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Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 3, 57-68.

Abstract

Background. Within the conditions of information socialization that is transforming communication and placing high demands on the ability of the individual to search, select, critically comprehend social information for decision-making and carrying out moral choices, a new social situation has developed. The research of the relationship between cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet and shaping the worldview and ideas about the moral regulation in adolescents makes it possible to study the patterns of personality development in the unity of the cognitive and value-moral spheres.

The Objective of the research is to identify cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet as a factor of developing a picture of the world in adolescent users with varying degrees of involvement and the risk of Internet addiction and moral regulation of relationship between them.

Hypothesis. Cognitive methods of processing information on the Internet are connected with the level of Internet addiction - a high level of Internet addiction corresponds to the low efficiency of cognitive methods of processing information. These methods influence the emerging system of major beliefs and worldview characteristics, and level of sensitivity to situations of moral choice.

Design. The author’s method of assessing social information on the Internet based on Crick and Dodge model (1994), Chen method for diagnosing Internet-addictive behaviour, «The scale of basic beliefs of the person» of R. Yanoff-Bullman (Kalmykova , Padun, 2002), and the author’s method of assessing moral aspects were used. The study involved 84 adolescents from 13 to 18 years (46% males and 54% females).

Results. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles was conducted and gender differences were revealed. The relationship between Internet addiction and the effectiveness of cognitive processing methods of information on the Internet is verified. The significance of interpretation, behaviour assessment and the ability to construct social adaptive behaviour in communication to shape the major beliefs and moral attitude in adolescence are shown.

Conclusion. There are differences in the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles of information. High efficiency of short-term, long-term, medium-term perspectives and behavioural responses and the ability to choose adequate social behavior corresponds to a relatively low productivity of interpretation. Internet addiction is interrelated with the low productivity of interpretation. Moral attitude is mediated by the age features of adolescent self-awareness and is related to the effectiveness of information interpretation, the evaluation of behavioural consequences and the choice of appropriate ways of social interaction.

Received: 08/03/2018
Accepted: 08/25/2018
Pages: 57-68
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0306

Sections: Psychology of virtual reality;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no31-2018/npj_no31_2018_057-068.pdf

Keywords: cognitive methods of social information processing; Internet addiction; world-perception; basic assumptions; moral attitude; adolescence;

Available Online 30.09.2018

Table 1. Basic features of productive and non-productive processing of information.

Cycles of processing information in accordance with Crick and Dodge model

Productive processing of information

Non-productive processing of information

Perception (decoding)

Ability to capture all information, entire perception of the situation

Narrow, one-sided perception of information, fragmentary perception of the situation

Interpretation

Interpretation of the situation and context: assessment, critical attitude to the information field, comparison with other information, the ability to illicit important/relevant information

Focused attention to individual aspects of information, often insignificant, preveiling assumption about the hostility of social environment

Searching for response based on clarifying goals

Awareness of goals and readiness to change them. Wide repertoire of behavioural responses, flexible search for problem resolution

Low awareness of goals, "fixed" approach, rigidity of goals. Narrow range of behavioural responses, rigorous approach to finding a solution

Reaction assessment

Assessing short-term, long-term, medium-term perspectives and behavioural responses

Assessing short-term consequences, narrow focus on aggressive, isolating and phobic responses

Behaviour

Ability to differentiate and choose adequate social behaviour and implement it

Insufficient level of ability to differentiate and implement socially acceptable behaviour

Table 2. Basic psychometrics of assessing effectiveness of all cognitive processing cycles of social information.

Cycle of information processing / Characteristics

Me

SD

Perception (decoding) (КО 1)

22.43

3.93

Interpretation (КО 2)

21.14

3.27

Searching for response. clarifying goals (КО 3)

22.18

3.50

Response assessment (КО 4)

23.01

3.45

Behaviour (КО 5)

23.88

3.25

Table 3. Effectiveness of cognitive processing of social information.

Cycle of information processing / Features

Mean

Divergent

Males

Females

U

p

Perception (decoding) (КО 1)

22.36

22.49

867.5

.928

Interpretation (КО 2)

21.03

21.24

809.5

.540

Searching for response, clarifying goals (КО 3)

22,03

22,31

825,5

,639

Response assessment (КО 4)

22.28

23.64

660.5

.050

Behaviour (КО 5)

22.79

24.82

605.0

.014

Table 4. Basic psychometrics of Internet-addiction indicators.

