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Rean A.A., Baranov A.A., Makhmutova R.K. (2016). Optimizing family emotional interaction in the dyad “mother and preschool child with intellectual disabilities”. National Psychological Journal. 4, 108-114.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent- Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.

Received: 12/04/2016
Accepted: 12/15/2016
Pages: 108-114
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0413

Sections: Developmental Psychology;

PDF:

Keywords: children with intellectual disabilities; parent-child interaction; acceptance-rejection of the child; empathy; focus on the child status in building cooperation; desire for physical contact; emotional support;

Available Online 30.12.2016

Table 1. Characteristics of emotional attitude of mothers to children with intellectual disabilities

Bloc

Parameters of the emotional relationship between mother and child

High Level

Average Level

Low Level

1.Sensitivity

Ability to perceive the child condition

0% (0 prns)

10% (4 prns)

90% (37 prns)

Understanding the causes of child condition

0% (0 prns)

7% (3 prns)

93% (38 prns)

Empathy

10% (4 prns)

14% (6 prns)

76% (31 prns)

2.Emotional Acceptance

Feelings of parents in a situation of interaction

0% (0 prns)

2% (1 prns)

98% (40 prns)

Unconditional acceptance

12% (5 prns)

37% (15 prns)

51% (21 prns)

Adopting one’s parent role

5% (2 prns)

12% (5 prns)

83% (34 prns)

Dominating emotional background

2% (1 prns)

54% (22 prns)

44% (18 prns)

3.Behavioural Signs of Emotional Interaction

Desire for physical contact

0% (0 prns)

5% (2 prns)

95% (39 prns)

Emotional support

10% (4 prns)

68% (28 prns)

22% (9 prns)

Focus on the child in building interaction

32% (13 prns)

39% (16 prns)

29% (12 prns)

Ability to influence the child condition

5% (2 prns)

27% (11 prns)

68% (28 prns)

Table 2. Characteristics of rejecting the child in the family

#

Indicator

High Level

Average Level

Low Level

1

Отверженность ребенка матерью

44% (18 чел.)

34% (14 чел.)

22% (9 чел.)

Table 3. Comparative analysis of mother emotional interaction with children of the experimental group before and after training

Bloc

Parameters of the emotional relationship between mother and child

High Level (per cent)

Average Level (per cent, sample)

Low Level (per cent, sample)

before

after

before

after

before

after

1.Sensitivity

Ability to perceive the child condition

0

0

0

60

100

40

Understanding the causes of child condition

0

0

0

50

10

50

Empathy

0

0

0

60

10

40

2.Emotional Acceptance

Feelings of parents in the situation of interaction

0

0

10

50

90

50

Unconditional acceptance

0

0

0

30

100

70

Adopting one’s parent role

0

0

30

50

70

50

Dominating emotional background

0

20

50

30

50

50

3.Behavioural Signs of Emotional Interaction

Desire for physical contact

10

20

0

30

90

50

Emotional support

0

0

50

70

50

30

Focus on the child in building interaction

20

40

40

50

40

10

Ability to influence the child condition

10

10

10

40

80

50

Table 4. Statistically variable values of mother and child emotional interaction before and after training

Indicator

Mean Value

Value

Trial Stage

Control Stage

Understanding the causes of child condition

3.0

3.31

р≤0.01

Empathy

2.4

3.2

р≤0.01

Feelings of parents in the situation of interaction

3.2

3.4

р≤0.01

Adopting one’s parent role

3.02

3.2

р≤0.01

Dominating emotional background

3.21

3.66

р≤0.01

Focus on the child in building interaction

2.9

3.22

р≤0.01

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For citing this article:

Rean A.A., Baranov A.A., Makhmutova R.K. (2016). Optimizing family emotional interaction in the dyad “mother and preschool child with intellectual disabilities”. National Psychological Journal. 4, 108-114.

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