Background. The transformation of social changes determins a qualitatively different format of professional thinking as a cognitive resource influencing performance efficiency and subjective well-being.
Objective is to present the results of varying research of professional thinking in socionomic professions by definig the peculiarities of thinking at different stages of professionalization and under various sociocultural conditions.
Design. The sample group consists of the representatives of socionomic professions at different stages of their professionalization: psychology students and students of management aged from 18 to 23 starting and finishing their education (n = 120), managers in the sphere of business and education (n = 218), preschool teachers (n = 70).
Results. The sample of students in socionomic professions has shown that the level of structural organization in professional thinking rises during the final stages of education. Moreover, the differences in structural components of elemental level are of partial kind. In particular, the level of social reflexivity, metacognitive knowledge among the students of gnostical type of activity is growing. The problematicity is also more structured and takes comprehensive context into consideration. The students of transformative tendency have growing levels of metacognitive activity, reduction of attempts to solve the problems related to the increase in flexibility and predictability. It has been demonstrated that metacognitive characteristics of professional thinking and capacity of supra-situational thinking are presented in a more explicit and profound way under the sociocultural conditions of rural preschool educational settings than of the urban ones. It has been elicited that such factors as work experience in the area of management (inverse relation) and environmental mega factor, i.e. working in the situation of the pandemic (direct relation) influence such qualities of supra-situational thinking as effi ciency, originality and validity.
Conclusion. The obtained results have broadened the concept of resource in professional thinking among socionomic professions. The necessity of further investigation of professional thinking as a cognitive resource on the componential subsystem level has been indicated.
Fly-in-fl y-out personnel in the Far North are exposed to extreme climatic, geographic, and production factors, and also remain in conditions of group isolation, which makes demands on fly-in-fly-out worker’ body that oft en exceed its reserves. The full adaptation impossibility is associated with unfavorable functional states of workers, which lead to a decrease in the level of mental health, productivity and work efficiency. Job tasks of workers in various industries differ in physical and physiological stress and in the degree of harmful production factors expression. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the psychological adaptation features in fly-in-fly-out personnel in industrial enterprises of the Far North. The study involved 145 fly-in-fly-out workers of oil, gas, and diamond mining industries in the Far North, 82 fly-in-fly-out builders in the south of the Russian Federation, who were a comparison group to identify the psychological adaptation features of fly-in-fly-out personnel in the Far North. Research methods are psychophysiological and psychological testing aimed at diagnosing conscious self-regulation of voluntary human activity and subjective control as key characteristics of psychological adaptation of workers. The results obtained allow us to conclude about the similarity of psychological characteristics that contribute to the successful adaptation of fly-in-fly-out personnel, regardless of the region where the industrial facility is located. These include internality in the areas of achievement, failure, family relationships, health and illness, as well as modeling, performance evaluation, and autonomy as regulatory processes. At the same time, their expression is specific, depending on the region of the object location and the industry.
Purpose and relevance of the article. The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of the founders of Russian ergonomics V.M. Munipov and V.P. Zinchenko, under whose guidance the author of the article studied and worked for a long time. The notions of “Human — Machine” system” and “human factor” are considered from the standpoint of the theory of acts of psychological interaction of people with the world developed by the author of the article. This made it possible to fill these notions with new psychological content, as well as briefl y describe the basic notions in the theory of acts.
Results. The interaction of the components of the world is considered as a kind of relationship between them, which includes their impact on each other and possibly on themselves. The ratio “А impacts on B” is identified with the ratio “A changes B in some direction”. Different directions in which the interacting components may change are related with the properties of these components that change in their values. The act of psychological interaction of a person with the components of the world is active on the part of this person, meaningful by him, mediated by the images of its components, is relatively complete and directed on achieving the results that someone needs, and also has a beginning on the timeline. Components of such an act include its objects and subjects, the activity of subjects, their meanings, properties and states, goals and motives, objects and means, tools and signs, conditions and ways (methods) of carrying out acts, processes and results, etc. The notions about these components are defined constructively (based on the previously introduced notions), as well as taking into account the functions of components in the activity of the subject. Different relations between the components of the act, which turn it into a psychological functional system are described.
Conclusions. It is shown that such a theoretical model of a psychological act can serve as a conceptual tool for the study and ergonomic design of any work acts of operators in “Human — Machine” systems.
Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology
Objective. Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology
Design.The study was conducted online by presenting respondents with a questionnaire that included questions about consumer preferences and components of social identity. The sample was targeted by experts: consumers of food products of local production, citizens of the Russian Federation, aged 25 to 67 years (N = 200).
