Background. Legal regulation of psychological assistance in the Russian Federation is currently being implemented only by the departmental acts, and is legislatively regulated by the subject of the Russian Federation in the city of Moscow. Such legislative regulation may be found not sufficient, since existing acts do not provide a standard regulatory definition of psychological assistance, neither they define the principles and forms of rendering this assistance. Also they can hardly arrange and classify certain types of psychological activity, which results in mutually contradicting nature.
In addition, there is a need for a standard definition not only of psychological assistance, but also of psychological activity as a complex of various types of activity carried out by psychologists, and also a standard definition of the profession of a psychologist and qualification requirements including principles of psychological activity.
Objective. The objective is to prove the existing need of adopting a new federal law on psychological counselling, finding gaps in legal regulation of phychological sphere.
Research Progress. The paper analyzes the reason for accepting a new federal law on psychological counselling and the societal need in such legislation and also main provisions of the new law.
Hypothesis. The research resulted in the need for passing a federal law on psychological counselling.
Conclusion. There is a public demand for a new federal law on psychological counselling and such law will certainly create a lot of benefits for the population. It will be a tool for psychological counseling that will put the profession of a psychologist into the statute, and will clearly define types of psychological activity and set principles that the psychologist should follow.
Practical Application. The research results can be used while drafting and passing the new federal law on psychological counselling and executive regulatory acts.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. Currently there is a need to adopt a special federal law that covers psychological counselling of the population. The lack of such law is preventing use of uniformed terminology across the country and separating governmental and non-governmental psychological counselling rendered. Such gap also does not correspond with the interests of the clients that counselling is focused on since the experts who are allowed to extend those services are undetermined and undefined.
Objective The paper is directed at analyzing the status quo of legal regulation of the psychological counselling, finding gaps in such regulation and proving the need in a special federal law.
Research Progress. The paper takes an account of the current state of regulation of psychological counselling in the Russian Federation and foreign countries using the comparative legal analysis approach.The research resulted in a finding that there is the need in a special federal law on psychological counselling.
Conclusion. Special federal law on psychological counselling of the population is necessary to elaborate and eventually to implement for uniformity in counselling and in social work services, and also to protect the rights and interests of those who seek councelling, as well as determining the qualifications of those to render such services.
Practical Application. The research results can be used while drafting and passing a special federal law on psychological counselling and executive regulatory acts.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. Based on the analysis of literary plots and consulting practice the paper identifies the ways of overcoming the "problem of success" and innovative activity by managers and executives.
Objective. The hypothesis of the research can be presented in the following way: efficient innovative activity, overall effectiveness of the manager causes a contradictory attitude to the success achieved. Being aware that success is largely ensured by creating and implementing innovations, and sometimes being unaware of the commitment to avoid losing the goal, the manager falls into one of two ways. He/she either involuntarily seeks to keep the aim of the activity simultaneously with the desire to achieve it, or he/she is looking for opportunities to set new goals based on the one that has already been achieved or opposed to it. Since the goal of achieving greater efficiency is almost always associated with innovations, it is assumed that in the leader’s relation to innovations one can judge how the leader overcomes the "problem of success" and how much he/she is aware of it.
Research Progress. The total sample consisted of 115 participants (including 78 males, 37 females), middle-level managers, aged 32 to 51. 14 experts participated in the research. Based on expert interviews, the respondents were divided into two groups: more successful and more innovative managers were performed by 63 participants; less successful and less innovative managers were performed by 52 participants.
The research methods were the author's questionnaire and interview.
Research Results. Based on the difference analysis between the two groups of managers statistically significant answers differ in 79 per cent in the pairs of participants.
Conclusion. The conclusion is based on the fact that for the leaders who are quite successful in innovative activity a characteristic feature of experiencing success and moving towards new goals was the way whose key features were depicted by E. Hemingway in his literary works. The practical significance of the research is that the revealed signs of the efficient experience of success can become a subject of special awareness for managers who are stuck on the problem of success in one of two scenarios poorly realized by the subject of management activity.
Background. The successful socialization and personal development of the individual are directly related to the processes of creating an adequate social picture of the world, which is promoted by attributive processes.
The Objective of the research was an empirical test of the religious impact on the choice of attribution in the representatives of the Muslims and Orthodox Christians. The tasks of identifying the peculiarities of attributive processes in Orthodox Christians and Muslims in solving problems with a different level of complexity in a group are discussed.
Progress Report. Two groups of Orthodox Christians and Muslims were invited to participate in the research. The main empirical part was preceded by the pilot research, whose aim was to obtain an array of possible options of attribution in the groups of Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Based on the results of the pilot research a questionnaire was created, it reflects the opinions of the group members and is supplemented by the author's versions.
After the approbation stage, the main stage of the research was carried out that is aimed at revealing the peculiarities of attributive processes in Orthodox Christians and Muslims in solving problems with a different level of complexity in a group discussion.
Research Results. The results showed that the representatives of the confessions under consideration are similar in using dispositional interpretations of the keys to success and reasons for failure, i.e. the internal attribution processes do not differ between Orthodox Christians and Muslims. In addition, differences in the attribution of both group success and failure, and also individual success and failure in the representatives of the two confessions in solving problems of varying degrees of complexity were revealed.
Conclusion. Religious macrofactor performed by traditional patterns of behaviour is less significant in comparison with the classical attributive processes being the results of group dynamic processes.
Background. The paper highlights the necessity of studying the role of various high-level psychological mechanisms that participate in regulating sensory perceptual processes occurring under perceptual uncertainty.
Objective. The objective was to study the role of cognitive styles as crucial factors of individual differences that determine the performance of near-threshold and threshold sensory tasks on loudness discrimination.
