Currently the Ministry of Finance is working on the issue of gradual increase of the retirement age, while various specialists are actively discussing the pros and cons of this potential change. The issue of determining the characteristics of the labour force participation of elder people and their participation in society is complex and multifaceted. A retired person’s capability for activity, willingness to get enrolled in society vary considerably depending on health, psychological well-being, self-attitude.
The paper examines one’s self-concept as a generalized set of ideas about their own physical, psychological, social features As a central component of identity and selfregulation of the retired citizens. The results of the study presented in the paper reveal the retirement age as a period of human ontogenesis, during which their self-concept is undergoing a number of changes. Based on the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the following periods of the individual development at the retirement age is proposed: early retirement, mid retirement, late retirement. Each of the periods is described taking into account age peculiarities of self-awareness and the self-concept. The paper shows the crisis nature of the self-concept development in people of the retirement age. It also highlights normative age-graded crises: the retirement crisis, the crisis of self-sufficiency, the crisis of integrity. The paper also highlights gender-specific features of the self-concept in retired citizens.
The study was conducted using a sample of 120 unemployed pensioners from the cities Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk Oblast (Sverdlovsk region), Russia. To study the features of the self-concept of the retired citizens the following methods were used: «Who am I?» (M. Kun) for studying the content of the self-concept, the self-relation test (V. V. Stolin, S. R. Pantileev) for analysinge self-attitude of the retired citizens, the technique of personal differential for studying self-attractiveness, strength and activity of the retired citizens.
The paper presents the results of the sociological study of life values in researchers in the sphere of education. According to a specially designed questionnaire that included 72 questions, 721 people were interviewed. The sample of respondents included employees with different levels of academic qualifications and experience of professional activity, living in various regions of Russia. The respondents are the employees of the Scientific Research Institute and various universities. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of social demographic features (age, gender, financial status) and a number of social indicators of professional activity (seniority, position, availability of scientific degrees and titles, having a permanent job or working flexi time, publication activity) to life values in researchers. Special attention is paid to the influence of the emotional assessment of their life prospects, social status in the scientific group and migration plans over the evaluation of the significance of certain life fears. The research results reveal the hierarchy of the life values in researchers. The influence of traditionalist gender differences in the value orientations of researchers is emphasized. Two developmental stages are to identified with the significant transfer changes of life orientations in researchers. The influence of the scientific status (academic degree, academic rank, position held, publication activity) on the value orientations and professional well-being of the scientific employee are highlighted. The common data show the role of social psychological factors (assessing the success of their life prospects, social status in the team, migration plans) in determining the significance of certain life values. The identified trends are interpreted with respect to the issues of social success and professional development of researcher.
Available Online: 28.06.2017
The paper presents the results of a study of social support for young males and females, and also its relationship with tolerance of uncertainty. A series of psychodiagnostic tools were used to study gender determinants of social support, tolerance of uncertainty and interpersonal intolerance in young people with different levels of emotional and instrumental support. Young males and females aged 18–22 years with a high level of tolerance of uncertainty are susceptible to various forms of social support. The ability to accept uncertainty, to function in the system of unclear interpersonal communication and to act in the face of changing circumstances determine the level of satisfaction with social support in the participants. The research (N=165) confirmed the assumption that first and foremost social support as a communicative phenomenon has differences in the perception of emotional forms in young males and females. Secondly, the specific features of person functioning in the social supporting act system are interrelated, including the level of tolerance of uncertainty. Thirdly, social support can reduce human state of uncertainty and eventually neutralize the negative impact of stressful events. The human ability to «see and discover» the social support, be sensitive and attentive to the supporting acts of social environment has a close relationship with the ability to accept uncertainty and maintain stability in a state of discomfort if any.
Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.
The paper considers social perceptual representations of mother in children. The social perceptive image of mother is associated with a certain attitude, and, consequently, determines the willingness to act in a certain way, the willingness to implement a certain strategy of relationships. The paper presents the results of a large-scale empirical study comprising 7000 high school students.
The sample can be considered quite representative with all necessary parameters, including respondents from big cities and small towns and villages of Russia, complete and incomplete families, families with 1-2 children and large ones. The results of the study in the general sample show that the social perceptual portrait of the mother compises only positive qualities, and does not contain any negative descriptor.