Results. The interrelation of cognitive and value components of social identity with the peculiarities of consumer preferences concerning general attitude to products, their characteristics and selection criteria is revealed. More significant connections were found between value components and all manifestations of consumer preferences. The interrelation between local and world identity and preference for food products of domestic production, as well as the features of the criteria for choosing food products among consumers with diff erent severity of the cognitive component of social identity, has been revealed.
Conclusion. New data on the relationship between cognitive and value components of social identity and the characteristics of consumer preferences were obtained. They can serve as a basis for a deeper analysis of the identity structure, understanding the role of identity in consumer behavior. The main limitations of the study relate to the sample and the methods used.pandemic.
Relevance. With the rise of the Internet and the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs), the available ways of interpersonal communication have changed and expanded. From spring 2020 to the present, the epidemiological situation remains unstable due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Quarantine measures have led to a sharp reduction in face-to-face social contacts or to their complete absence. As a result, for most of the developed countries, computer-mediated communication has become the prior way to keep in touch with family, friends, colleagues, etc. These unprecedented circumstances bring our research to the fore, showing how ICTs can help maintain the social capital of Russians at the individual level.
Objective To determine how effective the use of ICTs is in maintaining of the social capital of Russians at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design.The study was conducted online by presenting the participants with a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 300 respondents aged 18 to 71. All respondents are citizens of the Russian Federation. They answered questions, which determined the perceived COVID-19 threat level, the level of use of ICTs, and the degree of change in relationships with “strong” and “weak ties”.
Results. The direct relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and individual social capital can be traced only in relationships with friends and residents of the country. There is no statistically significant relationship with family, colleagues, neighbors, and city residents. In the case of a high level of ICT use, the perceived coronavirus threat does not negatively correlate with the perceived closeness with family, friends, and residents of the country. At the same time, the role of ICT use in the relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and perceived closeness with colleagues, neighbors and city residents has not been identified.
Conclusion. In general, the use of ICTs contributes to the maintenance of the social capital at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Relevance. Due to the rapidly changing living conditions, self-regulation skills are the most important components of personality that allow to adapt to reality faster and organize activities in the most successful way. This becomes especially relevant for teenagers who are involved in a large number of classes and projects, in addition to their main activities at school.
Objectiveis to study the features of regulatory functions and their interrelations with various personality characteristics in adolescents engaged in scientifi c activities.
Study. The study involved 78 adolescents aged 14–17 years (Mage = 15, 96; SDage = 1.01) who were trained in the framework of the “Big Challenges” project of the SIRIUS educational Center in the direction of “Science’ in 2021. Several methods aimed at studying self-regulation, stress levels, subjective well-being and perfectionism in adolescents were chosen as diagnostic tools.
Results. It was shown that the level of self-regulation of adolescents in activity is better developed than their level of emotional self-regulation. It was also demonstrated that the level of general self-regulation in adolescents involved in science is signifi cantly interrelated with indicators of resilience and self-directed perfectionism.
Conclusion. The study confirmed the importance of studying the features of self-regulation in adolescents and revealed the need to develop practical recommendations for their development.
Background. Despite the prevalence of school bullying in Russia and data on the severity of the consequences for its participants, the Russian-language scientifi c literature lacks a systematic understanding of the prerequisites for bullying, which could serve as the basis for practical developments aimed at preventing bullying in educational organizations. This article aims to fill this gap and systematize longitudinal, regression and meta-analytic studies of predictors of bullying, cyberbullying and victimization.
Objective. The purpose of the article is to systematize data on predictors of school bullying and to model its escalation in school environment. To achieve this goal, a search, selection and theoretical analysis of a number of articles published over the past 5 years was carried out
Results. The performed theoretical analysis allows us to model the development of school bullying. The complex of individual-personal and environmental factors that increase the risk of bullying and victimization includes external behavioral and internal manifestations of schoolchildren, thoughts and judgements about themselves and others, social skills, personality traits, features of social contacts, perception of the school climate. Also, the risk factors can be attributed to a weak sense of belonging to school, a lack of support from peers and teachers, the peculiarity of social contacts and norms in the classroom. The peculiarities of upbringing and communication in the family and the attitude of parents of schoolchildren to aggression also play an important role in the emergence and escalation of bullying
Conclusion. The work carried out streamlines disparate ideas about the premises of bullying into a coherent picture that refl ects the complex nature of bullying predictors, and can be used as the basis for the development of preventive programs.
Background. Th e impostor phenomenon is the term used to describe high-performing individuals who fail to internalize their success in spite of their high achievements and experience constant fear that they will be found as frauds by their peers. The close links between the impostor phenomenon, perfectionism and professional motivation are oft en referred to, though no empirical studies of the nature of these links have been conducted.
Objective. The objective of this research is to study motivation and perfectionism as potential predictors of the impostor phenomenon in the work context.