Design. The tasks represented the discrimination of loudness of 1000Hz tonal signals in the ‘similar-different’ paradigm. The stimulus factor was presented by the difficulty level set by the value of difference between the stimuli (2 or 1 dB). Five cognitive styles (augmenting-reducing, leveling-sharpening, flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control, equivalence range, and focusing-scanning) were considered as factors of individual differences. The sensitivity index A‵, RT and its stability, and also confidence index for each task were analyzed.
Results. The significant and quasi-significant (0.05<p<0.1) effects of separate cognitive styles and also their interactions effects were identified. These effects varied depending on the task difficulty level. Cognitive styles ‘augmenting-reducing’ (p=0.008) and ‘leveling-sharpening’ (p=0.044), together with their interaction (p=0.042), affected sensitivity in threshold task; the interaction of these styles affected sensitivity in near-threshold task (p=0.047). ‘Flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control’ (p=0.042) as well as the interaction of ‘augmenting-reducing’ and ‘leveling-sharpening’ affected RT (p=0.073) and its stability (p=0.083). Subjective confidence in the near-threshold task depended on such cognitive styles as ‘flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control' (p=0.081), and ‘equivalence range’ (p=0.043); the threshold task depended on ‘focusing-scanning’ (p=0.021), ‘flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control' (p=0.071), and ‘equivalence range’ (p=0.018), alongside the interaction of the latter two (p=0.052). The results were compared to the ones of threshold and near-threshold visual signal detection tasks performance.
Conclusion. Being crucial situational determinants of solving sensory tasks under perceptual uncertainty, the type and difficulty level of the task mediate the effects of individual differences factors on sensory performance indices. The results are discussed within the framework of system activity approach in psychophysics.
Background. The paper presents the review of the research devoted to functional asymmetry of auditory perception in dichotic listening. The practical application problem of dichotic listening for researching other cognitive functions (attention, executive functions) is considered. The influence of different variables on the results of dichotic listening is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to memory, as it can ‘distort’ the indices of functional asymmetry of auditory perception.
The Objective is to study the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening.
Progress Report. 4 variants of word dichotic listening test were used, in which variables determining the degree of memory influence on the result (the instruction and the number of dichotic pairs in series) is ranged. Laterality index (LI), accuracy scores: total (AS), right-ear (RAS), left-ear (LAS); efficiency score (ES) were calculated. The research involved 80 healthy people aged 18 to 63 years divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 people, and 7 patients with blood stroke aged 25 to 75 years.
Research Results. It was shown that the wording of the instructions (participants were instructed to report all the words they had heard or the words they had heard most clearly) does not have any influence on the results of dichotic listening, the number of dichotic pairs in series (1 or 4) has an influence (comparing by LI U=227 , р<0,05; by AS U=0, р<0,05; by RAS U=2, p<0,05; by LAS U=0, р<0,05; by ES U=174,5, р<0,05). When the variant with 1 dichotic pair in series was presented, high accuracy scores and high efficiency score were noted; laterality index was approaching zero. This variant cannot be used to assess the functional asymmetry of auditory perception in healthy people and in participants who suffered a stroke.
Conclusion. In order to control the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening can be used modified variant with 1 dichotic pair in series. But it is necessary to increase the complexity of the task that is offered to the participants. The authors consider that the presentation of fused words is possible. The stimuli presented to different auditory channels simultaneously should merge into a single perception unit.
Background. The widely discussed issue of developing creative thinking in childhood is the massive decline in creativity in many children in countries according to Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The methodological restrictions of the test approach and descriptive methods make it difficult to find an answer to the question of different aspects of creativity development in childhood, so this problem does not receive sufficient consideration in modern developmental psychology.
The Objective of the theoretical and analytical research is to study the status quo and modern approaches to the issue of child's creative thinking, to substantiate the methodology of the "gradual development" trend that reveals the line of functional development of logical and creative actions in the development of human psyche, the discussion of applied issues related to overcoming the crisis situations when dealing with creativity in modern children.
Design. The theoretical-analytical research consistently substantiates the methodology of "gradual development" as a system of objective requirements for the mental process ("ideal form") and conditions ensuring the fulfillment of these requirements (appropriation of the tool of activity in the orienting function); the idea of functional development of the child's psyche is revealed. The restrictions of the psychometric test method in resolving the problem of creativity development in children throughout the 20th century and at the present time are discussed.
Research Results. The analysis of the "gradual development" methodology showed how the conditions for mediation and growth of productivity indicators in the solution of the divergent tasks of the Picture Construction Test (Torrance, 1966) in preschool children is approaching the pre-established "ideal form". In the course of the task management, the qualitatively different types of child behaviour of enhancing the properties of their actions are identified: proactivity, reflexivity, control. The results showed that qualitative discrepancies in the productivity types of solving various tasks by preschool children are significantly associated with their intellectual level.
Conclusion. The prospects of the functional and age development of the child's psyche is shown to explore the theoretical and applied problems of the development of creative thinking in ontogeny. The application of the P.Ya. Galperin’s concept of orientation to non-standard (divergent) problems allowed to consider the most renowned tests of creative talent proposed by E.P. Torrance in identifying the creative potential of a normally developing child.
