ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
Ru | En
Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Main RSS Search

MainArticlesVolumes

Marchuk N.Yu. (2017). Gender and age features of the self-concept of a pensioner. National Psychological Journal. 2, 116-123.

Abstract

Currently the Ministry of Finance is working on the issue of gradual increase of the retirement age, while various specialists are actively discussing the pros and cons of this potential change. The issue of determining the characteristics of the labour force participation of elder people and their participation in society is complex and multifaceted. A retired person’s capability for activity, willingness to get enrolled in society vary considerably depending on health, psychological well-being, self-attitude.

The paper examines one’s self-concept as a generalized set of ideas about their own physical, psychological, social features As a central component of identity and selfregulation of the retired citizens.

The results of the study presented in the paper reveal the retirement age as a period of human ontogenesis, during which their self-concept is undergoing a number of changes. Based on the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the following periods of the individual development at the retirement age is proposed: early retirement, mid retirement, late retirement. Each of the periods is described taking into account age peculiarities of self-awareness and the self-concept. The paper shows the crisis nature of the self-concept development in people of the retirement age. It also highlights normative age-graded crises: the retirement crisis, the crisis of self-sufficiency, the crisis of integrity. The paper also highlights gender-specific features of the self-concept in retired citizens.

The study was conducted using a sample of 120 unemployed pensioners from the cities Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk Oblast (Sverdlovsk region), Russia. To study the features of the self-concept of the retired citizens the following methods were used: «Who am I?» (M. Kun) for studying the content of the self-concept, the self-relation test (V. V. Stolin, S. R. Pantileev) for analysinge self-attitude of the retired citizens, the technique of personal differential for studying self-attractiveness, strength and activity of the retired citizens.

Received: 05/19/2016
Accepted: 05/05/2017
Pages: 116-123
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0213

Sections: Social Psychology;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no26-2017/national_2017_2_13.pdf

Keywords: self-concept; self-consciousness; age-graded crisis; self-attitude; self-evaluation; retirement age; generativity; wisdom; self-sufficiency;

Available Online 28.06.2017

Table 1. Indicators of the self-concept in retired citizens (The study results using "Who am I?" Test by M. Koon)

Self-concept Indicators

55-64 y.o.

65-74 y.o.

75 y.o. and older

M, %

F., %

M., %

F., %

M, %

F, %

Sex Identity

High Value

85

75

75

80

45

80

Average Value

15

25

25

20

50

15

Low Value

0

0

0

0

5

5

Identity Crisis

0

0

15

5

10

5

Social Identity

Prevalence of social role

70

60

35

25

20

15

Prevalence of social features

30

40

60

75

80

85

Temporal Aspect of identity

Past

10

20

10

20

20

30

Present

60

60

80

70

80

70

Future

30

20

10

10

0

0

Social spheres and characteristics revealing the identity

Family

35

50

60

70

80

90

Professional sphere

65

45

35

25

30

15

Spouse relations

40

50

35

20

40

20

Education

35

25

15

25

15

15

Resources: age, health

10

35

55

40

65

55

Citizenship

25

10

5

20

5

10

Attitudes and hobbies

10

10

10

15

25

35

Total Valence of Identity

Positive

85

50

75

70

65

70

Negative

5

20

5

15

15

5

Neutral

10

30

20

15

20

25

Table 2. Respondents according to the indicators of the self-concept in a retired citizen (the study results using Stolin-Pantileev Test)

Indicator Level

Respondent’s Features

Indicators of Self- Attitude

Focus on Inner Activity Regarding Self-Concept

Age

Sex

Overall Self-Attitude

Self-Respect

Autosympathy

Expected Attitudes of Others

Self-Interest

Self-Confidence

Attitudes of Others

Self-Acceptance

Self-Consistency (Self-Guidance)

Self-Accusation

Self-Interest

Self-Understanding

High

55-64 y.o.

М

60

80

65

10

10

60

15

35

25

0

0

25

F

50

35

20

10

30

90

45

30

65

50

25

35

65-74 y.o.

М

35

30

25

0

35

0

45

60

30

20

25

50

F

60

20

5

0

45

5

45

60

85

60

20

70

75 y.o. and older

М

70

50

60

0

55

0

55

70

50

30

60

80

F

70

45

30

0

55

0

65

60

60

40

40

70

Average

55-64 y.o.

М

40

20

25

45

20

40

40

25

25

30

15

30

F

35

45

50

10

35

10

40

35

35

40

45

50

65-74 y.o.

М

45

60

30

55

25

10

45

40

30

20

10

30

F

25

65

15

15

0

40

55

30

15

25

40

30

75 y.o. and older

М

30

0

30

30

30

0

45

10

15

20

5

10

F

20

5

30

20

30

20

35

20

20

20

40

30

Low

55-64 y.o.