Design. 320 working Russian respondents took part in this cross-sectional study. Th ey fi lled out the questionnaire containing three scales: Th e Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale, Th e Short Almost Perfect Scale (R. Slaney), Th e Scale of Professional Motivation (E. Osin, T. Ivanova, T. Gordeeva).
Results. Th e results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation could be regarded as positive predictors of the impostor phenomenon in working Russian adults.
Conclusion. Th e results of the current study could be used in diagnostics and counselling of employees with maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation. Preventive measures aimed at adjusting employees’ attitudes to their professional obligations could prevent not only the development of the impostor phenomenon but a range of the related negative psychological and organizational outcomes.
Relevance. The article is devoted to the problem of monitoring the functional state of the operator, this topic has been and remains important, in particular, in the context of ensuring the safety of railway transport.
Purpose of the study. Analysis of the design and implementation of an automated telemechanical system for monitoring the wakefulness of railway drivers (TSMWRD), introduced in 1996, based on the registration of electrodermal activity (galvanic skin reaction).
Research objective. The selected method of monitoring the state of wakefulness and the algorithm of the operator’s actions in the event of diagnosing undesirable characteristics of the state during use (TSMWRD) can create additional stress conditions for drivers and increase the risk of accidents and violations of the rules.
Procedure and research methods. The research used the analysis of literature data. A qualitative empirical study was also carried out. It included a psychological analysis of the activities of modern railway drivers of various types, analysis of technical documentation, a method of conversation with train drivers, a method of structured interview with a group of class train drivers who are improving their qualifi cations (8 people).
Results. Modern automatic systems for monitoring the wakefulness of operators are considered, a description of the TSMWRD is given, the psychophysiological foundations of its application are discussed. Th e data of an empirical study are presented, proving the validity of the hypothesis that the use of the TSMWRD in the work of electric train drivers really creates additional problem situations and stressful conditions. As a result, the positive and negative aspects of the use of TSMWRD are presented, specifi c recommendations are given on its use and the appropriate training of drivers.
Conclusion. The analysis of the use of TSMWRD serves as an example of the importance of using engineering-psychological and ergonomic provisions in the design and implementation of new automated technical means of monitoring functional states in practice. Th eir implementation should be based on taking into account their infl uence on the operator’s simultaneous performance of his main professional activity.
Background is determined by the fact that in the course of their professional activities, specialists of EMERCOM of Russia undergo periodic dynamic monitoring of their psychological state in order to identify the presence and severity of consequences associated with the performance of professional tasks. In this regard, it became necessary to defi ne clear parameters on the basis of which it is possible to determine the changes that have occurred and are occurring, as well as the preparation of the corresponding program and psycho psycho-correction activities.
The objective is to derive criteria that will be used to divide the examined specialists of EMERCOM of Russia into groups that determine the need and specifi cs of psychoprophylactic and psychocorrective measures.
Design. Specialists of EMERCOM of Russia (n = 2979) were examined on 44 indicators, 40 of which relate to the study of cognitive and emotional-personal spheres, 4 — to the study of the psychophysiological sphere. Based on the assigned qualitative score, descriptive statistics (M, σ), and cluster analysis, the sample is divided into 3 groups; the Mann–Whitney test determines how diff erent the groups are from each other. By results of factor and correlation analysis (Spearman), the structure of indicators is obtained, with a negative change in which a corrective eff ect is necessary.
Results obtained allowed us to statistically establish that the groups diff er depending on the degree of change in the studied parameters, the current state and individual psychophysiological characteristics of each individual examined specialists of EMERCOM of Russia (p = 0.000); factor and correlation analyses (p ≤ 0.05) allowed us to identify 5 blocks of indicators, on the basis of which the direction and specifi city of the correction is determined.
Conclusion. Th e fi rst selected criteria is not only a contribution to the psycho-diagnostic soft ware available professional contingent emergency, but also allows the specialists of the psychological service of EMERCOM of Russia to allocate the surveyed employees of EMERCOM of Russia in 3 groups depending on the number and severity of the studied parameters, with the aim of selecting the optimal psychoprophylactic and psychocorrective measures for each of the subjects (group 1 — a condition that does not require correction, group 2 — psychological prevention, group 3 — psychological correction).
Relevance (context) of the subject of the article. Many fi rstline healthcare workers feel high levels of stress due to excessive workload, problems of adapting to new conditions, fear of infection and discrimination and feeling of inadequate support while working with coronavirus infection. Also, an additional burden is placed on the medical staff due to increased anxiety for their health and patients who are afraid to die. On the other hand, the presence of psychologists in the staff of the institution allows them to perform new work tasks, adhering their specialty and workplace.
