The paper is devoted to the issue of mechanisms of learning for understanding the nature of the human mind. Learning is regarded as a special activity that is important for developing the human mind in a specific cultural and historical setting and indirect activity. The author’s understanding of the ideas developed by the psychological theory of activity for establishing the principles of developing the human mind is highlighted. Interpretation of dialectical connections of brain processes and mind, and also the objective activity that emerges them is provided.
According to the activity theory, the causes of the students’ psychological difficulties and the low efficacy of learning within predominant reproductive method or the use of the trial and error method are revealed. Thus, a new understanding of the renowned didactic principles of scientific rigour, accessibility, objectivity, the connection of learning with life and others is offered. The contribution of the psychological theory in organizing and managing the studies, increasing teaching activity and awareness, and the growth of the internal causes of motivation are shown.
Particular attention is paid to the issue of intellectual development and creative abilities. The author believes the creative abilities of the student and the way the latter are taught are interconnected. At the same time, the developers and educators should make efforts to develop in the students a systemic orientation in the subject, primarily mastering the method of system analysis. Once the method of system analysis has been mastered, it becomes a general intellectual and developing tool through which activities are organized to solve any teaching problems with whatever type of content and difficulty level.
Summing up, the organization and disclosure to the student of the process of learning as an activity with its social, consciously transformative and sense shaping meaning, the conditions of its development and their significance for consciousness development and the organization of life, opens the possibility for students to move to the top of the personality development.
Amadieu, Franck, Tamara van Gog, Paas, Fred, Tricot, André, & Mariné, Claudette (2009) Effects of prior knowledge and concept-map structure on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning. Learning and Instruction, 19(5), 376–386 (October 2009). doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.005
Boekaerts, М. (2017) Cognitive load and self-regulation: Attempts to build a bridge. Original Research. Learning and Instruction, 51, October, 90–97. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.07.001
Boyd, D. (2014) It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. New Haven, CT, USA, Yale University Press, 296.
Galperin, P.Ya. (1985) Methods of teaching and child mental development. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo MGU, 45.
Galperin, P.Ya. (1998) The psychology of thinking and the theory stage-by-stage development of mental actions. [Gal’perin, P.Ya. Psikhologiya kak ob’ektivnaya nauka]. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Instituta prakticheskoy psikhologii; Voronezh, MODeK, 480.
Galperin, P.Ya. (2015) Introduction to Psychology: A Textbook for Higher Education. Moscow, «Knizhnyy dom «Universitet», 336. Retrieved from: http:// www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/1044788/35/Galperin_-_Vvedenie_v_psihologiyu.html (accessed: July 4, 2017).
Galperin, P.Ya., Talyzina, N.F., & Reshetova, Z.A. (Eds.) (1979) Psychological and pedagogical issues of vocational training. Moscow, MGU, 208.
Glogger-Frey I., K. Gaus, & A.Renkl (2017) Learning from direct instruction: Best prepared by several self-regulated or guided invention activities? Learning and Instruction, 51, October 2017, 26–35. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.11.002
Kapur, Manu (2015) The preparatory effects of problem solving versus problem posing on learning from instruction. Learning and Instruction, 39(23– 31) (October 2015). 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.05.004
Lazonder, Ard, W., Wilhelm, Pascal, Hagemans, Mieke, G. (2008) The influence of domain knowledge on strategy use during simulation-based inquiry learning. Learning and Instruction, 18(6), 580–592 (December 2008). doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.12.001
Leontiev, A.N. (1965) Issues of human mind development. Moscow, Mysl’. 574.
Leontiev, A.N. (1975) Activity. Consciousness. Personality. Moscow, Politizdat, 304. Retrieved from: http://nv-shulenina.narod.ru/leontiev.pdf (accessed: 4.07.2017).
Leontiev, A.N. (1988) Mastering the students concepts as a problem of pedagogical psychology. [Izbrannye psikhologicheskie issledovaniya]. In 2 volumes. Vol. I. Moscow, Pedagogika, 391.
Marx, K. (2010) Economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844 and other early philosophical works. Moscow, Akademicheskiy Proekt, 775.
Rajala, Antti, Martin, Jenny & Kumpulainen, Kristiina, (2016) Agency and learning: Researching agency in educational interactions. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 10, (1–3), September.
Reshetova, Z.A. (1985) Psychological foundations of vocational training. Moscow, MGU. 207.
Reshetova, Z.A. (2002) Developing systemic thinking in learning. Theoretical bases. [Formirovanie sistemnogo myshleniya v obuchenii: uchebnik dlya vuzov]. Moscow, UNITY-DANA, 344.
Reshetova, Z.A. (2002) Organization of learning and development of pupils. [Voprosy psikhologii], 5, 70–78.
Reshetova, Z.A. (2013) On the mechanism of learning and development. National Psychological Journal, 1, 25–32. DOI: 2079-6617/2013.0104
Reshetova, Z.A., & Deryabina, N.E. (1995) Developing systemic thinking in students in the course of studying organic chemistry in the secondary school and university. [Materialy federal’noy nauchno-metodicheskoy konferentsii]. Krasnodar, 33–35.
Reshetova, Z.A., & Deryabina, N.E. (1997) Developing the ability to solve arithmetic exercises analysing the problem. [Sovremennye problemy didaktiki vysshey shkoly]. Donetsk, 27–31.
Reshetova, Z.A., & Deryabina, N.E. (1997) System structural approach to the school subject «Chemistry». [Khimiya], 20, 8–11.
Reshetova, Z.A., & Samonenko, Yu.A. (1982) System type of orientation in the subject and heuristic possibilities of students. [Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta]. Series 14. Psychology, 1, 20–26.
Retelsdorf, Jan, Butler, Ruth, Streblow, Lilian & Schiefele, Ulrich (2010) Teachers’ goal orientations for teaching: Associations with instructional practices, interest in teaching, and burnout. Learning and Instruction, 20(1), 30–46 (February 2010). doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.01.001
Rubinshtein, S.L. (2000) Fundamentals of general psychology. St. Petersburg, Izdatel’stvo «Piter», 712. (Series of «Masters of Psychology») Retrieved from: https://www.psyoffice.ru/9/rubin01/txt01.html (accessed: July 4, 2017).
Shayer, Michael (2003) Not just Piaget; not just Vygotsky, and certainly not Vygotsky as alternative to Piaget. Learning and Instruction, 13(5), October, 465–485. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4752(03)00092-6
Smagorinsky, Peter (2013) The development of social and practical concepts in learning to teach: A synthesis and extension of Vygotsky’s conception. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. 2(4), December 2013, 238–248. doi: 10.1016/j.lcsi.2013.07.003
Vartanova, I.I., Reshetova, Z.A., & Volodarskaya, I.A. (1985) Developimg adolescent personality in productive work. [Shkola I proizvodstvo], 5, 15–16.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1999) Thinking and speaking. Ed. 5, corrected. Moscow, Labirint, 352. Retrieved from: http://www.studfiles.ru/preview/1728506/ (accessed: July 4, 2017).
Zaporozhets, A.V. (1986) The development of arbitrary movements. [Zaporozhets, A.V. Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy]. In 2 volumes. Vol. 2. Moscow, Pedagogika (Proceedings of the full members and corresponding members of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR). Retrieved from: http://www.psychlib.ru/inc/absid.php?absid=26480. (accessed: July 4, 2017).
Reshetova Z.A. (2017). Mind and activity. Psychic mechanism of learning. National Psychological Journal. 3, 40-55.