By: Churbanova S.M.;
artistic and creative giftedness;
Galperin`s method of mental actions development;
functional and age-related development of child's mind;
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. Early career choice is a developmental task at the adolescent age (D.B. Elkonin, I.S. Kon, D.I. Feldstein). Diversified educational system in Russia makes it objectively possible to implement various trajectories of professional development in the transition from childhood to adulthood (L.A. Golovei, O.A. Karabanova, N.S. Pryazhnikov). The paper is devoted to the study of parental involvement in career choice in the context of the modernization of the Russian educational system. The scheme of Personal Career Plan (PCP) is a substantive procedural model of career choice (N.S. Pryazhnikov). The adolescent PCP development is studied as a process that is realized through the interaction between the adolescents and their parents and is understood as the co-adjustment process (G.V. Burmenskaya) of the efforts of adolescent and parents in solving the task of building the PCP. The collaboration of parents and adolescents is determined by child-parent relationship (CPR), development of personal autonomy, autonomy of adolescent in CPR. There is lack of research devoted to the study of parent-child relationship at the stage of the career choice, types of parental involvement in the adolescent’s PCP g.
Objective. The objective of the research is to study the correlation between parental involvement in career choice by adolescents and emotional autonomy in CPR in adolescence (according to adolescents).
Design. The paper presents the results of the authors’ empirical research parental involvement (according to adolescents). The study was conducted in 2016-2017 and represents a part of a broader research of the conditions and factors for PCP in the Russian adolescents. The sample included 167 adolescents of Moscow high schools from 14 to 18 y.o. The techniques included modified “Parent Career Behavior Checklist” (Keller, Whiston, 2008), and modified “Emotional Autonomy scale” (EAS) (Steinberg, 1986) (author’s adaptation).
Findings. The obtained data allowed to conclude that the parental involvement in career choice is quite possible. Five groups of adolescents with different level of parental (mothers’ and fathers’) support in career choice (according to adolescents) were distinguished. The results confirm the correlation of adolescent’s emotional autonomy in CPR and the features of parental involvement in career choice (acoording to adolescents).
Conclusion. The hypothesis of the correlation of the parental involvement and the emotional autonomy in CPR was confirmed. The nonlinear character of the relationship between parental involvement and emotional autonomy of adolescents in the CPR has been revealed.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The research of the student attitude to the system of supplementary education is of paramount importance as it is the system of supplementary education where the adolescent tries to implement specific "cultural tests" that allow him/her to obtain an inverse social reaction regarding his/her personal success (success as a subject of activity).
The Objectives of the research are as follows: 1. Determining the influence of age, social demographic factors on the involvement of adolescents in the system of supplementary education is the objective of the research. 2. Defining the motives determining the occupations of students of the secondary and high schools in the circles, studios, sections. 3. Studying the influence of the student involement in the system of supplementary education on their studies.
Research Progress. The paper presents the results of the research carried out by the Center for the Sociology of Education of the IEM RAE in October-November, 2017. The sample includes 11,803 school students of 7-11th grades of the Leningrad region, Russia. Questions concerning the student involvement in the system of supplementary education, paid vs free school classes in various circles, studios, sections, preferences of certain areas of supplementary education, variety of motives that make students get interested in different types of extra classes are discussed. The influence of extra classes on the studying activities (academic success, student status in the classroom, peculiarities of motives involved).
Research Results. In the system of supplementary education, every second student of the secondary and high school is engaged. The educational status and financial position of the student's parents influence his/her involvement in the system of supplementary education. The influence of macro-indicators (settlement factor) is marked as preference in the field of studies and also within the payment strategy of the educational services provided. Among the main motives for attending classes there are the following ones: broadening the horizons, assessing the abilities and opportunities.
Conclusion. The most important motive that causes adolescent interest in various types of jobs and occupations in the system of supplementary education is to catch up with the lack of knowledge obtained in school. The student’s involvement in the system of supplementary education also sets a positive vector for his/her development as subject of the studying activity.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The issue of secondary failures in adopting children without parental care requires more attention to the preliminary psychological work with candidates for adoptive parents, in particular, to assessing motivation for child adoption. The paper examines the possible risks and limitations of the diagnostic approach associated with "functional" and "dysfunctional" motives, justifies the advantages of targeting the tasks of accompanying and counseling families.
The Objective of the paper is to describe a new method for studying the expectations and attitudes of parents based on the technique of repertory grids, identifying empirically valid criteria for interpreting the results and demonstrating the application methods on the case analysis.
Research Progress. Parents from 20 families with adopted children and parents from 18 families from the control group filled in the rank repertory grids and assessed children's photographs, and also members of their family according to certain constructs. The grids were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.
Research Results. The data are presented on the distribution of quantitative indices (indicators of the complexity of correlation links, relevance of constructs to the issue of child adoption, predominance of dissimilar categories of constructs), with lower and upper quartiles to groups the subjects according to high and low indices. Based on the case analysis, a holistic approach to interpretation is illustrated, combining the evaluation of quantitative characteristics and qualitative data analysis.
Conclusion. Using the technique of repertory grids allows to assess the parent dominant expectations of interacting with the child, their flexibility, relevance and control of experiences related to child's adoption, and also the existence of distorted attitudes toward existing children. The interview form allows to use the method for joint targets of problem-oriented therapy, clarifies realistic expectations and percieved decision-making.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. Connected with the changes that have taken place in the labour market in the last decades, psychologists are faced with the scientific and practical task of improving vocational guidance work with high school students using new programs to develop their personal and professional identity.
Objective. Based on the epigenetic theory of development the objective is to generalize and systematize the theoretical and empirical studies of personal and professional identity in adolescents aged 15–16, establish new empirical facts, verify the results already obtained and develop practical recommendations for improving vocational guidance counseling for high school students.
Design. Some features of the relationship between personal and professional identity of high school students aged 15–16 were studied. First of all, the relationship of personal identity with age was studied. In the course of the research, such methods as studying personal identity of D. Marcia modified by V.R. Orestova and O.A. Karabanova and methods of professional identity of A.A. Azbel and A.G. Gretsov were used. The methods were disseminated among 158 respondents, and the questionnaires filled by 132 respondents turned out to be suitable for processing.