The aim of the study is to identify the most effi cient new types of work for a medical psychologists in the FSBI “FCB&N” FMBA of Russia functioning as an infectious diseases hospital.
Description of the research progress. The study was conducted from April to June 2020 and included informational, methodological, diagnostic and advisory forms of work, the content of which was revised depending on its relevance and the dynamics of interaction with target groups.
Research results. Th e most popular and eff ective types of work turned out to be psychological counseling for patients in the “red” zone, work with relatives at the transfer point and remote monitoring of the medical staff condition, the latter being on duty at the exit from the “red” zone and leading a group of patients via WhatsApp. The opportunities for emergency contact with a psychologist, the availability of several methods of communication and regular monitoring of the psychological state of medical staff signifi cantly reduced the level of distress and its consequences.
Conclusions. Creating conditions for organizing psychological assistance in an institution reorientated to work with a new coronavirus infection is an important task to reduce the stress level of medical staff , overcome the nonadaptive behavior of patients and their relatives, as well as preserve resources of the institution’s psychologists.
Background. Success and obtaining the highest results are one of the most important phenomena in modern society. Self-eff ectiveness directly infl uences the indicators that are the most topical in the context of maximal achievement, namely in professional sport. Scientists have earlier found positive correlation between physical activity and self-effi - cacy. However, the question on the place of athletic identity in connection between physical activity and self-effi cacy remains unsolved.
Objective. Th e study of correlation between physical activity, athletic identity and self-effi cacy.
Design. 200 participants with diff erent levels of involvement into physical activity and sport took part in our study. In ourstudy B.W. Brewer’s “Athletic identity measurement scale” and R. Schwarzer and M. Jerusalem’s “General self-effi cacy scale” were used.
Results. We statistically proved that there is positive correlation between physical activity level, athletic identity and self-effi cacy.
Conclusion. Athletic identity is a predictor of self-effi cacy among people who are involved in sport and physical activity and the higher is the level of athletic identity the higher is self-effi cacy. Correlation of these phenomena among people who are uninvolved into physical activity is not found.
Background. In modern psychology, the concept of social and psychological assistance to vulnerable groups of people is being actively studied and developed in order to increase their psychological well-being. One of the topical research issues is the study of psychological well-being in men and women, as well as people of diff erent sexual orientations. Th is article examines the psychological well-being of people with homo-, bi- and heterosexual orientations.
The aim of the article is to study the diff erences in psychological well-being between men and women, as well as between people identifying themselves as homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual.
Description of research progress and respondents. To study the psychological sex, we used the techique “Psychological well-being” by K. Riff in the adaptation of T.D. Shevelenkova and P.P. Fesenko. Th e study involved men and women of diff erent sexual orientations, identifi ed on the basis of the respondents’ self-report.
Research results. Statistical results indicate that the scale “Positive relationships with others” is higher in women than in men (p = 0.027), and this scale is higher in heterosexuals than in bisexuals (p = 0.031). Th e “Balance of aff ect” scale is lower among homosexuals than among bisexuals (p = 0.047).
Conclusion. Th e obtained results confi rm that the women who took part in our study are more successful in building up interpersonal relationships with the social world, since they are positively disposed towards society and show care. At the same time, people with heterosexual and homosexual identities are more prosperous than respondents with bisexual identities. Th e results obtained can be used in the practice of psychologists conducting psychological counseling and psychotherapy with the LGBT community.
Background. Confi dent language profi ciency in Russian language is the key to successful schooling. However, teachers note a general decline in Russian language performance among students. One of the most critical factors opposing this trend may be the development of regulatory competencies, particularly conscious self-regulation in achieving goals and in executive functions.
Objective. Th e aim is to reveal the role conscious self-regulation plays in the system of predictors of successful mastering Russian language by secondary school students, diff ering in gender and age.
Design. Sample included students of schools in Moscow and Moscow region aged 13–15 years (N = 286): seventh graders (N = 147) and ninth graders (N = 139). Methods applied in the study included V.I. Morosanova’s questionnaire “Th e style of self-regulation of learning activity (SRPLAQ-M 52)”; Eriksen’s task to assess the suppression of irrelevant stimuli, the letter-digit task to assess attention switching, the N-Back task to assess the renewal of working memory. We used two tasks developed by E.D. Bozhovich to diagnose language competencies. Questionnaires were fi lled out in group format in the classroom under the experimenter’s supervision; computer testing was held in a computer classroom on another day.
Results. Th e results of the study showed that self-regulation and intelligence are universal resources for achieving educational goals. High academic performance amongboys mostly depends on the development of conscious self-regulation and the ability to manage their attention. Planning educational goals, the general level of self-regulation, and the accuracy of updating working memory are signifi cant for girls’ academic performance. By the time students start high school, the system of predictors for academic performance in Russian is undergoing qualitative changes. Th e system is “curtailed”, with only those elements that ensure success in passing state exams remaining relevant.
