immersion in virtual environments of children of different age groups occurs with varying degrees of intensity, which is first of all determined by cognitive functions development in these age groups. The positive effects of VR application as an educational tool in the digital environment are highlighted. As a result, it was shown that successful immersion of a child in the virtual world and effective immersion means requires the development of adaptation skills to the new form of the surrounding world, where successfulness is possible only when shaping relevant operations and actions.
Results. The analysis of the existing results of the VR research as a means of developing a modern child has revealed a number of significant facts that determine further methodological research in this area. These include a shift in emphasis in the VR studies from consideration of risks and negative consequences towards qualitative positive effects from their application in order to overcome the limitations of using digital technologies that are considered classical.
Conclusion. VR has significant prospects both as a research tool and as a developing tool relevant to the evolving digital space.
Background. Cyberaggression is widespread phenomenon in the online environment, that doesn’t cause direct physical harm but has a lasting negative impact on the psychological state of participants.
Objective. The study analyzes the relationship between offline and online aggression, the prevalence of various types of cyberaggression among adolescents and youth and their emotional experience, as well as parents' awareness of it.
Design. The study comprises of 3395 participants: 1554 adolescents aged 12-17, 736 young people aged 18-30, and 1105 parents of adolescents aged 12-17 from 8 federal districts of Russia. Respondents answered questions about the relationship between online and offline aggression, the collision with cyberaggression and emotional response to it.
Results. The school is ahead of the Internet as a space of encounter with hostile situations. Most respondents believe that people are more likely to experience hostile situations in real life than online. Most adolescents face different types of cyberaggression. Adolescents are more likely to encounter flaming, trolling and cyberhate, and less likely to encounter cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Youth is more likely to encounter flaming. The least emotionally significant situations are flaming and cyberhate. Trolling causes strong feelings in every third adolescent, cyberstalking in every fifth, cyberbullying in every second. At the same time, parents are not aware of their children's experience with cyberaggression and the intensity of their experience.
Conclusion.The spread of various types of cyberaggression and the emotional response to them require the development of differentiated approaches to the prevention of various situations of cyberaggression and the development of specific coping strategies in the collision with them.
Background. The increase of public satisfaction with the quality of medical care is one of the Russian healthcare issues. A method for increasing public satisfaction lies in modernizing the model of medical care, i.e. a shift from the paternalistic approach to the patient-oriented one in medical counseling. For its successful implementation, the image of the patient in the attending physician is of great importance.
Objective. We hypothesized that targeted doctor training in professional communication skills will cause a qualitatively-quantitative change in the semantic content of the patient’s image. Therefore, the objective is studying changes of the patient’s image in medical students in the course of their participation in quasi-professional activities.
Design. In order to test the hypothesis, we conducted an experimental study that included 250 (78.2% females, 21.8% males) first-year students of the Faculty of Medicine and Prevention, the Ural State Medical University. The average age of the participants is 18.8 years. To eliminate distortions in the responses of the participants, the patient’s image was studied from the perspective of a psychosemantic research approach. An important criterion in choosing an approach and a research method was the desire to identify implicit and in most cases indirect characteristics of the patient’s image. To study the subjective semantic spaces representing a set of subjective systems of meanings in relation to a patient, the method of bipolar and unipolar personality semantic differential was used
Results. The results of factorial and comparative analysis (T-Student) by the methodology “Bipolar and unipolar personality semantic differential” showed that the content of the patient’s image as a semantic space of the world’s image of doctors with targeted training in professional communication skills tends to change when performing educational and professional tasks of clinical practice.
Conclusion. The contents of the semantic category “patient image” is significantly expanding filled with various semantic meanings. Accordingly, various changes in the behaviour of future doctors turn to be possible. The results of the study can serve as the basis for integrating a targeted training of professional communication skills into the medical educational programs, which will increase the quality of doctors’ preparedness for practical activities and help increase public satisfaction with the quality of medical care.