Research Results. Several hypotheses were put forward: 1. The level of personal identity development is significantly associated with the age of high school students. 16-year-old 10th-graders outnumber 15-year-old 9th-graders. Between the age groups, significant differences were identified (p = 0.048), so the hypothesis is confirmed. 2. The majority of 15-year-old 9th-graders (63.3%) and 16-year-old 10th-graders (62.2%) who go to Moscow schools have a status of a moratorium. The hypothesis is confirmed. 3. For the age of 15-16 years, the dynamics of professional identity is absent. The hypothesis is confirmed. The differences between adolescents of 15 and 16 years in this parameter are not statistically significant (p = 0.993). 4. The level of personal and professional identity development is higher in females than in males. The hypothesis was not confirmed as the differences between females and males are not significant (p = 0.122), (p = 0.928).
Conclusion. As a result of generalization of theoretical and empirical data, an author's approach to improving vocational guidance work with high school students is proposed.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The interest in childhood as a period of human life and in children as members of society is determined by negative transformations of the sociocultural development observed in the period starting with 70-80s of the 20th century to the present day.
The Objective of the paper is to describe the pilot research for optimizing parenting motivation as part of personal education. The basic hypothesis of the research is the assumption about the objective dependence of parenting motivation on the system of value orientations and attitudes of the subject, including the perceived necessity for the child upbringing.
Progress Report. The first stage of the research includes the analysis of foreign and domestic scientists’ works of in the field of psychology of parenting, which allowed to shape the research hypothesis and to design the experimental part. The second stage is the implementation of the experimental research program. Respondents of the research were represented by males and females aged 16 to 22 years.
Research Results. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the experimental data carried out at the third stage showed that 73 per cent of the respondents pointed to the family as the most important value. The central motivation for child birth in the majority of respondents (84 per cent) is receiving baby love.
Conclusion. The conducted research showed that parenting motivation is well-developed in the respondents. The hypothesis about the distinctive features of parenting motivation at the stages of early and late adolescence, and also the hypothesis of the gender specificity of parenting motivation have also been confirmed. Similarly, the qualitative analysis of the experimental data that has been performed in the research reveals the maximum intensity of the emotional component of parenting motivation. The cognitive component that objectively determines the stability of motivation is weakly expressed. To develop the parenting motivation as part of personal education the program aimed at harmonizing the development process of both emotional and cognitive component of parenting motivation was organized.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The topic of the psychological consequences of mass disasters for children and adolescents (victims of natural and man-made disasters, military conflicts, terrorism), and also the corresponding risks, threats to their mental development is insufficiently covered in modern psychology. Difficulties in carrying out research cause their quite a small number in relation to the children's population.
The Objective of the analytical theoretical research is 1. to study the general state of the issue and the most discussed modern models of experiencing mass disasters and its impact on the psychological well-being of children and adolescents who are victims and witnesses of mass natural cataclysms, socio-anthropogenic and technogenic catastrophes; 2. to conduct cultural and historical analysis of the issue; 3. to handle central discussion issues regarding the prevention of destructive psychological reactions in the younger generation.
Progress Report. In the theoretical and analytical research, an array of ideas about the psychological consequences of mass disasters for the younger generation is consistently considered from the early historic periods up to modern days. A critical analysis of the main methodologies that lie in the basis of most modern research is presented, and finally, the paper considers the possibilities of systematic cultural and historical analysis in the framework of the issue stated in the title, including the prevention of destructive psychological reactions.
Research Results. The analysis has revealed the partiality and diversity of research models, the often inconsistent conclusions drawn on the basis of their research development; discussion on issues of preventive intervention.
Conclusion. The integrative possibilities of cultural and historical analysis are shown, including the methodology of the research carried out earlier, the possibilities of designing preventive measures that increase the psychological stability of children and adolescents to the traumatic consequences of extreme situations. The essence of the proposed approach is the cultural and historical understanding of internal and external causes and mechanisms of various posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the nature of care and work with them, and also in the possibilities of diagnosing "weaknesses", premises for the development of such disorders in the conditions of a society.
By: Burlakova N.S.;
Keywords: children and adolescents;
psychological consequences of experiencing mass catastrophes and disasters;
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD);
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The issue of upbringing is becoming increasingly important due to the development and growing-up of modern children and adolescents in the so-called digital age. The characteristic features of child development in the kindergarten and in the primary and secondary school within the information society make pose a challenge to the psychological service.
Objective. The key to the situation can be found in the context of the priority directions of psychology of upbringing and education, and also by establishing scientific and practical support of the directions. The paper is to thoroughly consider psychologists’ and educators’ work in the education system in the current situation. The goals and objectives of their work are specified in regard with the significant changes that have been recently observed in the Information Society.
Design. The acute and sometimes contradictory issues of the upbringing have been severely paralyzed. The ever-lasting goals of educating children and developing their personality such as emotional and spiritual development, mastering the accumulated bag of cultural achievements, the development of moral feelings, abilities for full communication, etc. are singled out.
Research Results. Modern education reflects the needs of the information society and has to focus more on the issues of schoolchildren's progress, the development of their intellectual sphere, and the preparation for the passing of the State Exam. Much less attention is paid to education. Practical psychology being an important assistant of the educational system is much influenced by the latter and is not actually prepared solve the urgent task of educating children.
Conclusion. The solutions to the problems of education should not only be found at the level of highly professional interdisciplinary integration of the educational, psychological, social and other sciences and practices, but also at the level of the contemporary interaction of various sciences and forms of social consciousness , i.e. culture, art, media (television, radio, Internet), law, morality, religion.