In addition, a high level of concordance (coherence, unanimity) in the perception and assessment of the mother’s respondents was revealed. A comparative analysis is carried out of the mother’s image in the minds of young men and women, in the minds of respondents from complete and incomplete families, from urban and rural families, from families with one or two children and from large families, from large families with many children and many children with many children. As a general trend, the social perceptual portrait of the mother in all groups remains positive. However, certain differences are also found in some changes in most significant qualities. Summing uo, differences are also found in the level of concordance of the respondents’ choice in specific groups that differ in gender or social features.
The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people.
Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development.
Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.
By: Aylamazyan, Aida M.;
Available Online: 28.06.2017
In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment.
Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals.
This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age.
The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared.
These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests) not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts.
The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.
The gaze direction of another person is an important social cue, allowing us to orient quickly in social interactions. The effect of short-term redirection of visual attention to the same object that other people are looking at is known as the gaze cueing effect. There is evidence that the strength of this effect depends on many social factors, such as the trust in a partner, her/his gender, social attitudes, etc. In our study we investigated the influence of race of face stimuli on the strength of the gaze cueing effect. Using the modified Posner Cueing Task an attentional shift was assessed in a scene where avatar faces of different race were used as distractors. Participants were instructed to fix the black dot in the centre of the screen until it changes colour, and then as soon as possible to make a rightward or leftward saccade, depending on colour of a fixed point. A male distractor face was shown in the centre of the screen simultaneously with a fixed point. The gaze direction of the distractor face changed from straight ahead to rightward or leftward at the moment when colour of a fixed point changed. It could be either congruent or incongruent with the saccade direction. We used face distractors of three race categories: Caucasian (own race faces), Asian and African (other race faces). Twenty five Caucasian participants took part in our study. The results showed that the race of face distractors influence the strength of the gaze cueing effect, that manifested in the change of latency and velocity of the ongoing saccades.
The issue of attention is one of the leading in sports psychology. Quite often, athletes’ failures in competitions are ultimately connected with the attention processes, i.e. distraction, switching or loss of concentration. Simultaneously, each particular kind of sport is distinguished by a specific competitive situation and accordingly presents a number of requirements to athletes, including attention features. Archery is no exception. Thus, in shooting sports, concentration and stability of attention are often deemed as the most significant features of attention.
The paper is devoted to the study of the attention dynamic properties in archers. Attention features of athletes were assessed depending on the sports major, gender, age, experience and level of competence. 65 archers from different regions of Russia took part in the study, including 34 males and 31 females, the average age being 16.29 ± 1.74. Experience ranges from 1 year to 8 years, average experience is 4.46 ± 1.93.
The research results showed that archers are characterized by high indicators of stability of attention, and also high efficiency of solving attention problems. The professional success of archery was associated with the ability to distribute attention when necessary. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the features of attention for recurved and compound archers, which indicates the uniformity of tasks related to attention in the sporting practice of archers. Summing up, it is necessary to include skills in the distribution of attention in the program of psychological training of archers.
Professional functions of modern trainers have long expanded from a simple function of training athletes to compete to the performance of the numerous roles of leader, organizer, psychologist, which are based on the ability of a coach to improve their professional skills and personal qualities.
With the increasing popularity of sports, the means and conditions of sports training, the requirements to the quality of work and mastery of the main subjects of sports are increasing. The demand for a coach as a key figure in the education of successful athletes rises.
The paper analyzes the research of criteria and factors of sports coach efficiency; the features of reflexive processes as one of the most effective ways of coach’s professional development.
The correlation analysis performed in the work showed a significant connection between professional success and the reflexivity of trainers, which in general is correspondent with the results of similar studies performed in a number of other research fields. In the work there was no confirmation of the regular viewpoint in psychological studies of the relationship between the success of activity and the personality’s internality, which induced a number of new assumptions about the nature of the interaction of successful coaches with their pupils, leadership style, and personality traits.
The results of the study as a whole cause additional questions about individual psychological characteristics of respondents and allow to identify further research.