М

0

0

10

45

70

0

45

40

50

70

85

45

F

15

20

30

80

30

0

15

30

0

10

30

15

65-74 y.o.

М

20

10

45

45

40

90

10

20

40

60

65

20

F

15

15

80

85

55

55

0

20

0

15

40

0

75 y.o. and older

М

0

50

10

70

15

100

0

30

35

50

35

10

F

10

55

40

80

15

80

0

10

20

40

20

0

Table 3. Gender and age features of self-evaluation of the personal differential in retired citizens (the study results using the personal differential method)

Characteristic

Personal Differential Indicators

Attractiveness

Strength

Activity

Age

Sex

Average arithmetic value for the sample

Standard deviation

Average arithmetic value for the sample

Standard deviation

Average arithmetic value for the sample

Standard deviation

55-64 y.o.

М

+ 2.7

0.7

+ 2.9

0.3

+ 2.0

1.2

F

+ 2.1

1.0

+ 1.9

1.2

+ 2.8

0.2

65-74 y.o.

М

+ 2.3

0.9

+ 2.2

2.6

+ 1.2

0.6

F

+ 2.0

0.6

+ 1.3

1.4

+ 2.8

0.3

75 y.o. and older

М

+ 1.4

1.6

+ 1.3

0.7

+ 1.0

1.3

F

+ 1.8

0.4

- 1.0

1.1

+ 2.0

0.8

References:

Chekalina, A.A. (2006) Gender Psychology: Textbook. Moscow, «Axis-89», 256.

Fedorkina, A.P. (2009) Forming the image of the world in the context of the development of modern information processes. [Mir Psikhologii. Scientific and Methodical Journal]. 4 (60), 86-99.

Glukhova, I.Yu., & Zykova, M.N. (2008) Specific features of the old age image in various age groups. [Psikhologiya zrelosti i stareniya]. 1, 46-73.

Gostev, A.A. (2007) Psychology of the secondary image. Moscow, Institut psihologii RAN. 512.

Kovalevich, I.V. (2010) Phenomenological analysis of the life world of an aging person. [Zhurnal Practicheskogo Psikhologa]. 5, 71-84.

Kraig, G. (2012) Developmental psychology. St. Petersburg, Piter, 939.

Krasnov, O.V. (2008) On the concepts in psychogerontology. [Psikhologiya zrelosti i stareniya]. 1, 92-106.

Leontiev, D.A. (Ed.) (2011) Personality potential: structure and diagnostics. Moscow, Smysl, 680.

Lipatova, S.D. (2008) Gender psychology and pedagogy: a dictionary-directory. Ekaterinburg, USTU-UPI, 227.

Malinina, O.I. (2011) Social activity and identity in old age [Psikhologiya zrelosti i stareniya]. 4, 58-78.

Markov, V.N. (2009) Image potential in a rapidly changing world. [Mir Psikhologii. Scientific and Methodical Journal]. 4 (60), 76- 86.

Martsinkovskaya, T.D. (2009) Self-concept in the modern world: constants and transformations. [Mir Psikhologii. Scientific and Methodical Journal]. 4 (60), 142-149.

Marchuk, N.Yu. (2016) Professional formation and development of personality: a career orientation. Moscow, Flint, 261.

Oaklender, V. (2007) Windows in the world of the child: Hands-on child. Psychotherapy. (Library of Psychology and Psychotherapy, issue 20). Moscow, Nezavisimaya firma «Klass», 336.

Pigalev, A.I. (2009) The image of the world and the meaning. [Mir Psikhologii]. 4, 119-130.

Pryazhnikov, N.S. (2001) The psychology of labour and human dignity. Moscow, Izdatel’skiy centr «Akademiya». 480.

Raigorodsky, D.Ya. (2007) Psychology of Self-Consciousness. Samara: Bakhrakh-M, 672.

Surnina, O.E. (2009) Gerontology (medico-biological and psychological aspects). Ekaterinburg: Izdatel’stvo RGPU. 234.

Titov, D.S. (2006) Social gerontology. Tomsk, Tomskiy filiall Akademii Prava i Upravleniya FSIN Rossii. 106.

Yatsemirskaya, R.S. (2006) Social Gerontology: Textbook for high schools. Moscow, Akademicheskiy Proekt, 320.

Zeer, E.F. (2006) Psychology of Professional Development. Moscow, Izdatel’skiy centr «Akademiya», 240.

For citing this article:

Marchuk N.Yu. (2017). Gender and age features of the self-concept of a pensioner. National Psychological Journal. 2, 116-123.

About Editorial Board Volumes Authors For Authors Indexing Contacts
CC BY-NC

National Psychological Journal, 2006 - 2020