Conclusion. Th e study revealed the invariant structure of the relationships between the predictors of success in Russian language. Th is structure is implemented as a model, constructed around the relationship of conscious self-regulation and its primary neurocognitive basis represented by executive functions. Th is complex regulatory component is a crucial predictor of success in Russian in adolescence. Th e annual assessment is determined primarily by self-regulation, while executive functions mainly contribute to the development of language competencies.
Background. Th e urge to solve practical problems of overcoming family and demographic crisis, of increasing the authority of parenthood in modern society evokes the relevance of research on socio-psychological factors determining the development of marriage and family concepts in the framework of information socialization of young people.
Objective. Current research aims to analyze the characteristics of the concept about motherhood among young men and women who diff er in the structure of moral orientation of personality.
Design. An empirical study involved 490 students (126 young men, 364 young women). It was conducted with the use of a set of psychological assessment methods: “Th e Moral Self-Determination” by A.E. Vorobieva, A.B. Kupreychenko, a modifi ed version of the semantic diff erential method by I.L. Solomin, projective techniques “Incomplete Sentences”, the questionnaire “Role Expectations and Claims in Marriage” by A.N. Volkova. On the basis of the correlational analysis with the subsequent ranking the hierarchy of content characteristics in the concept of motherhood among young men and women diff ering in the moral structure of the personality was determined.
Results. It has been shown that moral structure of personality is a signifi cant diff erentiating factor in the development of concepts about motherhood among young men and women. Th e image of the ideal mother is distinguished by cognitive distortions among young women with egocentric (negative attitude towards joint family recreation: r = –0.46 at p = 0.009) and group-centered (setting for low activity in taking up household responsibilities in the family: r = –0.425 at p = 0.012) orientations.
Conclusion. Th e materials of the conducted research indicate the need for changes in the concepts of marriage and family and for promotion of a positive moral position among students. Th e development of a humanistic and worldcreating orientation of the personality will contribute to the development of complete, adequate and harmonious ideas about the concepts of parenthood in modern young men and women.
Background. The relevance of studying students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers lies in the fact that despite the ongoing discussion in society, modern research shows that this problem is not given enough attention.
The Objective. is to consider the students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers: to assess the prevalence of this problem, to analyze the background of students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers, and to assess the consequences of such behavior.
Design. The paper presents an analysis of foreign and Russian research on the problem of aggression towards teachers. In addition, attempts are made to find the causes of students’ aggressive behavior towards the teacher through the analysis of psychological theories. The article also offers recommendations for reducing and preventing aggression towards teacher on the part of students.
Research results. The indicators that demonstrate prevalence of aggression towards teachers raise the concern that this problem has negative long-term consequences for the lives of students, teachers and educational institutions. The use of psychological theories, models and concepts in explaining the reasons of aggression in the teacher’s direction on the part of students, allows not only to determine the reasons for aggressive behavior, but also to consider this problem at different levels of the educational process. The influence of school climate on the victimization of teachers was considered and recommendations were made for the implementation of preventive measures.
Conclusion. On the basis of the analysis conducted, the study presents possible directions for further study of this problem. In particular, it is necessary to study the prevalence of aggressive behavior towards teachers in Russian schools and to develop a set of preventive measures aimed at the elimination of aggression towards teachers.
Background. Apathy is one of the most common symptoms in the adulthood, however, its psychological predictors are still poorly understood.
Objective. This study was aimed to examine the psychological predictors of apathy in the middle and late adulthood.
Design. The sample consisted of 188 participants aged 50 to 83 years. This study is cross-sectional. Potential predictors of apathy (i.e., depression, subjective vitality, subjective happiness and satisfaction with life) were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. The diagnostic battery included the Zolotareva’s Apathy Scale and Russian-language versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-SF), Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and Satisfaction Index for the Third Age-Short Form (LSITA-SF).
Results. Multiple regression analysis has shown that subjective vitality is a negative specific predictor of apathy in the middle adulthood, and depression is a positive universal predictor of apathy in both middle and late adulthood.
Conclusion. The findings can be used in the Russian gerontopsychology to prevent apathy in persons with depressive symptoms and a low level of subjective vitality.
Background. The significant expansion of the Internet over the past few decades has led to new public problems. A broad discussion of the development factors of Internet adduction helps to popularize the idea of the existence of an addictive risk, in particular in the adolescent’s population. The interpersonal characteristics of adolescents and family members can increase vulnerability to Internet addiction.