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. In today’s science, the issue of changes in the internal affairs bodies management is one of the most crucial ones. In carrying out their duties the department heads must protect the rights and legitimate interests of citizens in accordance with the law. They are allowed to restrict the rights of citizens if it is required by their professional duties. That is why further development of a scientifically based approach to high department heads in the internal affairs bodies as a trigger for transformation processes should be recognized as absolutely relevant.
Objective. Identifying major personality traits required for high executive posts in the internal affairs body; identifying the most significant personality traits and management style of the department heads in the territorial internal affairs bodies; studying individual psychological determinants of career adaptability of internal affairs bodies department heads.
Design. The empirical research was carried out in the internal affairs agencies of the Krasnoyarsk Krai territorial unit and included three stages: 1. Conducting a survey among employees to identify the most significant personality traits required for high executive posts in the internal affairs body. The sample included 250 respondents with work experience from 3 to 25 years. 2. Conducting a survey aimed at determining the management style. The sample included 44 respondents. 3. Studying individual career adaptability of internal affairs bodies department heads. The following methods were used: “Adaptivity” (multi-factor personality test) method by A.G. Maklakov and S.V. Chermyanin was used to diagnose social adaptation; R. Cattel’s polyfactorial personal questionnaire; G. Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questionnaire; A.Kokoshkarova Questionnaire for neuroticism and tendentious personal deviations (QNTPD); Bass-Darki aggression methods. To determine neuropsychic stability, the “Prognosis” method was used. The sample included 44 respondents.
Results. The level of career adaptability in department heads of the territorial internal affairs agencies of the Krasnoyarsk Krai Territory is directly related to neuropsychic stability, which is due to the presence of significant correlations with the “Prognosis” method (0.8267). There are significant correlations of career adaptability with indicators of neurasthenia (0.4398) and vegetative disorders (0.4121) according to Kokoshkarova method. According to the results of the mathematical-statistical analysis of the relationships of career adaptability with the Cattell method, significant correlations were identified: C (-0.3659) – increase in emotional stability with the development of career adaptability; L (0.2758) – confidence; H (-0,2617) – leader’s courage and psychological readiness for justified risk; M (0,1922) – adaptability to everyday service and practical views protects the manager from losing touch with reality; N (0.1198) – career adaptability develops, straightforward behavior substitutes avoiding excessive scheming or inappropriate flexibility.
Conclusion. The results can be used by practical psychologists when working with department heads of the territorial internal affairs agencies located in the republics of Hakassia, Tyva, Altay, Krasnoyarsk Krai, in the regions of Irkutsk, Kemerov, Tomsk. Further research to determine the impact of management conditions on transformations in the department heads ‘s personality is to be conducted.
Background. The paper is based on specifics of the professional activity of specialists of the State Inspectorate of Small Size Vessels of Russian EMERCOM (SISSV) is a highly demanding job that requires specific individual psychological features to successfully fulfill their duties. Such individual psychological features are important for experts, and also for candidates to the positions in the GIMS used as recruitment criteria.
The Objective. of the study is to identify job skills that determine the professional effectiveness of SISSV experts, to identify the relationship between job skills and career success and to determine psychological indicators strongly associated with success.
Design. An expert survey (N = 40) was conducted to determine psychological indicators that contribute to professional success of SISSV experts. We carried out psychological assessment of acting SISSV experts (N = 275) to determine the presence and the level of necessary skills. Based on expert assessments, the inspectors were assigned to either successful or unsuccessful groups. The resulting polar groups were compared using Mann-Whitney criterion. Correlation analysis (Spearman) was used to access the strength of association between professional success and job skills. We also used factor and regression analyses to model the structure of job skills associated with professional success of acting SISSV specialists and job applicants.
