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Lepshokova Z. Kh. (2021). Inclusive and exclusive identities and contacts: the role of values and status of ethnic group. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (42), 61–75. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0206


Background. Identity and contacts are often studied from the perspective of inherent conflict potential for intergroup relations leading to prejudice and exclusion in societies which contain groups with different ethnic status. Nonetheless, there are certain identification and interaction mechanisms that can potentially mitigate or cancel these harmful effects. These comprise inclusive contacts and identities, in particular the positive inclusive identities, which allow to unite the representatives of different groups. It is important to find out what determines these identities and contacts. Schwartz’s theory of individual values has great potential for explaining the personality determinants of identities positivity and the intensity of contacts.

Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the role of individual values and status of ethnic group in assessing the positivity of exclusive and inclusive identities, as well as in the intensity of exclusive and inclusive contacts among members of ethnic majority and minority groups.

Design. The study was conducted on a sample of an ethnic minority (Russians living in the North Caucasus) and on a sample of an ethnic majority (Russians living in Moscow). The total sample size is = 499 respondents. The individual values were measured using a portrait value questionnaire – PVQ-R (Schwartz et al., 2012); positivity of ethnic identity, positivity of civic identity, positivity of regional identity, intercultural contacts, monocultural contacts were measured using the appropriate methods from the questionnaire of the MIRIPS project (Mutual intercultural relations in plural societies) (Berry, 2017).

Results. The study found that (1) the values of Conservation underlie the positivity of exclusive ethnic and inclusive civic identities among members of the ethnic majority, (2) values of Openness to Change underlie exclusive monocultural contacts among ethnic minority and majority members, (3) values of Self-Enhancement underlie inclusive intercultural contacts among members of the ethnic minority.

Conclusion. The results of this study revealed the motivational foundations of exclusive monocultural and inclusive intercultural friendship, which were based on the values of personal focus among the Russian ethnic minority and majority members. At the same time, the values of social focus turned out to underlie the positivity of the exclusive ethnic Russian and inclusive civic Russian identity among the ethnic Russian majority members. The research results have a wide potential for further theoretical and practical application in the field of intercultural relations and their harmonization.

Received: 03/01/2021
Accepted: 05/25/2021
Pages: 61-75
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0206


Keywords: values; exclusive identity; inclusive identity; ethnic identity; civic identity; regional identity; contacts; Russians; status of ethnic group; ethnic minority; ethnic majority

Available Online 30.07.2021


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For citing this article:

Lepshokova Z. Kh. (2021). Inclusive and exclusive identities and contacts: the role of values and status of ethnic group. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (42), 61–75. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0206

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