Objective. To analyze the characteristics of the family relations of adolescents in groups with different levels of Internet addiction.
Design. The study included 1,119 Internet users – 565 girls and 554 boys between 15 and 18 years of age studying in secondary school in Kopeysk, Chelyabinsk region.
Results. The split of the CIAS scale by final score allowed the sample to be divided into 3 subgroups: minimum, moderate and high risk/availability of IA (Internet adduction). There are significant differences in the way adolescents perceive the pedagogical practices of parents: participants with moderate risk of IA more often reported hostility (p < 0.001) and inconsistency (p < 0.001) on the part of the father, also characterized their mother as directive (p = 0.001), hostile (p < 0.001), inconsistent (p < 0.001) and critical (p = 0.010). The minimum risk group noted a more emotional relationship with the father (p = 0.024) and the mother (p = 0.005). In comparisons 1 and 3 the results repeated the inter-group differences of the first two groups, but with the exception of criticism, which was not significant. Groups 2 and 3 were distinguished by inconsistency (p < 0.001) and hostility (p = 0.018) on the part of the mother. Similar results were obtained in the construction of the correlation model. Through step-by-step regression analysis, factors that contribute most to the development of Internet addiction were determined – “Inconsistency (mother)” (p < 0.001).
Conclusion. The data show that there are some differences in the way in which parents perceive the pedagogical system in adolescents, with varying levels of Internet addiction.
By: ; Trusova A.V.;
Available Online: 30.07.2021
Background. Identity and contacts are often studied from the perspective of inherent conflict potential for intergroup relations leading to prejudice and exclusion in societies which contain groups with different ethnic status. Nonetheless, there are certain identification and interaction mechanisms that can potentially mitigate or cancel these harmful effects. These comprise inclusive contacts and identities, in particular the positive inclusive identities, which allow to unite the representatives of different groups. It is important to find out what determines these identities and contacts. Schwartz’s theory of individual values has great potential for explaining the personality determinants of identities positivity and the intensity of contacts.
Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the role of individual values and status of ethnic group in assessing the positivity of exclusive and inclusive identities, as well as in the intensity of exclusive and inclusive contacts among members of ethnic majority and minority groups.
Design. The study was conducted on a sample of an ethnic minority (Russians living in the North Caucasus) and on a sample of an ethnic majority (Russians living in Moscow). The total sample size is = 499 respondents. The individual values were measured using a portrait value questionnaire – PVQ-R (Schwartz et al., 2012); positivity of ethnic identity, positivity of civic identity, positivity of regional identity, intercultural contacts, monocultural contacts were measured using the appropriate methods from the questionnaire of the MIRIPS project (Mutual intercultural relations in plural societies) (Berry, 2017).
Results. The study found that (1) the values of Conservation underlie the positivity of exclusive ethnic and inclusive civic identities among members of the ethnic majority, (2) values of Openness to Change underlie exclusive monocultural contacts among ethnic minority and majority members, (3) values of Self-Enhancement underlie inclusive intercultural contacts among members of the ethnic minority.
Conclusion. The results of this study revealed the motivational foundations of exclusive monocultural and inclusive intercultural friendship, which were based on the values of personal focus among the Russian ethnic minority and majority members. At the same time, the values of social focus turned out to underlie the positivity of the exclusive ethnic Russian and inclusive civic Russian identity among the ethnic Russian majority members. The research results have a wide potential for further theoretical and practical application in the field of intercultural relations and their harmonization.
Background. Although planning disorders in schizophrenia are a fairly reliably established fact, the mechanisms of these disorders remain not fully clarified. Given the complex nature of planning, the presence of its disturbances can be influenced by disturbances of other mental processes.
Objective. Comparison of the links between planning, short-term memory, attention and abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia and in normal.
Design. 50 patients with schizophrenia (14 females, age 34.92 ± 8.54; illness duration 8.34 ± 5.87) and 50 healthy volunteers (14 females, age 32.42 ± 7.26) were examined. Assessment included: Tower of London-Test (TOL-DX) for planning assessment; Benton’s test (BVTR) for short-term memory assessment; sub-test Similarity (from WAIS) for abstract thinking assessment; Schulte Tables for assessment of attention; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to assess cognitive flexibility.
Results. Patients showed significantly worse results in all parameters, which indicates that patients have impairments in all assessed cognitive functions. The revealed relationships between planning and other cognitive processes in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects were significantly different. In healthy subjects, the effectiveness of planning was found to be associated only with abstract thinking. At the same time, in patients with schizophrenia, associations were found between the effectiveness of planning and all the other cognitive processes (short-term memory, attention, set-shifting).
Conclusion. The preservation of planning in schizophrenia is associated with the preservation of other mental processes. Short-term memory and attention are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for the realization of the planning process.