Results. allowed to establish reliable differences between the polar groups on following characteristics (p ≤ 0.05): intelligence, abstract and operative thinking, intellectual liability, attention characteristics (volume, concentration, selection, distribution). They were defined as job skills for SISSV experts. The results of correlation analysis (p = 0.01, p = 0.05) showed that the specialists professional success depended on the presence and level of formation of job skills. We determined the structure of job skills associated with professional success.
Conclusion. The obtained results may be used to optimize the processes of psychological monitoring and psychological selection of the acting specialists of SISSV of Russian EMERCOM and applicant for the position.
Background. Registration and analysis of bioelectric activity of the brain while performing the mental task allows us to obtain objective information about the physiological processes of the brain.
The Objective of the paper is to analyse session dynamics of changes in Theta rhythm(4-8 Hz), Delta rhythm (1-3.99 Hz), as well as slow (0.99-0.1 Hz) biorhythms of the human brain by registering the spectrum of the difference function of bioelectric activity (FBA) in the process of positional computer game.
Design. The efficiency of positional computer game of 65 female subjects in the age range of 18-58 years was analyzed. In 7 players in the course of four sessions of the game, the bioelectric activity of the brain in the range from 8 Hz to 0.13 Hz was studied.
Results. It is shown that the difference function of bioelectric activity at the significance level p=0.05 differs for each hemisphere in the frequency range. The changes in the frequencies of excitation (maxima) and inhibition (minima) of the difference function of bioelectric activity of the brain with an increase in the number of game sessions in each hemisphere in the ranges of theta, Delta and slow rhythms are revealed. A psychophysiological model of the player’s operations is proposed, which is consistent with the obtained data. The Statistica 10.0 package was used for statistical analysis.
Conclusion. In the final sessions of the positional computer game, the activity of the left hemisphere is reduced than the right one. As the strategy of the game has already been tested, the main elements of the game are already in memory, the novelty is almost absent. This is consistent with the transition from a successive (step-bystep) method of information processing to a simultaneous (one-step) analysis of the game position, which is characterized by rapid automatism in decision-making and performance.
Background. In modern psychology the study of mechanisms of creative thinking is of great interest. Attention is one of the important factors affecting the operation of intuitive thinking component.
The Objective of the paper is to study the effect of anticipatory attention on the insight and analytical frequency in solving anagrams.
Design. During the experiment, the participants performed two successive tasks. The first task included stimuli identification when the subjects were presented with stimuli — anagrams and pseudowords. The task was to identify the anagram correctly. In the second task (if the stimulus had been the anagram), the participants had to solve the anagram, noting whether the solution was analytical or an insight. The anagram and pseudoword had different letter order. The participants were divided into two groups: the experimental group whose subjects were informed about the difference and were asked to use it for a lexical solution and the control group whose subjects were not informed about the difference.
It was expected that the identification of the anagram in the first task will shape anticipatory attention patterns for the experimental group, which will affect the frequency of insight solutions in the second task. Results. The subjects of the experimental group were found to have a correlation relationship between the speed characteristics of the first and second tasks for analytical solutions. For insight solutions, no such connection was found.
Conclusion. The results demonstrate that insights and analytical solutions are the result of two separate processes of finding solutions that proceed in parallel.
Background. The paper considers the issue of categorical search for three-dimensional geometric shapes. The results of the previous studies on the real-world objects showed that pre-attentive extrafoveal analysis provides an effective identification of the target, reflecting in the right direction of the first saccade compared with the random search.
Objective. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of extrafoveal analysis during categorical search for pyramids in two groups of participants: mathematicians and psychologists.
Design. 15 mathematicians and 17 psychologists aged 18-25 participated in the study. Each participant performed 144 trialssearching for the target pyramid among the distractor pyramids. In the series 2and 9, any eye movements were prohibited to study covert attention.
Results. The findings of the experiment failed to reveal any differences in the use of extrafoveal analysis and accuracy in both groups. We observed dramatic individual differences, revealed in various degrees of extrafoveal analysis in the search process and in changing the strategy of the task solving. Special series which prohibited eye movements, demonstrated a significant role of covert attention in the categorical search, as well as the possibility and effectiveness of extrafoveal analysis even though while free instruction it could not be used by all participants and all cases.
