ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
Ru | En
Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Main RSS Search


Khoroshilov, D.A., Gromova, O.A. (2021). Perception of pandemic and vaccination in the period of COVID-19 “second wave” (on the basis of indepth interviews). National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (42), 3–11. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0201


Background. The article reveals the prospects for a psychological research of the perception and experience of the Covid-19 epidemic and pandemic as a situation of deprivation and frustration of personal life space. The constitutive characteristics of living space — interactivity, heterogeneity, blurring the boundaries between private and public — makes it vulnerable (precarious) to radical social transformations, of which the epidemic and pandemic of the coronavirus has become the extreme expression.

Objective. The purpose of the theoretical and empirical study is to analyze the subjective attitude towards the pandemic and vaccination.

Design. The study was carried out in a qualitative design using the methods of semi-structured in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, a projective technique of directed verbal associations. The purposive sample of the study consisted of 50 people (25 men and 25 women, 18–70 years old). The interviews were conducted in winter, 2020–2021, during the “second wave” of the coronavirus and in spring, 2021 after the loosening of restrictive measures.

Results. A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews made it possible to highlight the following topics:

  1. the discrepancy between the cognitive and affective levels of attitudes towards the pandemic situation (acceptance of the coronavirus as an element of everyday life and at the same time experiencing a radical breakdown of the usual way of life);
  2. a steady state of mental tension, which during the period of self-isolation limited the resources for maintaining professional activity, self-education and self-development;
  3. search for individual strategies for coping with this state in everyday life;
  4. the difficulties of resocialization when switching back from the self-isolation mode;
  5. distrust of official and unofficial sources of information, attitude towards the media as a key factor in provoking stress, fear and anxiety;
  6. spontaneous intergroup differentiation of vaccinated and unvaccinated;
  7. projection of the archetypal image of the trickster hero onto the vaccine.

Conclusion. Disorientation in the situation of uncertainty and transitivity provoked by the coronavirus pandemic actualizes the archaic mechanisms of socio-psychological defense, which can be considered confirmation of the theoretical hypothesis of irrationality as an integral property of human consciousness and modern society.

Received: 05/24/2021
Accepted: 06/06/2021
Pages: 3-11
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0201

Sections: Social Psychology;


Keywords: pandemic; transitivity; life space; everyday consciousness; qualitative research

Available Online 30.06.2021

Andreeva G.M. (2013). Image of the world and or real world? Voprosy psihologii (Issues of psychology), 3, 33–43. (In Russ.).

Andreeva G.M. (2009). Social psychology today: research and reflection. Moscow: NOU VPO MPSI. (In Russ.).

Asmolov A.G. (2015). Psychology of modernity: challenges of uncertainty, complexity and diversity. Psihologicheskie issledovanija (Studies in psychology), 8 (40). [Electronic resource]. URL: (accessed: 19.05.2021). (In Russ.).

Baranova V.A., Dubovskaja E.M., Savina O.O. (2021). Living experience and resources for overcoming the difficulties of self-isolation in students during the first period of COVID-19 pandemic. Social’naja psihologija I obshhestvo (Social psychology and society), 12 (1), 10–25. (In Russ.) doi: 10.17759/sps.2021120102

Bauman Z. (2005). Individualized society. Moscow: Logos. (In Russ.).

> Belinskaja E.P. (2014). Uncertainty as category of modern social psychology of personality. Psihologicheskie issledovanija (Studies in psychology), 7 (36). [Electronic resource]. URL: (accessed: 19.05.2021). (In Russ.).

Busygina N.P. (2017). Qualitative and quantitative methods of studies in psychology. Moscow: Jurajt. (In Russ.).

Grishina N.V. (2020). Psychology of change: Kurt Levin’s methodological suggestions. Zhiznennoe prostranstvo v psihologii: teorija i fenomenologija (Life space in psychology: theory and phenomenology). In N.V. Grishina, S.N. Kostromina (Eds.), (pp. 124–148).

Saint-Petersburg: SPbGU. (In Russ.).

Grishina N.V. (2016). Situational approach: research objectives and practical opportunities. Bulletin of Saint-Petersburg university.

Series 16. VestnikSPbGU. Serija 16. Psihologija. Pedagogika (Psychology. Pedagogy), 1, 57–68. (In Russ.).

Grishina N.V. (2018). Existential psychology. Saint-Petersburg: SPbGU. (In Russ.).

Karpova Je.B., Nikolaeva E.A. (2020). Negative psycho-emotional consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in the risk group.

Nacional’nyj psihologicheski jzhurnal (National journal of psychology), 3 (39), 66–74. (In Russ.). doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0310

Kornilova T.V. (2020). Personal grounds for the decision to maintain social distance in three countries (Russia, Azerbaijan and China). New challenges of uncertainty: materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference.Novosibirsk: IPC NGU. (In Russ.).