Relevance of the article. Without the use of the self-report method, it is impossible to study a number of psychological phenomena (for example, hallucinosis, the study of which allows us to understand the mechanisms of formation of perceptual, dream, mnestic, imaginative images). At the same time, the possibilities and limitations of two variants of the self-report method — an interview about the experience and its free description — are not sufficiently studied in psychology. Our work is devoted to the study of this issue by comparing the results obtained using both variants of the method of retrospective self-report. The material of this study was the near-death experience (NDE) — an altered state of consciousness experienced during a brush with death, including a specific pattern of psychological phenomena — elements of NDE or their components (including, in particular, hallucinosis), joined by the script of “journey to other world”.
The aim of our work was to study the differences in the frequency of mentioning certain NDE phenomena in the free description of this experience and when answering questions about these phenomena during interviews.
Description of the study. During the personal meeting, the Respondent first told about their NDE in a free form, then researcher asked him about the presence of a certain phenomenon in his NDE, based on a list of NDE elements/ components (37 questions). This elements/components were both interview items and independent parameters for subsequent analysis of the received protocols (45 protocols). For each phenomenon, a four-cell table was formed, which separately counted: 1) the number of cases of the phenomenon both in the free description and in the responses to interview questions; 2) the number of cases when the phenomenon was not spontaneously mentioned, but was detected during the interview, 3) the number of cases when the phenomenon was present in the free description, but the Respondent denied its presence in the interview, 4) the number of cases when the phenomenon was not spontaneously mentioned, and its presence was denied in the interview). To assess the significance of the differences between the data obtained in the free description and in the interview, we used the Gilford φ-coefficient of correlation, calculating for each phenomenon the critical (for p < 0.01 and for p < 0.05) and empirical values of the φ-coefficient.
Research results. First, a number of phenomena have been found that do not show significant differences (for p < 0.01) between the methods of free description and semi-structured interview: a sense of peace and calm; the appearance of unusual auditory sensations, a person’s understanding that he has died, an out-of-body experience (OBE), a dark tunnel, perception of the surrounding reality during OBE, seeing a bright light, meeting with it, meeting with others, visions of a different reality, a luminous being, a sense of unity, a review of life, a border or limit, a decision to return, a return. Second, the identified phenomena for which there are significant (p < 0.01) differences between the methods of free descriptions and semi-structured interview is — ineffability of NDE, its realness, its memorability, unwillingness to tell others about this experience, its transformative effects, the emergence of a new attitude to death and life after this experience, the disappearance of auditory sensations, transcendence, changes in experiences of time.
Summary. Thus, the limitations of the free description method depend on the specific material for which the method is used. When studying the frequency of occurrence of NDE phenomena, it is necessary to combine the method of free description with the interview method, which helps not only to detect the presence of the phenomenon itself, but also to clarify its content and to avoid cases of misinterpretation of what the researcher heard.
Background. Russia ranks fourth in the World in terms of the influx of migrants (of which 12 million currently live within the country). At the same time, the factors accompanying the process of acculturation can be quite different and lead to contradictions and conflicts between the groups. As far as migrants are concerned, the study of mediative role of the perceived threat in formation of acculturation expectation sremains an under researched topic in cross-cultural psychology.
Objective. The study is aimed at determining whether the perceived threat from migrants has a mediating effect on the relationship between social capital and the acculturation expectations of the host population towards migrants.
Design. The study was carried out in an online format by a questionnaire given to young adults living in Moscow (N = 214). The participants answered the questions that determined the level of trust, ethnic tolerance, perceived threat, and acculturation expectations.
Results. The results of the study revealed that the perceived threat (especially the cultural one) turned out to be a mediator of the connection between ethnic tolerance and acculturation expectations of “melting pot” and “exclusion”. In case of connection of the indicators of trust and ethnic tolerance with “segregation”, only the perceived physical threat played a mediating role. The role of ethnic tolerance has been confirmed in the above three acculturation expectations, while trust turned out to be significant only in the “segregated” models. The meditative role of the perceived threat in the relationship between the three indicators of social capital and the acculturation expectation of “multiculturalism” has been completely refuted.
Conclusion. The results of the research make it possible to determine the role of the perceived threat in acculturation attitudes and expectations towards migrants. The main limitation of this study is the fact that it took place only in Moscow. In the nearest future, it is planned to compare the results obtained in Russia from Russian-speaking test-groups with the results of other groups in other countries.
Background. The article reveals the prospects for a psychological research of the perception and experience of the Covid-19 epidemic and pandemic as a situation of deprivation and frustration of personal life space. The constitutive characteristics of living space — interactivity, heterogeneity, blurring the boundaries between private and public — makes it vulnerable (precarious) to radical social transformations, of which the epidemic and pandemic of the coronavirus has become the extreme expression.