On January 27-28, 2017, the 2nd All-Russian Conference «The way to success: programs to support gifted children and youth in the context of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation» was held in the Sirius Educational Centre (Sochi, Russia)
February 20-22, 2018 the 6th ASEAN Regional Congress of Psychological Associatons was held in Kuta (Indonesia)
Background Experience as a psychological phenomenon is a subjective attitude of a person to the world around him, in which the ideological attitudes of the person are reflected. In the adolescent period, the cardinal changes of interests, values and outlook take place in general, thus experiences acquire a special course. Modern adolescents are especially concerned about the problems of the future: life planning after graduation, further relationships with friends and parents, career choice, establishing contacts with peers, etc.
Objective. The specific features of adolescents with deviant behaviour determine the relevance and novelty of this research. The objective is to identify the emotional experience of the specific psychological problems of deviant adolescents. A diagnostic method “Psychological problems of adolescents” (L.A. Regush, E.V. Alekseeva, A.V. Orlova, Yu.S. Pezhemskaya) was used as the main research procedure.
Design. The study involved 50 secondary school students divided into two groups according to behaviour type. The first group consisted of 25 subjects characterized by frequent behavioural disorders, the second group consisted of 25 subjects with socially acceptable behaviour. The compared groups are unified in terms of age (14-16 y.o.) and gender (male).
Results. The data analysis showed that in adolescents with behavioural disorders average indicators are much higher (except for the scale “issues related to the society development”) than in adolescents with socially acceptable behaviour. The excess of an upper limit of the permissible values for deviant adolescents is fixed according to scales of psychological problems connected with “the self”, “school”, and “parents’ place”. Based on the statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test, significant differences in the scales on “school related issues” (p≤0,000), “future related issues” (p≤0,011) and “self related issues» (p≤0,014). The differences in the experience issues related to the society development (p≤0,016) and the parent’s place related issues (p≤0,023) were recorded in adolescents with behavioural disorders. The lack of the statistical support of the number of assumptions (the severity of the experience of problems related to peer interaction, leisure, and health) is due primarily to the fact that the content of the method «Psychological problems of adolescents» does not take into account a full range of the needs, motives, values, attitudes, etc., specific to the system of experiences of adolescents with deviant behaviour. This aspect actualizes the need to design a diagnostic tool for solving the social-psychological and psychological pedagogical objectives of deviance studies in their applied orientation.
Conclusion. The revealed differences point to the need for timely development of the measures for the social psychological prevention of emotional destabilization and / or the reconstruction of the system of experiences of adolescents with a deviant development trajectory. Based on the obtained results, an educational experiment designed to amplify the experiences of adolescents with deviant behavior has been developed and is being tested.
Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy.
Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball) and team level (amateur and professional).
To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index). which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes); 12-14 years (24 athletes) and 18-25 years (41 athletes).
Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05). For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05). and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05).
Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group cohesion and the phenomenon of group unity. The authors explain this by the fact that for professionals the main motive of the activity is to receive a reward for the game. and for the amateurs - the pleasure from joint actions.
Available Online: 01.01.2018
Background. Responsibility as a measure of individual freedom comes only under the condition of freedom of choice and the ability to anticipate and take into account the consequences of acts. Therefore, personal factors play a key role in taking moral responsibility. Scholars have studied the personal bases of responsibility that comprises autonomy, independence, confidence, the locus of control, the motivation to achieve a goal, the level of aspiration. However, the role of the moral self and moral identity in the determination of responsibility is not sufficiently studied.
Objective. The objective of the research is to study the relationship between the moral identity of the individual and the willingness to accept moral responsibility in adolescence. Proceeding from the general hypothesis about the essential role of moral identity in adopting and actualising themoral responsibility, two specific hypotheses are articulated, specifying the role of values and moral self-esteem in taking moral responsibility.
Design. An empirical study of adolescents aged 13–17 years was conducted. Subjects are students of educational institutions of general education in Moscow (a total of 314 subjects). The study poses the challenges of studying the readiness to accept moral responsibility by adolescents in the situation of a moral dilemma, the connection of the moral and value orientation of adolescents and the willingness to accept moral responsibility, the connection of self-esteem of moral qualities and the readiness of adolescents to accept moral responsibility. The methodology for assessing moral responsibility in the situation of solving the moral dilemma «Moral Situations from Real Life» (MORS), a modified version of M. Rokich’s method for evaluating value orientations, the method of structured moral self-esteem (A.I. Podolsky, P. Heymans, O.A. Karabanova) are used.
Conclusion. The results revealed the influence of the participants’ moral dilemma and the nature of the consequences (damage or profit to the participant of the dilemma) on the adolescents’ willingness to accept moral responsibility, as well as the role of moral value orientation in the principle of care and moral self-esteem. It was revealed that the self-esteem of such moral qualities as responsibility, honesty, responsiveness, caring is higher in adolescents, showing a high willingness to accept moral responsibility in a moral dilemma. Moral identity is proved to be a desire to maintain a high positive self-esteem of moral qualities according to the accepted system of values develops the basis of the normative moral self-regulation of the individual.
Background. The study of early trajectories of emotional development may be crucial for detecting cases of depression and peculiarities of disease in children under the age of three, when early intervention may give the so-called «window of opportunity» for greater therapeutic effect.
Objective. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the issue of depression in children of infantile and early age and to identify risk factors for the development of depression in children of infantile and early childhood, particularly maternal depression.
Design. The reference literature on the subject of maternal and child depression is analysed. The study aimed at obtaining data on depressive symptoms in 233 mothers of infants with congenital heart disease during the period of surgical treatment was conducted.