The paper is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of motor imagery widely used by athletes in a variety of sports as an effective psychological training method. The research introduces basic approaches, theories and modern views on the issue. There are a wide variety of views on the mechanisms underlying mental practice of motor tasks. In particular, mental image can be considered from exclusively cognitive perspective or as a direct and essential background for producing movement.
To signify the notion of mental image in specialist studies the terms «mental study» or «mental training» are used. The research devoted to this issue has significantly influenced the conceptual understanding of the motor image nature.
There are opposing theories, who employ the mental image that is regarded as a basic cognitive component and does not consist in direct interaction with the executive link of the motor system. On the other hand, there are theories that view the mental image as the immediate basis of the movement that stores information about all its parameters.
Modern studies, including neuroimaging methods, confirm inseparability of these approaches and central locale of trigger mechanism that modulates physiological reactions and also its generality for real and imaginary action.
In conclusion, taking into account recent data on the nature of motor imagery, special attention is paid to practical aspects of using it in sports, which is different from conventional approaches and recommendations on motor imagery use.
The paper proves the assumption that being a worldview of the information society postmodernism simultaneously reverberates its problems, among which is blurring personal identity. The most vulnerable part of the postmodern ideology is the implicit inability to construct steady architecture of identification. This is hampered by specific ideas related to the fundamental principle of postmodernism, i.e. pluralism leading to relativism and the loss of sustainable landmarks. Applying the pluralism principle to the full may result in unlimited choice production, which should not be considered the achievement of the information society and postmodern culture, but its main problem. The social political consequences of tolerance issues and the equivalence of opinions, attitudes and values are discussed. Lack of preferred self-identification vectors reduces the motivation for the individual to develop a stable personal identity. If no paradigm in terms of the truth can claim a given status disputes over claims of significance turn into controversies over power, thereby generating social Darwinism. The principle of pluralism actually legitimizes radical ideologies, whose extreme form is terrorism put in the mosaic and multicultural postmodern world occurs to be one of many sociocultural paradigms. Exactly the identity crisis in the conditions of mass distribution of both military and information technologies is considered the main cause of radicalism as the result of finding pathological forms of cognitive personal identity. Social cultural and worldview crises of the information society are becoming the main cause for producing endurable and irregular forms of personal identity architecture.
May 11, 2017 two important documents aimed at strengthening international cooperation and raising the status of Russian psychology are signed in Lomonosov Moscow State University
The paper discusses the features of parenting in adolescents and the correlation of these features with the development of respect for parents. The first part of the paper suggests considering respect for parents as an important component of the parent-child relationship; it shows the relevance of studying the respect; it stipulates the choice for the study of adolescence; it describes some concepts of respect and offers the author’s selecting two values of respect for parents. The research is relevant due to the insufficient number of empirical studies of respect for parents and practical demand. The research results of 218 adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 129 of their parents (N=347) are shown. The research is conducted using the author’s questionnaire “Respect for Parents”, ADOR technique, adolescent essays “My parents”, and the technique “Analysis of Family Relationships”. The results are processed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
The Paper describes the research results adolescent respect for parents, adolescents’ perception of parents’ attitude to them, and features of family parenting. A significant correlation between the features of parenting and respect/disrespect for parents in adolescents are considered. Most adolescents have a feeling of respect for their parents and show respectful behaviour; in this regard, the features of family upbringing have a stronger influence on developing the feeling of respect for parents rather than a prescribed respectful behaviour. The paper lists specific characteristics of parenting, affecting the feelinge of respect for parents and respectful behaviour towards them.
The paper describes the research results of relationship between personal autonomy and responsibility level in adolescence. The theoretical idea of unity of freedom and responsibility can be regarded as link between personal autonomy and level of responsibility in adolescence. The hypothesis of correlation between level of responsibility and autonomy in adolescence is realized. The sample includes 368 school students aged from 13 to 17, Moscow, Russia. The questionnaire to diagnose autonomy defines emotional, cognitive, intellectual and behavioural components of autonomy. The second questionnaire describes the responsibility level using the example of different moral dilemmas. The results of the empirical research describe the hypothesis on the relationship between personal autonomy and level of responsibility. Personal autonomy includes value, emotional, cognitive and behavioural components. Cluster groups with different levels of autonomy are defined: high autonomy, intellectual autonomy, low autonomy and disharmonic type of autonomy. Higher level of a number of autonomy components correlates with higher level of responsibility. Analysis of moral norm deviation shows that type and content of moral dilemma play an important role in responsibility acceptance. Gender differences in level of responsibility is defined in the following way: females show higher level of responsibility than males.
