ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
Ru | En
Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Main RSS Search

MainArticlesVolumes

Khokhlov N.A., Fyodorova E.D. (2021). Neuropsychology of the unconscious: current state of the problem. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2021, (41)1, 127-148. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0111

Abstract

Introduction. The sphere of the unconscious includes many phenomena that have a strong influence on human behaviour and cognitive activity. Although the importance of taking into account the unconscious is evident to most psychotherapists, its role is visibly underestimated in neuropsychology. In this regard, the present state of research on brain organization of unconscious processes is of interest.

Objective. The review aims to describe the current state of research on brain mechanisms of the unconscious. 

Procedure. The present paper describes a variety of unconscious phenomena. It also outlines widespread points of view on the correlation between consciousness and unconscious and discusses the freewill problem. The question posed is whether the research programme of neuropsychology allows studying the unconscious phenomena. The study analyses the subject matter of neuropsychology and discusses the historical change of A.R. Luria’s views on psychology of the unconscious. The paper describes the studies of brain mechanisms underlying a variety of unconscious manifestations that have been conducted within different psychological schools. The aim is to consider the essential principles of neuropsychological research of the unconscious.

Conclusion. In foreign neuroscience there are numerous studies in the field of brain mechanisms of unconscious processes. Up to now, the leading positions in the sphere are taken by neuropsychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. In Russian neuropsychology the unconscious is barely investigated because it does not comply with the traditional research object, that is, the higher mental functions. However, in the current conditions, the research programme of neuropsychology allows studying the unconscious. The paper highlights the advantages of investigating the unconscious phenomena from the neuropsychological standpoint considering its evolutionary purpose.

Received: 05/07/2020
Accepted: 12/14/2020
Pages: 127-148
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0111

Sections: Neuropsychology;

PDF:

Keywords: research programme; neuropsychoanalysis; cognitive unconscious; freewill; readiness potential; evolutionary neuropsychology

Available Online 30.03.2021

  1. Abt, L.E., & Bellak, L. (Eds.). (1950). Projective Psychology: Clinical Approaches to the Total Personality. New York: A.A. Knopf. doi: 10.1037/11452-000

  2. Agafonov, A.Yu. (2006). Cognitive psychomechanics of consciousness, or how consciousness unknowingly makes a decision about awareness. Samara: Publ. “Univers grupp”. (In Russ.)

  3. Agafonov, A.Yu., & Kudel'kina, N.S. (2011). Experimental effect of extramental semantic sensitivity. In V.A. Barabanshchikov (Ed.), Modern experimental psychology, 2(pp. 9–27). Moscow: Publ. “Institut psikhologii RAN”. (In Russ.)

  4. Aizman, R.I., & Krivoshchekov, S.G. (2013). Physiological foundations of mental activity. Moscow: INFRA-M. (In Russ.)

  5. Akopov, G.V. (2010). Psychology of consciousness: Questions of methodology, theory and applied research. Moscow: Publ. “Institut psikhologii RAN”. (In Russ.)

  6. Alexander, P. et al. (2016). Readiness potentials driven by non-motoric processes. Consciousness and Cognition, 39, 38–47. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.11.011

  7. Allakhverdov, M.V., Scott, T., Chernaya, A.S., & Allakhverdov, V.M. (2019). Cognitive Control of Irrelevant Stimulus Changes. Sovremennye tekhnologii v meditsine (Modern technologies in medicine), 11 (1), 63–68. doi: 10.17691/stm2019.11.1.07 (In Russ.)

  8. Allakhverdov, V.M. (2009). The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity. Psychology in Russia, 2, 124–140. doi: 10.11621/pir.2009.0007

  9. Allakhverdov, V.M., Voskresenskaya, E.Yu., & Naumenko, O.V. (2008). Consciousness and cognitive unconscious. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Seriya 12. Psikhologiya. Sotsiologiya. Pedagogika (Bulletin of Saint Petersburg University. Series 12. Psychology. Sociology. Pedagogy), 2, 10–19. (In Russ.)

  10. Asendorpf, J.B., & Scherer, K.R. (1983). The discrepant repressor: Differentiation between low anxiety, high anxiety, and repression of anxiety by autonomic-facial-verbal patterns of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45 (6), 1334–1346.doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.45.6.1334

  11. Asmolov, A.G. (1980). Classification of extramental phenomena and the category of activity. Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 3, 45–53.  doi: 10.2753/RPO1061-0405190329(In Russ.)