Results. The paper provides evidence that maternal depression negatively affects child-parent interaction and is a factor of developing depression in the child. Analysis of the results shows that the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with CHD in the period of surgical treatment (clinical group) shows that in mothers of children with congenital heart disease 27.1 per cent reveal subclinical depression, and 17.7 per cent reveal severe depression (two days before heart surgery). Two weeks after surgery 30.04 per cent of mothers had the symptoms of subclinical depression and 18.22 per cent showed signs of severe depression, which was a negative factor in the psychological development of children of the age under consideration.
Conclusion. The phenomenon of depression in children of infantile and early age remains a topic of further discussion for the scientific community. However, it is clear that maternal depression, if it does not cause reciprocal depression in the child, usually makes a negative contribution to the child’s mental development that requires further iresearch.
Background. Since psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is one of the professional activities, the departments must perform the tasks of the following two tiers: professionally-based and system-wide. Those tasks of the first tier perform the tree groups of individual and group diagnostics, personal and professional development, and professional and psychological support. When implemented they are determined by system-wide goals, with the main one shaping the patriotic worldview, corporate culture and the significantprofessionalproperties of the employees.
Objective. Within the framework of the approach mentioned above, the paper considers static and dynamic models of psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at the present stage, current issues and ways to resolve them are revealed.
Progress Report. Based on the brief analysis of the static model of psychological work it is concluded that there are forces and means for the successful accomplishment of the assigned tasks which is confirmed by the external indicators. When considering the on-line dynamic model issues, the issues of scientific and methodological character are identifiedand also the corporate personnel and the systemwide (worldview) typeof work are determined. Their essence and content are specified, and also the ways to constructively eliminate these issues are highlighted.
Research results. The author emphasizes that the worldviewissues require special consideration as their solution demand a set of measures connected with the extension of the functional duties of the psychologists working in the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Conclusion. In the conditions of negative information and psychological impact on the professional and corporate consciousness of the Ministry of Internal Affairs employees, the increased attention of some researchers to the negative moments of the history of the police when its heroic pagesare ignored, the psychologists should use the entiretoolkit of psychological approaches and methods to withstand the aforementioned destructive influences. Particular importance should be attached to the development of the employeemotivational sphere as the most important component of their career orientation.
Keywords: employees of internal affairs agencies;
departmental training of psychologists;
moral and psychological support of official activity;
psychology of understanding;
static and dynamic model of psychological work;
Available Online: 01.01.2018
Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology.
Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army.
Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war are analyzed. Psychological war is considered as a component of an information psychological antagonism, along with legal and media-wars. Such types of psychological war as operation-coercion, operation-deceit, operation-dissociation, operation-defense are identified. Methods of psychological war are highlighted. The general review of other trends of military psychological research is given: studying combat influence on soldier mental condition, stress resistance, post combat frustration and posttraumatic growth; collaborating on methods of psychological training and psychological resilience in military men; studying psychological aspects of «man-technics» system, etc.
Results. To conclude, the Chinese military psychology is becoming an essential creative force in the PLA’s combat preparedness system and its experience is worthy of careful and in-depth study.
By: Karayani, Y. M.;
Available Online: 01.01.2018
Background. Values of sexual relations repeatedly changed throughout various culturalhistorical periods. As a result of acquiring values and norms of sexual culture many actual requirements of the personthat were significant at certainontogenetic and sociogeneticstages couldget deprived of the relevance at further stages. As the sociocultural sexual development progresses the subsequent new values, highly significant for the given person are can be shaped. The system of values finds the reflexion in hierarchy and defines dynamics of sexual motives at different stages of the course of life.
Objective. The objective is to define hierarchy, sexual and age distinctions in dispositional sexual motives in early adulthood.
Design. The paper regards the issue of interrelation between sexual motivation and features of gender interpersonal relations. The sexual motivation was considered as interest in a general class of related incentives, all of which provide the same basic type of satisfaction associated with sexual expression. Eight specific types of incentives intrinsic to sexual expression that motivate sexual behaviourare studied: (1) feeling valued by the partner, (2) reinforcing partners value, (3) obtaining relief from stress or negative psychological states, (4) providing care and custody through sexual interaction to improve a partner’s psychological condition, (5) enhancing feelings of personal power, (6) feeling partner’s power, (7) feeling pleasure, and (8) productive fertility.
Conclusion. Disregarding gender and age,the leading position in the hierarchy of sexual disposition motives is occupied by the motives of reinforcing partner’s value, pleasure and care, and subordination position, i.e. motives of comfort, personal value, power and submission. Females in comparison with males differ by higher intensity of submissionmotives and the partner’s significance, while males manifest more force of motive of production fertility. Within the years intensity of motives of partner’s significance, comfort, power and pleasure tends to increase, whereas the motives of submission, personal value and care tend to decrease. The motive of reproduction fertility does not change during years.
Trends of al sexual disposition motivation in males and females at different stages of the early adulthood are designated.
Background. The evaluation of the visual object by the perceiving subject depends both on the features of the object (qualities, characteristics, properties), on the one hand, and the characteristics of the subject of perception (mentality, inherent archetypes, gender, aesthetic representations, value systems, motivation, etc.). Therefore, speaking about external beauty, we must first build a typology of subjects of evaluation, and then conduct an analysis of preferences within homogeneous groups.
Objective. Isolation of signs and semantic interpretations of visual preferences is a complex task. We limit its decision to a search, pilotage study of a supposedly more or less homogeneous sample of male students from one of the Siberian universities, Russia.
