Background. In modern psychology the study of mechanisms of creative thinking is of great interest. Attention is one of the important factors affecting the operation of intuitive thinking component.
The Objective of the paper is to study the effect of anticipatory attention on the insight and analytical frequency in solving anagrams.
Design. During the experiment, the participants performed two successive tasks. The first task included stimuli identification when the subjects were presented with stimuli — anagrams and pseudowords. The task was to identify the anagram correctly. In the second task (if the stimulus had been the anagram), the participants had to solve the anagram, noting whether the solution was analytical or an insight. The anagram and pseudoword had different letter order. The participants were divided into two groups: the experimental group whose subjects were informed about the difference and were asked to use it for a lexical solution and the control group whose subjects were not informed about the difference.
It was expected that the identification of the anagram in the first task will shape anticipatory attention patterns for the experimental group, which will affect the frequency of insight solutions in the second task. Results. The subjects of the experimental group were found to have a correlation relationship between the speed characteristics of the first and second tasks for analytical solutions. For insight solutions, no such connection was found.
Conclusion. The results demonstrate that insights and analytical solutions are the result of two separate processes of finding solutions that proceed in parallel.
The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection.
The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to maintaining and strengthening the psychological health of students.
This article analyzes the content and formal dynamic performance of management vision, their relationship to the personal characteristics of the chief executive, and also the description of management types of managerial vision identified in the empirical study of the Russian middle and senior managers.
The managerial vision is deemed as the understanding of the future by the chief executive of the organization, which includes the anticipatory image of the company’s future and willingness to inform the employees about it. The empirical research is based on the conceptual framework of studying the managerial vision of the organization as a social psychological phenomenon in which we have identified its basic features and determining factors. According to the conceptual framework of the research, the managerial vision performance refers to its content (the structure of vision) and formal dynamic characteristics.
The paper deals with the psychological types of managerial vision: focused on the business strategy, focused on the external environment, focused on experience, focused on staff, focused on creating team vision.
When describing and analyzing these issues we considered several parameters to develop the typology basis: a significance content components vision, his formal dynamic characteristics (clarity of vision, the vision of his/her role of the chief executive in the future of the organization, optimism about the future image, creating team vision and longitude of the prospective), particular attitude of managers to the characteristic of time (character of temporal orientation), value orientation of the chief executive, the level of corporate confidence.
An important feature of the present stage of human knowledge development is the introducing psychology in the spiritual context. An interest in the scientific community to such spiritual and psychological realities as subjectivity, individuality, personality, “spiritual I” consciousness, conscience, human morality is increasing. These concepts are united by the fact that they do not fit in the objectively oriented areas of psychology that study the general properties and regularities of mental functioning. To consider them properly we have to differentiate the diverse scientific types and processes for obtaining psychological knowledge.
The paper presents a historical and methodological review of studies on the problem of human psychology. We identified and analyzed methodological orientations of psychological human anthropology: theocentric, and sociocentric personcentric. For each of them we found certain philosophical and ideological concepts that define the fundamental principle of human in man, which were fruitfully absorbed by psychology and allowed to deploy the relevant areas of research.
Correlation of sociocentric and personcentric scientific approaches allows to raise the issue of insufficient research of theocentric methodology for the problem of human psychology. Psychological anthropology is an implementation of theocentric methodology at the present stage of rational psychological knowledge development.
Psychological anthropology has become a new methodological platform endowed with considerable heuristic potential.
The content of psychological anthropology is a description of the phenomena of the inner world of a human individual, revealing the bases and conditions for the development of subjective reality in the ontogeny. The article defines the basic categories and formulated the basic provisions of the psychological anthropology. We justified a new interpretation of the principle of development in psychology. The results of structural and content analysis of human subjectivity, normative models, marginal quality, and the superordinate form of human existence are presented.
The article is devoted to definition of management vision among adjacent concepts and to the analysis of interdependence of management vision and individual and personal features of the company executive and their relation to time.
In this work, the management vision is considered as a self-concept among related concepts: anticipation, goal setting, planning, forecasting and individual management concept. The solution of theoretical problems of correlation and differentiation of the terms close to management vision was formed on the basis of the psychological literature review: management vision, being a component of managerial concept, represents a form of anticipation and is the result of goal-setting process, forecasting, and planning.
The characteristics of management vision of company executives are studied empirically. The characteristics of management vision of company executives are associated with individual personal peculiarities of their relationship to time. The empirical research has confirmed the main idea of the work – relationship is the most important power of the company executive – the management vision and ability of managers to see the company future.
The collected data and patterns of relationship between the management vision and the peculiarities of their attitude to time will not only allow to study the social psychological phenomenon thoroughly, but also can be used in developing programs of organizational adjustment, diagnostic techniques, studying and development management vision.
The paper analyses the main achievements and development trends of the national psychology of thinking in the second half of the twentieth century from the point of view of the activity approach. This approach has been implemented in various forms (firstly by S.L. Rubinstein and his followers, secondly by A.N. Leontiev and his followers). The paper summarises and compares the results of long-term cycles of theoretical and experimental studies, and also confirms the synthesis of productivity based upon conceptions of thinking as a process and as an activity according to these research schools.
Based on the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity the authors emphasize the need of thinking in the context of the various activities and claim that the developed thinking should be studied as a separate, self-regulated function of the person with a multi-level psychological determination which presupposes goal-setting, motivational and emotional, meaningful, and reflective functions. The increasing role of the study of the subject of thought, and in a wider sense the cognitive activity in the context of the analysis of mental development (in history, ontogenesis and actual genesis) is being stressed in the paper. It involves identifying both general and specific patterns of micro genesis and macro genesis of thinking.
The restrictions of the rapidly developing informational approach developed by cognitive sciences, inability to reduce the psychological reality to the model laid down in the artificial intelligence systems are being proved in the paper. It is argued that the main feature of thinking as a process is its continuity, which is conceptually genetic (non- disjunctive and non-dichotomous item) in contrast with the separate cycles of any computer programme: all stages of the thinking process is continuously followed by another one, and therefore, being objectively different, they are indivisible, they are mutually determined by the dynamics of intellectual and emotional processes and their products that are attributable to the different levels of awareness and arbitrariness.
At the same time, the paper emphasizes the fact that in modern conditions the intellectual activity produced and processed by computers plays a new significant object of psychological research, as the human societal progress of requires substantial advance in the study of thinking. Considering the rapid dissemination of science-based (physiological, logical and mathematical, cybernetic, sociological) reductionism the authors call for a reorientation of research in the psychology of thinking. First and foremost, they offer to study creative, non-algorithmic, non-formalised components (i.e., to analyze the personal aspect of thinking, which determins patterns of generating and operating new needs, motives, emotions, judgments, meanings, purposes and methods of thinking activity). In this paper we prove a significant advantage of the activity approach methodology, its heuristic approach and prospects to disclose specific features of intricate psychological forms of human thinking.
The socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-psychological, religious and ethnic determinants of modern terrorism are discussed. The results of studies of social psychologists of the Institute of Psychology of Russian Academy of Sciences are presented. Search of a new positive personal identity is considered an important motive of the suicide bombers.
The main engineering and psychological issues and also trends of controlling engineering manned-space flight are considered. They are determined by social and psychological attitudes that are applicable in the professional sphere of the developmental engineering. The content of the issues and attitudes mentioned are revealed.
The history of development of space psychology research at the Russian Academy of Sciences is considered. The article describes the issues of cooperation with various organizations involved in space psychology research from the early days until now.