The paper presents the ideas of P.Ya. Galperin on the nature of moral behaviour and the basic patterns of internal responsibility in childhood and adolescence. Distinctive features of objective and subjective responsibility, internal and external responsibility are highlighted. It is argued that internal responsibility expresses the person’s attitude to society and social groups and might be developed only if involved in certain relations and implemented in socially useful activities, i.e. if it is significant for other people. The psychological roles of cooperation for of responsibility are compared in J. Piaget’s works and P.Ya. Galperin’s scientific theory. The research results of internal responsibility in primary school students and adolescents conducted by P.Ya. Galperin and T.V. Morozkina are discussed. The decisive role of value orientation and motivation in solving «affective type» problems and in moral behaviour is shown. According philosophy issues, responsibility is considered as a perceived necessity, which assumes a free moral choice. Three criteria of moral responsibility are introduced: the causal relationship between the subject’s behaviour and its consequence, subject’s ability to predict the possible consequences of his/her behaviour, the possibility of free choice. The psychological content of responsibility is the subject’s commitment and further response regulated by a certain system of norms and regulations on the basis of moral choice and self-regulation. The distinction between the action device and motive as the accepted moral basis for behaviour has been introduced. Accordingly, responsible behaviour is considered as willful behaviour. The genesis of strong-will behaviour is associated with social relations and moral values and is developed in the course of cooperation. Conditions of orientation in moral choice as a prerequisite for actualizing the individual’s internal responsibility are discussed.
Armon, C. (1998) Adult moral development, experience and education. Journal of moral education, 27(3), 345–371. doi:10.1080/0305724980270306
Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1999) Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 193–209. doi: 10.1207/ s15327957pspr0303_3
Batson, C.D. & Coke, J.S. (1981) Empathy: a source of altruistic motivation for helping? In: J.P.Rushton & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.) Altruism and Helping behavior. Hillsdale, 167–188.
Bebeau, M. J. (1993) Designing an outcome-based ethics curriculum for professional education: strategies and evidence of effectiveness. Journal of Moral Education, 22, 313–326. doi:10.1080/0305724930220309
Cialdini, R.B., Kenrick, D.T. & Baumann, D.J. (1982) Effects of mood on prosocial behavior in children and adults. In N.Eisenberg (ed.) The development of prosocial behavior. NY. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-234980-5.50018-3
Damon, W. (1984) Self-understanding and moral development from childhood to adolescence. In: W.M.Kurtines & J.L.Gerwitz (Eds.) Morality, moral behavior, and moral development. NY, 109–127.
Diller, A. (1996) The ethics of care and education: A new paradigm, its critics and its educational significance. In A. Diller, B. Huston, K. M. Morgan, & M. Ayim (Eds.) The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy and politics. Boulder, Westview Press, 89–104.
Duska, R. & Whelan, M. (1975) Moral development: A guide to Piaget and Kohlberg. Introduction to developmental theories. NY, 5–41.
Eisenberg, N. (1986) Altruistic emotion, cognition, and behavior. Hillsdale.
Eisenberg, N. & Miller, P.A. (1987) The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 1, 91–119. doi: 10.1037/0033- 2909.101.1.91
Eshleman, A. (2009) Moral Responsibility. In E. N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition).
Gilligan, C. (1977) In a different voice: Women’s conceptions of self and morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 481–517. doi: 10.17763/ haer.47.4.g6167429416hg5l0
Harre, R (1983) Personal being. A theory for individual psychology. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
Haviv, S., & Leman P.J. (2002) Moral decision-making in real life: factors affecting moral orientation and behavior justification. Journal of moral education, 32(2), 121–140. doi: 10.1080/03057240220143241
Heidegger, M. (1988) European Nihilism. [Problema cheloveka v zapadnoj filosofii]. Мoscow, Progress.
Higgins, E.T., Power, C., & Kohlberg, L. (1984) The relationship of moral atmosphere to judgements of responsibility. In W.M.Kurtines & J.L.Gewirtz (eds.) Morality, moral behavior and moral development. NY.
Нoffman, M.L. (2000) Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Jaffee, S. & Hyde, J.S. (2000) Gender Differences in Moral Orientation: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 703–726. doi: 10.1037/0033- 2909.126.5.703
Jonas, H. (1984) The Imperative of Responsibility. In search of an Ethics for the Technological Age. Chicago, The Chicago University Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1981) Essays on Moral Development, Vol. I: The Philosophy of Moral Development. San Francisco, CA, Harper & Row.