  12. Axmacher, N., & Heinemann, A. (2012). Toward a neural understanding of emotional oscillation and affect regulation: investigating the dynamic unconscious and transference. An interdisciplinary study. Neuropsychoanalysis, 14 (2), 141–155. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2012.10773698

  13. Baars, B.J., Ramamurthy, U., & Franklin, S. (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In J.H. Mace (Ed.). Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology(pp. 177–207). Malden: Blackwell Publishing. doi: 10.1002/9780470774069.ch9

  14. Bargh, J.A., & Morsella, E. (2008). The Unconscious Mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 (1), 73–79. doi: /10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00064.x

  15. Barrett, H.C., & Kurzban, R. (2006). Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate. Psychological Review, 113 (3), 628–647. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.113.3.628

  16. Barrett, L.F. (2017). The theory of constructed emotion: an active inference account of interoception and categorization. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12 (1), 1–23. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw154

  17. Bassin, F.V. (1968). The problem of the unconscious (On unconscious forms of higher nervous activity). Moscow: Publ. “Meditsina”. (In Russ.)

  18. Baulina, M.E. (2018). Neuropsychology. Moscow: Publ. VLADOS.(In Russ.)

  19. Baxter, M.G. (2009). Involvement of medial temporal lobe structures in memory and perception. Neuron, 61 (5), 667–677. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.02.007

  20. Bazan, A., & Detandt, S. (2017). The Grand Challenge for Psychoanalysis and Neuropsychoanalysis: A Science of the Subject. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1259. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01259

  21. Bechara, A., & Damasio, A.R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and Economic Behavior, 52 (2), 336–372. doi: 10.1016/j.geb.2004.06.010

  22. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A.R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275 (5304), 1293–1295. doi: 10.1126/science.275.5304.1293

  23. Bekhterev, V.M. (1888). Consciousness and its boundaries. Kazan: Tipografiya Imperatorskogo universiteta. (In Russ.)

  24.  Bekoeva, D.D. (1978). Neiropsikhologicheskii analiz fiksirovannoi ustanovki: diss. ... kand. psikhol. nauk. (Neuropsychological analysis of fixed set). Ph.D. dissertation (Psychology). Moscow. (In Russ.)

  25. Berlin, H.A. (2011). The neural basis of the dynamic unconscious. Neuropsychoanalysis, 13 (1), 5–31. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2011.10773654

  26. Berlucchi, G., & Marzi, C.A. (2019). Neuropsychology of Consciousness: Some History and a Few New Trends. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 50. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00050

  27. Bettiga, D., Lamberti, L., & Noci, G. (2017). Do mind and body agree? Unconscious versus conscious arousal in product attitude formation. Journal of Business Research, 75, 108–117. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.02.008

  28. Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2009). The Unconscious Eye Opener: Pupil Dilation Reveals Strategic Recruitment of Resources upon Presentation of Subliminal Reward Cues. Psychological Science, 20 (11), 1313–1315. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02443.x

  29. Bizyuk, A.P. (2010). Fundamentals of Neuropsychology. Saint Petersburg: Rech'. (In Russ.)

  30. Blass, R.B., & Carmeli, Z. (2007). The case against neuropsychoanalysis: On fallacies underlying psychoanalysis' latest scientific trend and its negative impact on psychoanalytic discourse. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 88 (1), 19–40. doi: 10.1516/6NCA-A4MA-MFQ7-0JTJ

  31. Boag, S. (2008). Making sense of subliminal perception. In A.M. Columbus (Ed.). Advances in Psychology Research, 54 (pp. 117–139). New York: Nova.

  32. Bochorishvili, A.T. (1961). The problem of the unconscious in psychology. Tbilisi: Izdatel'stvo Akademii nauk Gruzinskoi SSR. (In Russ.)

  33. Bogdanchikov, S.A. (2002). A.R. Luria and psychoanalysis. Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 4, 84–93. (In Russ.)

  34. Bruner, J.S. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64 (2), 123–152.doi: 10.1037/h0043805

  35. Bzhalava, I.T., & Luriya, A.R. (1947). Disturbance of fixed setting in local brain lesions. In N.I. Grashchenkov (Ed.), Wartime Neurology(pp. 247–264). Moscow: Institut nevrologii AMN SSSR. (In Russ.)