Available Online: 30.03.2017
This paper analyzes the internal mechanisms of the individual positive and negative attitude towards appearance, the description of which is under-represented in the psychological literature. The process of creating a consistent image of the physical «Self» and maintaining a positive emotional evaluation of the body and appearance particularly seen through the idea of assigning the individual components of appearance, committed throughout the whole course of life, and is understood as a specific psychological problem, addressable only in human personality as integrative unity, preserving and maintaining its integrity. The hypothesis of the study made by the assumption that a positive attitude to their external appearance is ensured, actualization processes semantic and symbolic mediation of the physical and expressive features, and on the contrary, a negative attitude toward the appearance indicates the failure of such processes. The following characteristics of body image were considered: emotional assessment and the nature of the work on the body, the internal means of maintaining a positive attitude to their appearance, and also the broader context of personal characteristics, particularly the motivational sphere, psychological defenses, the general harmony, integration of personality structure. Differences were demonstrated between conscious and unconscious relation to the external appearance among the subjects, presented significant correlations between the non-integration of personal organization and the negative attitude towards appearance, and between the presence of supervaluation group needs and the negative assessment by the subjects of their appearance. The subjects who accept their appearance are characterized by a greater representation of mediation systems as the assignment of funds in the structure of the physical image «Self», as compared to subjects not receiving their physical appearance.
By: Kaminskaya, N. A.;
Available Online: 30.03.2017
There are more than a dozen of personality theories in psychology currently. However, among psychologists there is no general agreement in understanding personality as a psychological reality, i.e. the agreement of phenomena opened to introspection and the facts established by observing the activity of the subject and his/her products, all together designated by the term «personality». The authors of these theories are dealing with very different phenomena and facts, sometimes not quite compatible ones, making impossible comparative analysis based on the criterion of adequacy, designed to assess the extent to which the scientific theory corresponds to the psychological reality explained by it.
Thus, it is useful to turn to the analysis of William James’s works in order to clarify the issue of the psychological reality of the person who according to the author did the most thorough job of identifying the basic phenomena and facts that need be referred to using the term «personality». The results of this study allowed to draw the following conclusions.
From James’s point of view, the psychological reality of personality must include the phenomenon of personal ego and the fact of hierarchically organized motivational sphere that has been developed as a result of individual’s self-determination. James’s representations have withstood the test of time, they were in demand by a number of renowned theorists of personality especially those that considered consciousness as a subject matter of scientific psychology. Perpetual interest in James’s concept of personality among theorists turns to be quite durable in time and is a subject matter of psychological reality.
The paper describes the experience of designing a program for developing professional teacher-training reflection and its practical approbation.
The main trends of the study of professional teacher-training reflection in Russian psychological pedagogical science are described, the approaches to the description of methods and techniques that contribute to the development of professional teacher-training reflection in students are disclosed, and the conditions for its development are listed on the basis of literary data. Based on the review of the available research, it is necessary to search for a theoretical and methodological foundations for designing the development of professional teacher-training reflection in future teachers. The author proposes a reflexive activity approach. The program developed on the basis of this approach assumes a change in modeling classes on the main subjects of the psychological and pedagogical cycle, and on the other hand, the introduction of an innovative educational complex aimed at consolidating the competences received. The complex received the title of «Fundamentals of Personality-Oriented Learning». The paper describes the technology of modeling training sessions and the principles of building an educational complex.
Approbation of the program was held on the basis of Khetagurov North Ossetian State University. The control and experimental group included third and fourth year university students (N= 342). A diagnostic tool was developed to assess the levels of reflection, reflexive abilities and self-esteem. Analysing experimental work has shown that the students of the experimental group have a significant increase in the level of each of the reflection components, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach to the development of professional teacher-training reflection of future teachers.