Krebs, D.L, Denton K. & Wark G. (1997) The forms and functions of real-life moral decision-making. Journal of Moral Education, 26(2), 131–145. doi: 10.1080/0305724970260202
Кrebs, D.L., & Van Hesteren F. (1994) The development of altruism: towards the integrative model. Developmental Review, 14, 103–158. doi: 10.1006/ drev.1994.1006
Krebs, D.L.,Vermeulen S., Carpendale J., & Denton K. (1986) Structural and Situational Influences on Moral Judgment: The Interaction Between Stage and Dilemma.
Kurganova, E.A. (2005) Orientation to moral and conventional norms in the younger school age. Ph.D. in Psychology, thesis. Moscow, 185.
Lind, E.A., & Taylor T.R. (1988) The social psychology of procedural justice. N-Y.Plenum. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-2115-4
Lyons, N.P. (1983) Two perspectives: on self, relationship and morality. Harvard Educational Review, 53, 125–145. doi: 10.17763/ haer.53.2.h08w5m7v217j84t1
Malti, T., Keller, M., & Buchmann, M. (2013) Do moral choices make us feel good? The development of adolescents’ emotions following moral decision making. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 389–397. doi: 10.1111/jora.12005
Molchanov, S.V. (2011) Morality of justice and morality of care: foreign and native approaches to moral development. [Vestnik MGU]. Series 14. Psychology, 14(2), 59–72.
Molchanov, S.V., Almazova, O.V., Poskrebysheva, N.N., & Zapunidi, A.A. (2017) Personal autonomy as factor of developing responsibility in adolescence. National Psychological Journal, 1(25), 84–90. doi: 10.11621/npj.2017.0110
Morozkina, Т.V. (1984) Developing internal responsibility. (Based on student on duty research). Ph.D. in Psychology, thesis. Moscow.
Muzdybaev, K. (2010) Psychology of responsibility. Ed. 2. Moscow, URSS.
Myyra, L. (2003) Components of Morality. University of Helsinki.
Noddings, N. (2013) Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education (2nd ed.). Berkeley, University of California Press.
Nucci, L. (1981) The development of personal concepts: A domain distinct from moral or societal concepts. Child Development, 52, 114–121. doi: 10.2307/1129220
Nucci, L., & Turiel, E. (2009) Capturing the complexity of moral development and education. Mind, Brain, and Education. 3, 151–159. doi:10.1111/ j.1751-228X.2009.01065.x
Piaget, J. (2006) Moral judgment in the child. Moscow, Akademicheskiy proekt.
Plotnikova, Yu.E. (1998) Constructing helpful behaviour in primary school students. Ph.D. in Psychology, thesis. Moscow, 216.
Podolsky, A.I. (2012) Psychological concept of P.Ya. Galperin: some trends and prospects for further development [Vestnik MGU]. Series 14. Psychology. Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta. Moscow, 4, 4–27.
Podolsky, A.I., & Idobaeva, O.A. (2014) Prospects of P.Ya. Galperin’s psychological concept in education and personality development. [Obrazovanie lichnosti], 2, 8–15.
Podolsky, A.I., Brugman, D., Heymans, P., Karabanova, O.A., van Boom, Ya., & Idobaeva, O.A. (2003) Perception of moral atmosphere in school and norm transgressive behavior in adolescents: An intervention study. [International Journal of Behavioral Development], 27.
Podolsky, D.A. (2006) Features of altruistic position in adolescence. Ph.D. in Psychology, thesis. Moscow, 197.
Rest, J.R. (1986) Moral development. Advances in research and theory. NY, Praeger.
Smetana, J. G. (2006) Social domain theory: Consistencies and variations in children’s moral and social judgments. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.) Handbook of moral development. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 119–154.
Wark, G.R., & Krebs, D.L. (2000) The construction of moral dilemmas in everyday live. Journal of Moral Education, 29(1). doi: 10.1080/030572400102907
Zahn-Waxler, C. & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1982) The development of altruism: alternative research strategies. In N. Eisenberg (ed.) The development of prosocial behavior. N-Y, Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-234980-5.50010-9
Molchanov S.V. (2017). How to develop the internal responsibility according to P.Ya. Galperin’s concept. National Psychological Journal. 3, 136-143.