  36. Caprara, G.V., & Cervone, D. (2000). Personality: Determinants, dynamics, and potentials. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812767

  37. Cleeremans, A. (2001). Conscious and unconscious processes in cognition.International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 4, 2584–2589. doi: 10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03560-9

  38. Coetzer, R., Roberts, C., Turnbull, O.H., & Vaughan, F.L. (2018). Neuropsychoanalytically informed psychotherapy approaches to rehabilitation: The North Wales Brain Injury Service–Bangor University experience 1998–2018. Neuropsychoanalysis, 20 (1), 3–13. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2018.1478747

  39. Colace, C. et al. (2010). Limbic system activity and drug dreaming in drug-addicted subjects. Neuropsychoanalysis, 12 (2), 201–206. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2010.10773647

  40. Coolidge, F.L. (2020). Evolutionary Neuropsychology: An Introduction to the Structures and Functions of the Human Brain. New York: Oxford University Press.doi: 10.1093/oso/9780190940942.001.0001

  41. Cooper, C. (1998). Individual Differences. London: Arnold.

  42. Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books.

  43. Deecke, L. (2012). There are conscious and unconscious agendas in the brain and both are important — our will can be conscious as well as unconscious. Brain Sciences, 2 (3), 405–420. doi: 10.3390/brainsci2030405

  44. Dehaene, S. et al. (2001). Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4 (7), 752–758. doi: 10.1038/89551

  45. Di Giannantonio, M., Northoff, G., & Salone, A. (2020). Editorial: The Interface between Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience: the State of the Art. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 14, 199. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00199

  46. Edelman, G.M. (2004). Wider Than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness. New Haven: Yale University Press.doi: 10.1172/JCI23795

  47. Eidemiller, E.G., Tarabanov, A.E. (2019). Modern Neuropsychoanalysis as an Integrative Scientific and Therapeutic Practice. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya (Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy), 27 (1), 64–78. doi: 10.17759/cpp.2019270105 (In Russ.)

  48. Erzin, A.I., & Kovtunenko, A.Ju. (2020a). Neuropsychology of anticipation-I: Monograph. Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt. (In Russ.)

  49. Erzin, A.I., & Kovtunenko, A.Ju. (2020b). Neuropsychology of anticipation-II: Monograph. Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt. (In Russ.)

  50. Fleury, G., Fortin-Langelier, B., & Ben-Cheikh, I. (2016). The Cardiac Rhythm of the Unconscious in a Case of Panic Disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 70 (3), 277–300. doi: 10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2016.70.3.277

  51. Fodor, J.A. (1983). Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press.doi: 10.7551/mitpress/4737.001.0001

  52. Fox, K.C.R. et al. (2018). Affective neuroscience of self‐generated thought. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1426 (1), 25–51. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13740

  53. Freud, S. (1990). Psychology of unconscious: collected works. Moscow: Prosveshchenie. (In Russ.)

  54. Gallo, B., Farinelli, M., & Speri, L. (2013). Dreaming the body. Neuropsychoanalysis, 15 (2), 177–184. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2013.10799829

  55. Gershuni, G.V. (1947). Exploring subsensory reactions at activities of sense organs. Fiziologicheskii zhurnal SSSR (Physiological Journal of the USSR), 33, 393–412. (In Russ.)

  56. Gershuni, G.V. (1957). General results of the research activities of the human auditory analyzer using different reactions. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deyatel'nosti (Journal of Higher Nervous Activity), 7 (1), 13–23. (In Russ.)

  57. Gomes, C.A., Montaldi, D., & Mayes, A. (2015). The pupil as an indicator of unconscious memory: Introducing the pupil priming effect. Psychophysiology, 52 (6), 754–769. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12412

  58. Graham, K.S., & Gaffan, D. (2005). The role of the medial temporal lobe in memory and perception: evidence from rats, nonhuman primates and humans. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 58 (3–4), 193–201. doi: 10.1080/02724990544000059

  59. Greenwald, A.G. (1992). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed. The American psychologist, 47 (6), 766–779.doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.766

  60. Grigolava, V.V. (1984). The unconscious and the set. Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 3, 145–150. (In Russ.)