Design. The study involved 30 males aged 20-23 years. The subjects were presented with 9 photographs, which they had to rank according to 8 descriptors discussed in focus groups previously. The ranking of photo portraits was carried out with respect to two motives: the desire to have physical intimacy and the possibility to be happy with woman in the photo.
Conclusion. Four main independent factors of female’s estimation of men were revealed, which explained 89 per cent of the total variance. Motivational vector is identified as a certain direction in the semantic space that defines the most optimal ratio of factors required to meet the existing needs. Projections of each coordinate of the vector object of all axes of the semantic space allow to determine the contribution of each factor to the motivational significance of the objects. The psychosemantic approach can be realized when solving a wide range of research in the study of human preferences (advertising, fashion, image of socially significant persons, objects of perception of art, etc.), and also to analyze the motivation of the person on whom the system of his preferences is based. Vector descriptions used in psychosemantics provides the psychologist with the opportunity to apply the mathematical methods and analogues of the natural sciences methods to analyze the mentality of a person and his/her individual picture of the world.
Relevance. Foreign scientists have developed several models of the emergence of social loafing. These models are widely presented in foreign psychological and management literature. Russian scientists when considering the phenomenon of social loafing does not even mention the existence of these models. In connection with this situation is very important to produce translations into Russian language of the common models of the emergence of social loafing and to perform them. Knowledge of models of social loafing will help competently conduct theoretical and empirical researches of the phenomenon under consideration and manage it.
The objective of the theoretical study is to facilitate provision of fundamental and objective knowledge of social loafing to scientists and practitioners who study groups or work with them. Knowledge of models of social loafing will help competently conduct theoretical and empirical researches of the phenomenon under consideration and manage it.
Description of the course of theoretical research. The article considers the following foreign models of the origin of social loafing: R. E. Kidwell and N. Bennett’s model (1993), the collective effort model by S. J. Karau and K. D. Williams (1993), D. R. Comer’s model (1995) and S. M. Davoudi and his colleages’ model (2012). The author of the article indicates limitations of the research conducted and outlines variants of the future researches on the concerned problem.
Conclusions. On the basis of the analysis of the foreign models the author reaches several conclusions. Firstly, almost all the models indicate only motivational causes of social loafing while coordinating causes are omitted. Such an approach is not entirely proper as a number of empirical researches revealed that social loafing emerges due to both coordinating and motivational causes. Secondly, the authors of almost all the models refer to deindividualising of personality and social comparison as motivational causes of social loafing. Thirdly, almost all the models do not distinguish between causes and factors of social loafing. This approach is not entirely justified as implies causation while factors suggest correlation. Fourthly, almost all the models consider situational factors of social loafing while dispositional factors are ignored. Finally, all the models do not exhaustively describe causes and factors of the phenomenon under consideration.
Background. The authors of the paper enquire how the continuity and maintenance of social identity is carried out from generation to generation. Particular attention is drawn to the memory of the traumatic past of the group, such as repression and deportation, as they contradict the widespread view of social identity as a tool for achieving positive individual self-esteem based on a positive image of the group. The paper assumes that cultural memory being a link between the past, the present and the future of the social group ensures the continuity of social identity. Identity that includes the comprehension and experience of the negative past of the group is also considered.
Objective. The objective of this study is to justify the role of cultural memory as the basis of identification with the group and an empirical test of the relationship between the two constructs.
Design. A written questionnaire was offered to 296 people aged between 17 and 70 (M = 26.22, SD = 10.0) who identified themselves as Ingush. The respondents answered questions about their social identity (ethnic, civil and religious), assessed their experiences related to the deportation fact, and substantively argued the need to preserve the cultural memory of the deportation.
Conclusion. The data obtained show that the extent of identity within the group is positively correlated with the extent of the deportation experience, although these experiences are by no means positive (anger, insult, humiliation, heart pain, etc.), and also with the frequency of recalling the fact of deportation and desire to learn more about this event. The obtained results confirm the suggested assumption about the role of cultural memory and allow to develop further research on clarifying the relationship between cultural memory and social identity, assessing the impact of such additional factors as group emotions, psychological well-being, etc.
Objective. The article describes a short version of the dual process model scales by J. Duckitt that allow elaborating on an integrated exploratory approach for the assessment of authoritarianism.
Background. This area of research is not widespread in Russia in contrast to foreign social psychology. Unfortunately, there are only a few studies in Russia that advance our understanding of the indicated problems, and these few studies likely put more questions than give answers. It can be partly explained by the lack of appropriate available, reliable and valid measures in Russian. Dual process model for the study of authoritarianism offers the scales designed to measure: (1) right-wing authoritarianism that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the social cohesion, order, stability, and collective security; (2) social dominance orientation that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the dominance and superiority; (3) dangerous worldview that reflects views of the social world as the dangerous and threatening; and (4) competitive worldview that reflects views of the social world as the competitive and ferocious.
Design. The data for the analysis were collected in the survey of 241 participants, mostly residents of Moscow (Central Federal District), Russia, and Ulyanovsk (Volga Federal District), Russia. Using confirmatory factor analysis the four measurement models containing the different number of dimensions of the short version of the dual process model scales were tested. Also, cross-validation was performed (N = 576).
Results. The tested measurement models had acceptable reliability and validity indices. However, the best fit was shown by the model with multidimensional structure in which all the subfactors were as separate constructs.
Conclusion. The short version of scales was successfully compiled, the measures can be considered a reliable and valid measure to study of authoritarianism in Russia.
Background. Framing effect is rarely studied in relation to individual differences. In cognitive psychology, it reflects distortions in decision-making depending on the context (phrasing) of statements about alternatives, and framing is found within medical professional samples.