Conclusion. During categorical search both foveal and extrafoveal processing of stimuli, as well as pre-attentive analysis and covert attention, were simultaneously involved. The dynamics of their interaction was determined by low-level perceptual processes, individual characteristics of the subjects, the task specificity and the instruction.
Keywords: categorical search;
механизмы зрительного поиска;
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. The subject matter of developmental psychology has almost never been subject to critical analysis, but it is obvious there are problems in this field. In particular, it is hard to shape the major issue of analysis in developmental psychology: personality development, psyche, age characteristics, or all of the above mentioned issues. For the further research of developmental psychology as a science, it is very important to identify the main fundamentally different areas and subject matter of research that are somehow studied, however spasmodically, often within other branches of psychology or even in other sciences.
The Objective of this paper is to clarify the subject matter of developmental psychology as a science, to verify that developmental psychology dwells on several fundamentally different areas and subject matters of research, in accordance with which it is necessary to shape the research of this science.
Design. The paper identifies fundamentally different areas of developmental psychology considered as separate subject matters of research. It is recognized that the structure of modern developmental psychology does not correspond to the subject matter of research. As a result, some areas of personality development are not identified as separate subdisciplines or sections of developmental psychology (e.g. variational personality development, development of personality substructures) lack research and are not presented in textbooks developmental psychology.
Conclusion. Developmental psychology can identify the following types of research subject matters: normative and variational human development, the development of psychological substructures of personality and psychological characteristics of age groups. It is necessary to restructure the developmental psychology based on the subjects of research highlighting the following subdisciplines: regular mental development, variable personality development, mental development (development of psychological substructures of personality), age-based studies (age groups psychology).
Keywords: developmental psychology;
the fields of study of developmental psychology;
sub disciplines of developmental psychology;
normative and variational development;
development of personality subsystems;
psychology of age groups;
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. The BPS-SR (Boredom Proneness Scale-Short Form) is a brief and most efficacious version of the famous Boredom Proneness Scale developed by R. Farmer and N. Sundberg (Struk, 2017).
Objective. This study is aimed to adapt the Russian BPS-SR version.
Design. Psychometric indicators of the Russian BPS-SR version have been assessed on the sample of males (N=151) serving sentences in prison.
Findings. The factor structure of the BPS-SR, estimated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, has demonstrated the scale homogeneity and thus confirmed the original BPS-SR authors’ hypothesis suggesting the advantage of the scale comprising only direct test items. The BPS-SR reliability (α-Cronbach=0.86) and validity indicators also have confirmed the psychometric adequacy of the Russian scale adaptation. The boredom proneness has proven to be positively associated with apathy, hopelessness, loneliness and male depressive syndrome, which allows considering it a possible factor in psychological maladjustment as an adult. The social and demographic characteristics evaluation performed using the one-way analysis of variance ANOVA has showed that age, marital status, having or not having children, offense type and sentence term do not significantly contribute to the boredom proneness, while the BPS-SR indicators depend directly on the respondents’ education. The respondents having obtained the higher and specialized secondary education have proven to be less prone to boredom than respondents having the basic secondary or full secondary education.
Conclusion. The conclusion infers that the adapted BPS-SR can actually be considered a psychometrically reasonable means to diagnose boredom proneness in Russianspeaking respondents.
Background. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are nowadays widely used in various domains. Their use is connected with a broad range of psychological problems, in particular, within engineering psychology.
Objective. In this paper, typical engineering-psychological problems of interface design for UAVs are considered.
Design. Literature survey on topic related to UAV control. Results. Problems of managing sensory isolation, negative effects of automation failures, connection losses and monotony, as well as problems of supporting the work of UAVs operator teams were identified and solutions proposed. We also study methodological and methodical questions within the domain of interface design for controlling UAVs.