Symptoms/Features

Me

SD

Compulsive Symptoms (Com)

8.98

2.9+59

Withdrawal Symptoms (Wit)

9.99

3.21

Tolerance Symptoms (Tol)

7.30

2.39

Interpersonal and Health Problems (IH)

11.05

4.10

Time Management Problems (TM)

8.38

3.07

Basic Symptoms of Internet Addiction (IA-Sym)

26.26

7.43

Problems caused by Internet Addiction (IA_RP)

19.43

6.46

Total score of Internet addiction (CLAS)

45.69

12.85

Table 5. Relationship of Internet addiction symptoms and assessing effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles of social information.

Symptoms / Cycle of information processing

КО 1

КО 2

КО 3

КО 4

КО 5

Compulsive Symptoms (Com)

r

p

-.316

.003

-.485

.000

-.358

.001

-.056

.611

-.040

.717

Withdrawal Symptoms (Wit)

r

p

-.068

.537

-.342

.001

-.245

.025

.035

.753

-.067

.544

Tolerance Symptoms (Tol)

r

p

-.195

.075

-.354

.001

-.375

.000

-.058

.598

-.003

.975

Interpersonal and Health Problems (IH)

r

p

-.102

.354

-.103

.351

-.275

.011

-.073

.510

-.147

.183

Time Management Problems (TM)

r

p

-.241

.027

-.310

.004

-.366

.001

-.133

.227

-.214

.050

Basic Symptoms of Internet Addiction (IA-Sym)

r

p

-.244

.026

-.515

.000

-.364

.001

-.023

.836

-.061

.579

Problems caused by Internet Addiction (IA_RP)

r

p

-.184

.093

-.219

.045

-.362

.001

-.121

.274

-.211

.054

Total score of Internet addiction (CLAS)

r

p

-.233

.033

-.417

.000

-.425

.000

-.048

.665

-.121

.274

КО 1 – Perception (decoding), КО 2 – Interpretation, КО 3 – Searching for response based on clarifying goals, КО 4 – Assessment of behaviour response assessment, КО 5 – Behaviour

Table. 6. Basic psychometrics of assessing major beliefs of the individual (within the walls).

Major Belief/Feature

Me

SD

Benevolence of the Surrounding World (SMB 1)

6.35

2.71

Fairness  of the Surrounding World (SMB 2)

4.62

2.72

Positive I-image (SMB 3)

6.53

3.15

Belief in the reality of luck (SMB 4)

7.65

2.96

Conviction of control over life (SMB 5)

6.90

2.19

Table. 7. Relationship of assessing effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles and personal beliefs.

Cycle of information processing / Major belief

SBC 1

SBC 2

SBC 3

SBC 4

SBC 5

Perception (decoding) (КО 1)

r

p

.110

.371

-.125

.380

-.032

.799

-.018

.883

.097

.432

Interpretation (КО 2)

r

p

.238

.050

-.169

.169

.079

.525

.270

.026

.144

.241

Searching for response, clarifying goals (КО 3)

r

p

,166

,176

-,146

,235

,100

,416

-,005

,966

,154

.211

Response assessment (КО 4)

r

p

,038

,760

,005

,966

-,146

,234

-,041

,741

-,065

,596

Behaviour (КО 5)

r

p

,132

,284

-,107

,384

,083

,499

,296

,014

-,040

,746

Table 8. Basic psychometrics of assessing moral aspects.

Moral Aspect/Feature

Me

SD

Interpersonal Interaction(II)

4.91

.60

Idea of how to help (IH)

3.68

.96

Moral Conflict (MC)

4.33

.81

Moral value (MV)

4.46

1.25

Table 9. Relationship between moral sensitivity and various components of cognitive evaluation.

КО 1

КО 2

КО 3

КО 4

КО 5

Interpersonal Interaction (II)

r

p

.054

.624

-.083

.452

-.003

.975

.259

.017

.238

.029

Idea of how to help (IH)

r

p

-.137

.213

-.239

.028

-.207

.059

-.177

.108

-.081

.463

Moral Conflict (МC)

r

p

.017

.876

.028

.873

.000

.999

-.024

.829

.128

.245

Moral Value (МV)

r

p

-.075

.499

-.254

.020

.000

.999

-.099

.370

.189

.085

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For citing this article:

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 3, 57-68.

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