The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of vocational guidance in the social volunteering system. The essence of volunteer work is closely related with assistance to desperate people in searching for the meaning of living, often coinciding with labour activity that are deemed in terms of “the main matter of life” and “the leading activity”. For adolescents, it is the choice of career, and for adults, it is the work proper (i.e. an essential condition for personal self-realization). The problem of “forced volunteering” for experts in vocational guidance also means that they often have to work voluntarily and unselfishly outside the official guidelines. To clarify the terms «volunteer» and «a person in desperate need of help» the study used the method of analyzing the documents, e.g. the Regulations on Social Volunteering, the generalization of psychological sources, the initial survey of university students as active supporters of the volunteer movement, On the essence of volunteering and the place of career guidance in selfless social work. Vocational guidance is not excluded from the general system of volunteerism, but has an insufficiently defined status and low popularity among participants in social volunteering. Also, the problem of «forced volunteering» of experts in career counseling, which often requires voluntary and unselfish performance of quality work outside the framework of official instructions, is also indicated. Simultaneously, positive aspects of such disinterested career initiatives are noted, in particular, less control by the official inspectors (or customers) and, accordingly, greater freedom of creativity than when someone else does the work.
In his work, the author compares and analyzes such concepts as human, person, personality, entity, individual, and self. He considers the views of major philosophers and psychologists of the past on these concepts. There are ideas of P. Florensky, A. Losev, G. Shpet, L. Rubinstein, L .Bozhovich, A .Leontiev, S. Freud and other scientists writing on the content, functions, origin and value of the psychological phenomena mentioned above. The views of a person, individual, and Self have undergone dramatic changes over time. Russian philosophers wrote about the impossibility to define the individual, they considered it a myth, miracle, mystery, and at the same time limit of self-construction or self-creation. Russian psychologists dropped the concept of individual below the concept of personality, and even equated with the subject. In addition, for a while the identity was considered a product of the collective. The notion of Self is considered in a similar way. It is either identified with the subject or object, or it is said to propagate using vegetative means, or like the individual may manifest properties of a soluble substance. However, the Self is recognized to be characterized by generating creative abilities and functions. Psychoanalysts first considered Self as a mental institution, then as a main authority or substructure of personality. S.Freud builds a topology of the following structure: Ego, Super-Ego, Id, each of them performing their own functions and keeping their own energy. S. Freud spoke about the historical implications of mental acts. Considerable attention is paid to the origin of Self. The development of the Self does not occur automatically, and there are concepts put forward by the psychoanalysts and psychologists.
The author emphasizes that the paper compares psychological approaches to personality and psychoanalytic approaches to the Self. In psychology, we are dealing with a person (a person?) without Self. In psychoanalysis, we are dealing with Self, but without personality. Both psychologists and psychoanalysts tend to reduce the Self to the individual, subject, representative, or mere body.
The paper studies the methodological aspect of developing social intuitionist approach to moral psychology. The paper reveals the possibility of applying this approach to the study of morality and moral functioning today, emphasizes the representation of issues in moral psychology methodological origins of social psychology, both in Russia and abroad. Social and psychological foundations of social intuitionist approach are described in detail. The research results show that the child perceiving the concept of fairness and variability in the framework of a specific group membership is culturally determined. The matter of special consideration is the theory of the American social psychologist George Haidt. The results of his work and his colleagues’ works are presented herein describing the concept of cultural variable moral intuitions, the findings of empirical studies carried out in the framework of this approach are summarized. The paper reveals the fundamental provisions of the social and intuitionistic theory. The comparative analysis of the social intuitionistic and cognitive approaches in moral psychology is presented. The conclusion that the relativistic understanding of morality is not an obstacle to its study, and the presence of various determinants of moral functioning should be based on further empirical research.
