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Sobkin V.S., Rodionova K.E. (2018). Students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4, 109–122

Abstract

Background. Studying students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of the teaching and upbringing process is important in connection with the modernization of school education. Their attitude to these issues characterizes the social psychological context that determines the role of school in cultural and value-based education of adolescents.

The Objective of the research is to determine the differences between the students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education in relation to the three areas of analysis: between students and teachers, between members of schools types (general education, in-depth study of particular subjects, gymnasium and lyceum), between generations of teachers and students as of 1991 and 2017.

Design. The paper presents the results of survey questionnaire conducted by the Centre for Sociology of Education, IEM RAE, Moscow, Russia, in 2017. The sample included 11 803 students of 7-11 grades and 4 999 school teachers. The data are further compared with the results of the survey 1 conducted in 1991 (sample included 162 students and 681 teachers). Questions concerning goal orientations of school education are considered at two levels: pragmatic ("What should school give to students?") and value-based ("Who should schools prepare their students for?").

Research Results. At the pragmatic level, students attach greater importance to the issues of professional identity, whereas teachers regard the traditional functions of education. At the value-based level for students, the individualistic attitudes are more typical, whereas teachers place a greater value on socially regular patterns. Members of the gymnasia and lyceums more often note the importance of the cultural development as well as communication and interaction between students. Unlike gymnasia and lyceums, general education schools put a greater emphasis on normal behaviour and participation in public life. The admission requirements have increased for socializing functions and training, and also the individualistic attitudes in modern education compared with 1991 have been in the focus of attention. Simultaneously, the importance of creative activity is decreasing and education is aimed at supporting social institution. Factor analysis has revealed three meaningful juxtapositions in relation to which the goals of school education are structured: "norm – self-actualisation", "convention – principle", "romantic approach – pragmatic approach".

Conclusion. This research reveals particular goals and purposes for modern school education in students’ and teachers’ minds that allows them to improve the educational process.

Received: 09/27/2018
Accepted: 10/16/2018
Pages: 109-122
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0410

By: ; ;

Sections: Psychology in Education;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no32-2018/npj_no32_2018_109-122.pdf

Keywords: social functions of education; personality models of the school graduate; type of school; teachers; students; persoanl identity;

Available Online 30.01.2019


Fig. 1. Students’ and teachers’ views regarding the significance of the tasks of schoolchildren socialization as of 1991 and 2017 surveys (%). Differences are statistically significant at p <.0000


Fig. 2. Change of students’ and teachers’ views of personality role model that are typical of individual behavior as of 1991 and 2017 surveys (%)


Fig. 3. Students’ and teachers’ attitude to personality models typical of their occupation according to 1991 and 2017surveys (%)


Fig. 4. Change of students’ and teachers’ views of personality role model based on social institutions support as of 1991 and 2017 surveys (%)


Fig. 5. Correlation relationship between students’ choices of preferable personality role model of the school graduate (co-efficient)


Fig. 6. Valuing different types of schools as of 1991 and 2017 surveys according to F1 (“norm – self-actualisation”) and F3 (“convention – principle”) factors.

Table 1. Students’ and teachers’ views of the tasks of school education (%)

What do you think school should teach the student?

Students N=11 803

Teachers N=4 199

Profound knowledge

67.0

79.8

Prepare for entering university

52.2

43.6

Ability to develop students’ abilities

44.0

71.4

Experience of social communication and interaction

36.9

61.9

Experience of participation in public life and activities

31.5

45.5

Sufficient cultural level

27.1

51.0

Sufficient pre-profile training

25.0

19.5

Table 2. Students’ and teachers’ views of the targets of school education (%)

What graduates do you think school should prepare?

Students N=11 803

Teachers N=4 199

Cultured and educated people

64.7

74.0

People who get their way in life

41.2

18.0

Discipline-conscious employees

40.0

35.2

Critically minded people willing to take responsibility

36.5

65.1

Creative and skilled professionals

30.8

48.4

People who are able to ensure their well-being

27.1

18.6

Reliable defenders of the motherland

18.9

30.5

People who are able to create a family with strong ties

10.6

36.1

People who are able to feel the beauty

5.4

10.3

People of principles. those who do not compromise

4.9

3.5

Romantics and enthusiasts

4.4

4.8

Table 3. Students’ and teachers’ views of school graduate’s personality (%)

What graduates do you think school should prepare?

Students 2017

Teachers 2017

General Education N=8385

In-Depth Learning N=852

Gymnasium N=1113

General Education N=3442

In-Depth Learning N=234

Gymnasium N=283

Reliable defenders of the motherland

19.6

16.9

13.9

31.2

21.8

27.2

Discipline-conscious employees

41.3

36.2

36.9

36.1

31.2

28.3

Critically minded people willing to take responsibility

36.2

35.4

38.8

63.8

70.9

74.9

Cultured and educated people

65.0

63.7

65.4

73.3

78.2

82.3

Creative and skilled professionals

30.1

32.4

34.4

48.3

53.8

45.9

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For citing this article:

Sobkin V.S., Rodionova K.E. (2018). Students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4, 109–122

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