Conclusions. Designing interfaces for UAVs is a complex psychological task. There are perspectives of use for virtual reality, AI, predictive displays, and adaptive automation. There is need for general recommendations concerning UAVs interface development.
Background. The popularity of using virtual reality in various areas of life is growing steadily every year. The use of virtual reality in sports, including sports of the highest achievements, has both advantages and disadvantages that will be considered in this paper.
The Objective is to study main aspects of using virtual reality in sports, including the historical aspect of the method, the main current areas of using the method, the existing advantages and limitations of the method for using in sports practice, including sports of the highest achievements.
Results and conclusions of the study. It is shown using virtual reality technologies in sports has a whole range of advantages, including removing restrictions imposed by real sports: preventing sport injury; creating environmental conditions (weather, humidity, rivalry, etc.), lack of dependence on sport equipment, weather or location, and the ability to engage in hard-to-reach and expensive sports accordingly. However, there are a number of problems that make it difficult to use virtual reality in sports, in particular, using sport equipment and assessing skill transfer.
Background. A wide circle of multidisciplinary researchers share interest in motivation factors of Wikipedians, i.e. virtual volunteers, members of the online world’s largest online encyclopedia «Wikipedia», who consolidate personal resources to manage comprehensive aggregation of free knowledge. Nevertheless, the question of the driving forces of this prosocial behaviour is still open.
Objective. It is assumed that for a full understanding of the determined online activities of Wikipedians we need to analyze the value orientations to which they give personal preference. In accordance with this, the following goal was set: to identify the shared values of the experienced transnational core of Wikipedia authors.
Design. Based on the semantic units derived from previous cycles of disparate academic studies of Wikipedia’s practical development, we conducted a content analysis of a transnational survey. The recipients were 65 authors of multilingual Wikipedia segments (83% males and 17% females) with average experience of 9.9 years compilation of encyclopedic articles.
Results. The constitutive system of invariant internal and external value orientations characteristic of Wikipedians is disclosed. It is found that in the most cases Wikipedians find a number of personal significant reasons for participating in the Wikipedia, the reasons resonating with their inner essence.
Conclusion. The internal value orientations of Wikipedians include: self-development (self-improvement, self-assertion, self-realization); reciprocal (mutual) altruism; a tendency to high quality and systematization of knowledge; a pleasure of creation; autonomy; recreation (hobby, entertainment); meaningfulness; preservation of personal heritage. The external value orientations include: preservation and development of the cultural heritage / language segment; promotion and popularization of Wikipedia (its ideology and principles); low transaction costs and convenience (attractiveness) of the system; affiliation; social identity; improvement peace («Weltverbesserungs Antrieb»); building bridges between cultures and languages. It is summarized that a detailed study of the identified value orientations and also other psychological characteristics of Wikipedia volunteers can significantly expand theoretical concepts of functioning and the applied value for the organization of volunteer practices to disseminate knowledge as the highest value of humanity.
Background. The paper is dedicated to the psychological description of the musical movement method as a particular practice of esthetic education. The practice of the musical movement (MM) was originally created as an artistic one and only gradually began to acquire the features of the pedagogical system. Over time, works appeared where attempts were made to psychological understanding of the processes taking place in the bosom of this practice: changes, transformations of music perception under the influence of movement, expressive movement, etc. However, a more complete reflection of the psychological content of the MM method was not accomplished.
The Objective of the research is to provide a psychological description of the musical movement method as a specific practice of aesthetic education and to explain the notion of MM as a psychotechnical method.
Background. The paper shows that the subject matter of the MM method is not so much the movement as such, its performing part, but the internal, psychological aspect of experiencing and meaning production. Achieving the unity of internal and external, experience and movement, motivation and action, meaning and gesture are the basis of the main goals of musical movement. Musical-motor exercises are considered to be the main tool of the method with which you can learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. It is shown how the musical-motor form accumulates the experience of experiencing music and reflects different semantic levels of musical content: from onomatopoeia and rhythmic imitation, modeling of emotional intonation to the existential layer of music.
