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Koryakina Julia M. (2015). Conditions for fulfilled life: description and measurement of existential motivations. National Psychological Journal. 4, 49-65.

Abstract

The paper presents a view on the issue of studying the driving forces of personality from the perspective of existential analysis. The student of V. Frankl A. Lange developed the concept of the will to meaning (Frankl’s monomotivational theory), highlighting four aspects existential relationship of personality, four fundamental motivations. Existential philosophers and followed by psychologists, while psychotherapists define these motivation as the main themes of human life, and their implementation is a condition for living true, deep life - existence. Langle allocates four aspects of existence: relationship with the realities of existence, i.e. the world, relations with dynamic, vital side of existence, i.e. life, relationship with ourselves and relations with the future. These aspects are defined as 1, 2, 3 and 4 existential fundamental motivations (FM). The article in the first part contains a description of the content of the four fundamental motivations A. Lange, and in the second - the results of own researches of the author that is dedicated to the approbation on the Russian sample test that measures the subjective experience of the integral quality of life as the sum of its constituent these four aspects.

Questionnaire «Test existential motivations» (TEM) (A. Lange, P. Eckhard) is developed in the framework of existential analysis as psycho-diagnostic instrument to provide psychological and consultative assistance, but it also can be used for research purposes for the study of subjective attitude to existential important aspects of being. According to the developers, «TEM» is addressed to space of human feelings and able to assess the completeness of his living each of the four fundamental motivations. The first FM embodies the intention to be in this world and (is committed) seeks to the acceptance of reality. Second FM is looking for opportunities to build relationships and living values.

Third FM is aimed at implementation of respectful treatment of ourselves and others, meeting and living ourselves as having value. Fourth FM is searching for the meaning of the situation, ways to make ourselves with all our capabilities in the world. The study of the fundamental motivations allows not only to closer to life-world of the person, to enter the space of his experience, but also meets the targets of psychotherapeutic practice.

Received: 02/02/2015
Accepted: 04/17/2015
Pages: 49-65
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0405

Sections: Methodology;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no20-2015/npj_no20_2015_049-065.pdf

Keywords: existential analysis; existence; fundamental motivations; fulfillment; «Test existential motivations»;

Available Online 31.12.2015

Table 1 Simultaneous reliability of TEM in the research of different years


Research 2009 a Cronbach N = 200

Research 2011 a CronbachN=203

Research 2013-2014 a Cronbach N=199

Fundamental Trust

0,884

0,855

0,827

Fundamental Value

0,891

0,884

0,780

Self-Worth

0,832

0,800

0,796

Meaning of Life

0,813

0,873

0,829


Table 2 Simultaneous reliability of TEM in Russian and Austrian samples in the research of different years


Number of Questions

а Cronbach

Sample

Simultaneous reliability of TEM in Austrian sample (Eckhart, 2001)

56

0,97

1050

Simultaneous reliability of TEM in Russian sample, research of 2009 (Koryakina, 2010, p. 142)

56

0,954

200

Simultaneous reliability of TEM in Russian sample, research of 2011

56

0,956

203

Simultaneous reliability of TEM in Russian sample, research of 2013-2014

56

0,938

199


Table 3 Correlation test scales between themselves and with the total index of TEM (p <0,01).


Fundamental Trust

Fundamental Value

Self-Worth

Meaning of Life

Fundamental Trust

1,00

Fundamental Value

0,673

1,00

Self-Worth

0,800

0,646

1,00

Meaning of Life

0, 726

0,648

0,749

1,00

ТЕМ Total Index

0,917

0,804

0,909

0,886


Appendix

Test of existential motivations (TEM) (Alfried Langle, Warren Eckhard)

Name Surname Patronimic (Nickname) _________________________________________Date _____________Age _________Sex _____

Education ______________ Marital Status _______________ Sphere of Work _______________________

Take a position with respect to the following statements. Answer spontaneously, and do not leave any statement unanswered. Rate on 6-step scale, corresponds partially corresponds does not correspond

corresponds  o--o---o--o--o-- o  does not correspond

basically corresponds does not partially correspond

Please indicate if you are concerned with the following statements, regardless of the short-term hesitations How much am I concerned?


1)

found my place in this life.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

2)

easily admit those circumstances that are typical for me.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

3)

can always arrange my living space

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

4)

seldom feel I can live.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

5)

On the average I am quite satisfied with myself.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

6)

feel enough power to cope with what life offers

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

7)

often feel ashamed.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

8)

cannot respect myself.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

9)

n principle, I am satisfied with what I have.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

10)

In reality I have got nothing to rely on.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

11

Whatever I do I try to keep true to myself.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

12

I feel good in my body.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

13)

I often have a feeling as if I am losing firm ground.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

14)

I often feel lonely.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

15)

I often feel discontent.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

16)

For me it would be better to disappear from the face of the earth.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

17)

I can well withstand the critical eye of other.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

18)

I feel sad that my life is so little cause for joy.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

19)

In reality I am interested in nothing.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

20)

I am a sad person.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

21)

Most things I had to do I did unwillingly.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

22)

I have got a feeling I do not have enough living space.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

23)

In my life, I have got a lot of joyful experience.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

24)

I feel unconfident more often.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

25)

I can hardly admit my personality.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

26)

I have got a good understanding of my feelings and myself.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

27)

My life is meaningless and shallow.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

28)

I often notice people like me.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

29)

I appreciate myself for the fact that I can handle something and do it.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

30)

Life is a heavy burden.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

31)

Very deep in my heart I do not enjoy living.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

32)

I am very well aware of the feeling of fear and disconfidence.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

33)

Sometimes I have got a feeling life is dominating me.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

34)

I do what I like.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

35)

I respect myself.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

36)

As a rule people respect my wishes and decisions.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

37)

Because of fear of failure I generally abstain from doing what I have to.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

38)

I have a feeling that others are more right than I.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

39)

I am convinced that it is good that I live.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

40)

Much of what I was doing was made vain.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

41)

I feel support in my life.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

42)

I like myself as I am.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

43)

I often worry that I have not been trying enough to achieve the proper result.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

44)

Thanks to my own activities, I feel more life.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

45)

I seldom know what I want.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

46)

I love living.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

47)

I seldom realize my intentions and plans.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

48)

I often have a feeling I am good for something.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

49)

I feel it is good that I am.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

50)

I am a successful person.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

51)

I like living.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

52)

I do not often know the tasks of my life.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

53)

I feel that I do not get the attention and warmth from other people.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

54)

I am often indecisive.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

55)

More often I know why I am doing it.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond

56)

My life is meaningful.

corresponds o---o---o---o--o-- o does not correspond


 

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For citing this article:

Koryakina Julia M. (2015). Conditions for fulfilled life: description and measurement of existential motivations. National Psychological Journal. 4, 49-65.

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