The authors conceptualized the current state of social intuitionistic theory of moral functioning, which describes the theoretical and methodological sources of this area (Rawls, 2010; Freud, 2005; Hume, 1996; Hare’s, 1981). As justification for this approach the paper considers the phenomena studied in psychology, social cognition, and those that create the possibility of developing this area, namely affective motivation (Zajonc, 1980), fair-world hypothesis (Lerner, 1965), the objectivity of the illusion (Perkins, Allen, & Hafner , 1983), the phenomenon of «naive realism» (Griffin, & Ross, 1991), group interaction in a situation of regulatory uncertainty (Zimbardo, Lyayppe, 2011).
The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological). Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object) or developmental (subject-subject). Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.
The paper describes research on the role and place of computer games in the lives of children and adolescents, and also perceiving how young gamers estimate the impact of various aspects of computer games and experience games in general on themselves.
The study involved gamers between the age of 11 and 19 years. The study is conducted using surveys and interviews. The issues are related to those aspects of games that are perceived as most important, attractive, and cause the greatest emotional response, and also determine the selection of games; how users appreciate game characters including users’ attitudes to the games and the place of the computer game in their lives.
The study revealed that children and adolescents generally have a positive attitude towards computer games and find them a useful and enjoyable part of life, they do not feel shame and remorse for wasting time playing computer games, and are going to continue to play on into adulthood. Playing computer games they learn to communicate and make decisions.
The most important aspect of evaluating game characters is their visual representation.
The character appearance in the game is one of the main factors of their attractiveness. Adolescents do not appreciate only important aesthetic component of the visual images, but also their meaning: reflection of personality or actions of characters in visual images.
Preferences in selecting games are largely determined by the player actions in the game rather than the game plot. For adolescents computer game is an opportunity to try themselves in different situations and get the experience of interacting with other people, who may get inaccessible in real life. A computer game for children is a model of a successful living, so it can be used as a means of personal self-development. Computer games make a full-fledged sphere of life in adolescents through which they gradually realize the importance of school and studies, sports, and hobbies. Playing computer games adolescents relax, socialize and gain social and cognitive skills
In contemporary world, the digital competence of adolescents is not a separate property or capacity any longer, becoming the prerequisite and basis for many types of activities, and the Internet has become a space mediating socialization of children. Russian population study indicated that there is a «gap» in the structure of motivation to improve digital competence: although every four teenagers from five ones declare preparedness for its development, their motivation in relation to specific goals and objectives is extremely low and does not exceed 20 per cent of the maximum possible level. The paper assumes that the «gap» is caused by different contents of general and specific motivation: general motivation describes great awareness of the importance and the declared preparedness, while specific motivation refers to the setting of specific goals. Applying the Digital Competence Index (DCI) in the samples of adolescents 12-17 years old (N=1203) and of parents of adolescents of the same age (N=1208) the relationship between general and specific motivation to improve digital competences and their links to the user’s activity, confidence, emotions, self-image on the Internet and its familiarization are considered. A high level of digital competence and excessive self-confidence in the user’s skills are associated with a less general motivation. A higher level of general and specific motivation is related to the participation of teachers and parents in the development of adolescent skills in the Internet. This extremely low self-confidence and the solution of any online problems by parents are associated with passive motivation, e.g. the desire to explore the Internet spontaneously through other people. Possible methods of developing active motivation to improve digital competence and the prevention of excessive confidence in adolescents are discussed
The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62) included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1), achievement motivation (2), learning and cognitive motivation, (3) and motivation of affiliation (4). This enabled to further estimate the factor and correlation analysis of the parameters studied, which shows that the system of values is significantly different in males and females of the same age, even in relation to the same mean value of motivation. Motivation, values and self-attitude organize stable systems – on the current sample allocated the four most common systems, i.e. the four factors that are specific for both males and females. Simultaneously, there are systems of values dependent on expressiveness and the combination of a certain type of motivation, and independent of the type of motivation.
Female educational and cognitive motivation and positional (status) motivation related to the values were merged into one factor, but for males one factor includes achievement motivation and (with the opposite sign) affiliation motivation. While the self-realization of females occurs in the process of learning (the value of «selfimprovement in their studies»), and in the future they see an opportunity for self-realization through the value of «happy family life», the males with this motivation connect their opportunity for self-realization with other values, i.e. «health», «recognition by other team members», «my authority.»