Results. The goal of the artwork in mastering the MM method coincides with the pedagogical task: to achieve openness of the personality, its deep, genuine involvement in dialogue with music through movement and gesture. The task set in the musical movement is to give a motor response to sounding music, which affects the motivational-value sphere of the human individual. Classes in the music movement are unique situations that simulate the processes of creativity and are aimed at developing the capacity for creative realization.
Conclusion. The musical-motor exercise is a unique tool that allows one to learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. The musical-motor exercise accumulates the experience of experiencing music. Due to the perception of music in its full shape and form and penetration into the existential world of music, human feelings begin to achieve the sublime multidimensional level in everyday life.
Background. The influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on mental functions is not given a proper account in modern neurology and neuropsychology. The data published provide information on the state of higher mental functions (HMF) and on disturbances of the psychological well-being of children and adolescents after MTBI. The analysis of research materials in this area provides data on disorders associated with both local and cerebral symptoms, which form a diverse picture of cognitive and behavioural disorders.
The Objective is to study HMF in adolescents of 10-14 years old after TBI of mild severity as part of the methodology of neuropsychological syndrome analysis (Luria, 1973). Design. The study is based on the original set of techniques designed by A.R. Luria. We focused on assessing the status of various HMF components (motor areas, gnostic areas of memory and intelligence). We also studied the mental activity in its regulatory and dynamic aspects. The population included 31 patients with MTBI and 20 healthy subjects.
Results. The analysis of the results showed that violations of HMF in the acute period were represented by three types of syndromes. The leading place in each syndrome is occupied by deficiency symptoms of non-specific brain structures.
Conclusion. The information obtained enriches the knowledge of neuropsychology about the patterns of development of brain systems and related mental functions in adolescence, and also allows one to choose more suitable options for rehabilitation effects aimed at improving the adaptation of patients, enhancing their quality of life, and preventing negative consequences of MTBI.
Background. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of disabilities and death. CHD is known to be a multifactorial disease and in the process of complex research, it is important to take into account the role of psychological factors. The presence of gender specificities in the formation and course of cardiovascular diseases determines the need to study the psychological characteristics of men and women with CHD in order to plan and develop prevention and rehabilitation programs.
Objective. The present research is aimed at studying the psychological features in men and women with CHD before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at the stage of preoperative care: 1) the study of asthenic condition in patients with CHD (men and women) during inpatient treatment before CABG; 2) the study of the severity and structure of anxiety in patients with CHD (men and women) before CABG; 3) the study of psychopathological symptoms including depressive manifestations in patients (men and women) before CABG; 4) the study of personality peculiarities in patients with CHD before CABG.
Design. In the course of the present study 60 patients with CHD before CABG were surveyed with a gender distribution of 30 women and 30 men. The study was carried out on the basis of Almazov National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (St. Petersburg, Russia). The average age of patients was 60.9 ± 7.6. The study included the clinical interview and the following methods of psychological testing were used: Asthenic State Scale, Integrative Test of Anxiety (ITT), Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and The Big Five Personality Test.
Results. In women with CHD before CABG, the higher level of asthenia and anxiety (both state and trait) was found as compared with men. Also in women in comparison with male patients higher rates of such manifestations in the structure of their psychological features as “somatization”, “interpersonal sensitivity”, “depression”, “phobic anxiety” were noted. According to the results of the study of personality peculiarities, it was found that among men with CHD the indicator of emotional stability is higher than in women.
Conclusion. It is necessary to take into account the possible variants of a sensitive emotional response which may be more common in women at the stage of impatient treatment before CABG (including such manifestations as anxiety, low mood, emotional sensitivity, asthenia). In accordance with this, during psychocorrectional work, it is important to apply techniques aimed at working with those emotional-negative experiences that may worsen noticeably in connection with the upcoming surgical intervention.