Objective. The purpose of the theoretical and empirical study is to analyze the subjective attitude towards the pandemic and vaccination.
Design. The study was carried out in a qualitative design using the methods of semi-structured in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, a projective technique of directed verbal associations. The purposive sample of the study consisted of 50 people (25 men and 25 women, 18–70 years old). The interviews were conducted in winter, 2020–2021, during the “second wave” of the coronavirus and in spring, 2021 after the loosening of restrictive measures.
Results. A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews made it possible to highlight the following topics:
Conclusion. Disorientation in the situation of uncertainty and transitivity provoked by the coronavirus pandemic actualizes the archaic mechanisms of socio-psychological defense, which can be considered confirmation of the theoretical hypothesis of irrationality as an integral property of human consciousness and modern society.
Background. Plastic, expressive aspects of human behaviour remain underresearched by psychologists. The focus on practices of improvisation is determined by the fact that they show most vividly how expressive movement comes into being.
Objective. The aim of the study is to provide psychological analysis of improvised dance action, to identify the conditions of its generation. The hypothesis put forward concerns the formation of overall personal attitude that makes one ready to perform expressive movement in the context of musical-motional improvisation. It seems probable that the principles of movement organisation within free dance practices concern the formation of attitude that lets one perceive spontaneous, involuntary impulses to movement, changes of tonus and breath.
Design. The study is a piece of theoretic-psychological analysis of improvisation dance practice. In terms of methodological and theoretical basis the study relies on cultural-historical psychology and theory of action, as well as on N.A. Bernsteins conception of movement building. There theories allow to reconstruct the conditions of expressive movement generation in the context of musical-motional improvisation.
Results. The analysis performed has shown that the principles of movement organisation, the technical aspects of the practices studied are aimed at increasing the degree of freedom of movement. It allows to enhance the receptivity to spontaneous reactions and impulses and to widen the orientation within the context of musical-motional improvisation. It makes one move in a more meaningful way and to integrate the personality into improvisation.
Conclusions. Alongside with the practices of structured dances and reproductive approaches to mastering expressive movement, there are cultural-historical practices of improvisation dances. The analysis of such practices allows to single out psychological conditions and and peculiarities of movement organisation that make one generate spontaneous actions, find and try new objectives, plastic forms. Generation of spontaneous movement and musical-plastic improvisation are possible due to tuning up the whole human personality. Openness as personal attitude has its meaningful as well as motional component.
Background. The relevance of the study is determined by the limited and sometimes contradictory studies of the views of preschoolers about the elderly. Stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination against older people can manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the nature of the formation and the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known.
Objective. The aim of the study was to study the features of the image of an old person in a children’s sample, depending on the (in) ability to communicate with their grandparents. Research hypothesis: preschoolers with a lack of communication with the older generation will demonstrate a rather neutral image of an old person, and the presence of an emotional component will be expressed in the constructor of the image of children with a sufficient level of communication with their grandparents.
Design. The research involved 67 child-parent dyads: 67 preschoolers aged 5 to 6.8 years (56.7% girls and 43.3% boys); 67 parents (85.1% of mothers and 14.9% of fathers) aged 23 to 59. As research methods to study the representations (image) of an old person in the childrens sample, the projective method of the drawing test was used. “Directed associative experiment “ method and questioning were used in the parental sample. The questionnaire included questions aimed at studying the relationship of the grandparents with the child and the opinions of parents about the problem and (non) participation of grandparents in raising grandchildren.
Results. In the childrens sample, the image of an old person is rather stereotypically neutral, but at the same time has certain specific features. The importance of the quality of communication between a child and his grandparents was shown, which determines the emotional coloring of the perception of the forming image of old people and old age in general. For children who experienced “lack of communication” with their ancestors, the image of an old person is personalized with “strangers” or “nobody’s old men.” In the parental sample the presented associations demonstrate a view of the “negative and positive” image of an old person through the prism of (non) preservation of vital competence, functional well-being, and a dynamic health / illness system. A neutral image is represented by respondents as a variant of entering the new status of a retiree and grandparent. No mutual influence was found between parental and childish views.
Conclusions. A child of preschool age can demonstrate his own unique view of an old person, which is not at all identical to the views of his parents, those around him and social stereotypes. The experience of a constructive relationship between grandparents and grandchildren can serve as a reliable basis for constructing a positive image of an old person and old age in general by young children. The prospect of further research can be the study of the problem of psychological culture and the readiness of an elderly person to dialogue with a child; problems of organizing effective “combining old and small” programs, mutually enriching the dialogue of generations.