Objective. The objective of the study are asfollows: 1. to identify the differences in the students of medical and non-medical universities and susceptibility to framing, 2. establish in both groups similarities of individual decision-making styles (coping with uncertainty if any) in self-assessments (intelligence, risk taking and personality) and in willingness to take risks and tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, 3. to identify the specific relationship between susceptibility to the framing effect (FE) in medical students with their personal properties.
Design. The paper describes the study of framing on medicine (n = 78) and psychology students (n = 122). It is demonstrated that in Kahneman and Tversky’s “Asian disease problem”, the psychology students show reframing effect while medical students don’t show difference in answers. Participants who choose different answers in negative phrasing of the issue differ in self-esteemed risk taking and intolerance for uncertainty; but there is no difference in positive version of the problem. Differences in personality profiles of the future members of medical and non-medical students have been established, both in terms of the personality variables and their associations to the dynamic regulatory systems. Medical students are characterized with less procrastination and higher risk readiness. Self-esteemed risk is correlated with risk readiness in both samples (and negatively connected to rationality within the psychology student sample). Unexpectedly, risk preparedness is also correlated with intolerance for uncertainty in both groups. Medical students are characterized by specific correlation between risk readiness and personal self-esteem (good/bad person scale). Self-esteemed risk proposed is shown to be not only connected to corresponding questionnaire scale of personal risk preparedness but also to correlate to the choice in the framing effect issues.
Results. These and other connections report about specifics of personal characteristics structure within the group of medical students.
Available Online: 01.01.2018
Background. The paper examines the attitude of scientists engaged in research in the field of education to various aspects of professional activity: the features of planning, resources for implementation, and satisfaction with the results. The relevance of the study is due to a number of institutional changes in the national science. Thus, the active reform initiated in 2013 was aimed at optimizing and increasing the efficiency of various research institutes, primarily those within the structure of state academies. In this regard, it seems important to identify the scientists’ attitude to the results of the implemented initiatives within the period of the last four years.
Objective. The paper is to analyze the influence of age and social indicators of professional status (academic degree, academic title, position held, publication activity) on various aspects of the professional activity of the researches.
Design and sample characteristics. A special questionnaire of 72 questions was developed (closed, open and scale), 721 respondents were interviewed. The sample included employees with different levels of scientific qualifications and length of professional scientific activity. Both employees of scientific research institutes and universities from different regions of the Russian Federation were interviewed.
Results. The results show the manifestation of negative tendencies concerning the planning of scientific activity related to its authoritarian nature and formal requirements for reporting on the results of scientific activity. The peculiarities of well-being of scientific employees at the stage of completing a professional career are revealed. The features of the manifestation of the professional crisis, which is characteristic for the age cohort of forty-year scientific workers, are considered. The specifics of attracting personal funds and additional financial sources depending on various indicators of the professional status of the scientist are shown.
Available Online: 01.01.2018
From 5 to 7 September in Kazan (Volga) Federal University held two major events the psychological community. Within All-Russian forum of psychological events to be held VI Congress of the Russian psychological society (RPO).
18 October 2017 staff of the faculty of psychology of Moscow state University named M. V. Lomonosov took part in the XIX world festival of youth and students.
The paper considers the possibility of using the principles of gradual development of intellectual activity in the training experts of developmental psychology. The issue of the managed development of professional work components is being raised. A possible way of working is discussed analysing the features of child actual development aimed at discovering the reasons for the learning difficulties, which served as an excuse for the parents to seek psychological assistance. The method of analysis becomes an important competence of a consulting psychologist against the background of a high variety of forms of mental development. Development of readymade algorithms for solving a problem situation, covering all their diversity seems next to impossible. In this regard, there is a need to prepare students for an independent analysis of a specific life situation. It is the ability to this kind of analysis that ensures the expert’s preparedness to develop recommendations that contribute to harmonizing the child’s development.
Elaboration of this competence implies the integration of knowledge and skills acquired in various training courses. This possibility is provided by shaping the student’s orientation in the learned action taking into account its level structure. Semantically speaking, orientation allows one to recover the logic of the child’s examination and child development according to the goal set. The orientation is based on the mechanisms and conditions of mental development. The choice of adequate diagnostic tools becomes an independent task of the analysis that requires understanding of the available techniques and diagnostic tools. Summing up, the operational level of orientation provides competent use of the means chosen during diagnostic examination. Taking into account the orientation level of the developed activity makes it possible to integrate the knowledge and skills gained in the process of training into psychologist expert practice.
Self-determination is deemed as search and continuous refinement of the meaning of the future life. The paper discusses various options for self-determination, i.e. professional, personal, social, and other ones.
Self-determination means making a certain choice. This may be career choice («career self-determination»), choice of a moral position («personal self-determination»), choice of one’s position in society associated with image and style of life, status in various social groups («social self-determination»), choice of options («Leisure selfdetermination »), or even choice of relationship type («family self-determination»), etc.
The generalized options and methods of orientation in various «space» of self-determination are highlighted. The psychological «spaces» are regarded as a metaphor that reflects and arranges a certain field of search for the meanings of self-determination. Each «space» is constructed according to a certain principle based on certain criteria. Psychological «space» may be determined as diverse, and in this set of self-determining personality one must be able to navigate. There are main groups of psychological «space» including the typology of options for planning life and career, the typology of work activity, the typology of professions. It is important for self-determination to define the future professional activity. Various methods are presented that allow a person to get a career orientation in complex «space» of career and life choices. Particular attention is paid to self-determination of children in adolescence. Various modern approaches in career guidance and P.Ya. Galperin’s career «orientation» principles are drawn to a concordance.