Krjukova T.L., Ekimchik O.A., Opekinam T.P., Shipova N.S. (2020). Stress and coping with it in family during the COVID-19 pandemic self-isolation period. Social’naja psihologija I obshhestvo (Social psychology and society), 11 (4), 120–134. (In Russ.). doi: 10.17759/sps.2020110409

Marcinkovskaja T.D. (2015). Modern psychology: challenges of transitivity. Psihologicheskie issledovanija (Studies in psychology), 8 (42). [Electronic resource]. URL: (accessed: 19.05.2021). (In Russ.).

Marcinkovskaja T.D. (2013). Social space: theoretical-empirical analysis. Psihologicheskie issledovanija (Studies in psychology), 6, 30. [Electronic resource]. URL: (accessed: 19.05.2021). (In Russ.).

Marcinkovskaja T.D. (2020). Personal boundaries of space and time in the COVID-19-related deprivation situation. Voprosy psihologii (Issues of psychology), 4 (66), 104–113. (In Russ.).

Mel’nikova O.T. (2007). Focus groups: methods, methodology, moderating. Moscow: Aspekt Press. (In Russ.).

Mel’nikova O.T., Horoshilov D.A. (2020). Methodological problems of qualitative studies in psychology. Moscow: Akropol’. (In Russ.).

Poleva N.S., Ajanjan, A.N. (2021). Transitivity as everyday life precarization factor. Novye psihologicheskie issledovanija (New studies in psychology), 1, 29–53. (In Russ.)

Gaaze K., Danilov V., Dudenkova I., Kralechkin D., Safronov P. (2020). Goodbye, Covid? Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Instituta Gajdara. (In Russ.).

Rasskazova E.I., Leont’ev D.A., Lebedeva A.A. (2020). Pandemic sas challenge to subjective well-being: anxiety and coping with it. Konsul’tativnaja psihologija i psihoterapija (Consultation psychology and therapy), 28 (2), 90–108. (In Russ.). doi: 10.17759/ cpp.2020280205

Sedakova O.A. (2020). A strange gravity of what is going on. Orthodox Christianity and the world. Pravoslavie i mir (Orthodoxy and peace). [Electronic resource] URL: (accessed: 19.05.2021). (In Russ.).

Thostov A.Sh. (2020). Cultural-historical pathopsychology. Moscow: Kanon+. (In Russ.)

Thostov A.Sh., Rasskazova E.I. (2020). Psychological content of anxiety and prevention in an infodemic situation: protection from the coronavirus or “vicious circle” of anxiety? Konsul’tativnaja psihologija i psihoterapija (Consultation psychology and therapy), 28 (2), 70–89. (In Russ.). doi: 10.17759/cpp.2020280204

Ushakov D.V., Jurevich A.V., Nestik T.A., Jurevich M.A. (2020). Social-psychological aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic: the results of an expert survey of Russian psychologists. Psihologicheskij zhurnal (Journal of psychology), 41 (5), 5–17. (In Russ.). doi: 10.31857/S020595920011074-7

Horoshilov D.A. (2019). Digitalized mind: mediatization of social cognition in culture, science and art. Social’naja psihologija i obshhestvo (Social psychology and society), 10 (4), 9–22. (In Russ.). doi: 10.17759/sps.2019100402

Horoshilov D.A. (2020). Blocade of a human being: searching for a psychological concept of personality in the writings of

L.Y. Ginzburg and O.M. Freidenberg. Life space in psychology: theory and phenomenology. In N.V. Grishina, S.N. Kostromina (pp. 149–181). Saint-Petersburg: SPbGU. (In Russ.).

Horoshilov D.A., Mel’nikova O.T. (2020). Thematical analysis method in studying the ideas about female leadership. Organizacionnaja psihologija (Organization psychology), 10 (3), 85–99. (In Russ.).

Plaksin S.M., Zhulin A.B., Farizova S.A. (2021). “Black swan” in white mask: analytical report of HSE University on the first anniversary of COVID-19. Moscow: HSE. (In Russ.).

Jelias N. (2001). Society of individuals. Moscow: Praksis. (In Russ.).

Jaroshevskaja S.V., Sysoeva T.A. (2021). Students’ ideas of successful learning: themes, guidelines and contradictions. Psihologicheskaja nauka i obrazovanie (Psychological science and education), 26 (1), 92–101. (In Russ.). doi: 10.17759/pse.2021260106

For citing this article:

Khoroshilov, D.A., Gromova, O.A. (2021). Perception of pandemic and vaccination in the period of COVID-19 “second wave” (on the basis of indepth interviews). National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (42), 3–11. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0201

About Editorial Board Volumes Authors For Authors Indexing Contacts

National Psychological Journal, 2006 - 2022