  61. Harris, S. (2012). Free Will. New York: Free Press.

  62. Hassett, J. (1978). A Primer of Psychophysiology. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co.

  63. Hawkins, J., Lewis, M., Klukas, M., Purdy, S., & Ahmad, S. (2019). A Framework for Intelligence and Cortical Function Based on Grid Cells in the Neocortex. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 12, 121. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2018.00121

  64. Herzog, M.H., Drissi-Daoudi, L., & Doerig, A. (2020). All in Good Time: Long-Lasting Postdictive Effects Reveal Discrete Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24 (10), 826–837. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2020.07.001

  65. Hills, T.T. (2019). Neurocognitive free will. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 286 (1908), 20190510. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0510

  66. Ivonin L., et al. (2015). Beyond cognition and affect: sensing the unconscious. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34 (3), 220–238. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2014.912353

  67. Jackson, M. (2018). The mental apparatus in left MCA infarction: Relational language deficit and changes to ego function in conduction aphasia. Neuropsychoanalysis, 20 (1), 33–45. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2018.1474796

  68. Johnson, B. (2009). A “neuropsychoanalytic” treatment of a patient with cocaine dependence. Neuropsychoanalysis, 11 (2), 181–196. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2010.10773647

  69. Johnson, B., & Faraone, S.V. (2013). Outpatient detoxification completion and one-month outcomes for opioid dependence: A preliminary study of a neuropsychoanalytic treatment in pain patients and addicted patients. Neuropsychoanalysis, 15 (2), 145–160. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2013.10799827

  70. Kaplan-Solms, K., & Solms, M. (2016). Clinical studies in neuro-psychoanalysis. Introduction to a depth neuropsychology(Trans. from English). Moscow: Akademicheskii proekt. (In Russ.)

  71. Kehyayan, A., Best, K., Schmeing, J.-B., Axmacher, N., & Kessler, H. (2013). Neural activity during free association to conflict-related sentences. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 705. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00705

  72. Kenrick, D.T., & Griskevicius, V. (2013). The rational animal: How evolution made us smarter than we think. New York: Basic Books.

  73. Kensinger, E.A., Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. PNAS, 101 (9), 3310–3315. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0306408101

  74. Khaletskii, A.M. (1970). Levels of mental activity. Moscow: Publ. “Meditsina”. (In Russ.)

  75. Khomskaya, E.D. (2010). Neuropsychology(4th ed.). Saint Petersburg: Piter. (In Russ.)

  76. Kihlstrom, J.F. (1999). The psychological unconscious. In L.A. Pervin, & O.P. John (Eds.). Handbook of personality: Theory and research(pp. 424–442). New York: Guilford Press.

  77. Kihlstrom, J.F., Barnhardt, T.M., & Tataryn, D.J. (1992). The Psychological Unconscious: Found, Lost, and Regained. American Psychologist, 47 (6), 788–791.doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.788

  78. Killgore, W.D., & Yurgelun-Todd, D.A. (2004). Activation of the amygdala and anterior cingulate during nonconscious processing of sad versus happy faces. Neuroimage, 21 (4), 1215–1223. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.033

  79. Kolesov, D.V. (2000). The evolution of the psyche and the nature of drug addiction. Moscow: Moskovskii psikhologo-sotsial'nyi institut; Voronezh: Publ. NPO “MODEK”. (In Russ.)

  80. Kouider, S., Dehaene, S., Jobert, A., & Le Bihan, D. (2007). Cerebral bases of subliminal and supraliminal priming during reading. Cerebral Cortex, 17 (9), 2019–2029. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhl110

  81. Kovyazina, M.S. (2014). Neiropsikhologicheskii sindrom u bol'nykh s patologiei mozolistogo tela: diss. ... doct. psikhol. nauk. (Neuropsychological syndrome in patients with pathology of the corpus callosum). Doctoral dissertation (Psychology). Moscow. (In Russ.)

  82. Kovyazina, M.S., & Fomina, K.A. (2016). Neuropsychological potential of the method of “fixed set” of D.N. Uznadze. Eksperimental'naya psikhologiya (Experimental Psychology (Russia)),9 (3), 91–102. doi: 10.17759/exppsy.2016090308 (In Russ.)

  83. Kunel'skaja, N.L., Rezakova, N.V., Gudkova, A.A., & Geht, A.B. (2014). Biofeedback method in clinical practice. Zhurnal nevrologii i psihiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova (S.S. Korsakov Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry), 114 (8), 46–50.doi: 10.17116/jnevro20141141218-11 (In Russ.)

  84. Lakatos, I. (1976). Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. In S.G. Harding (Ed.). Can theories be refuted?(pp. 205–259). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. doi: 10.1007/978-94-010-1863-0_14

  85. Lavrova, O.V. (2010). Ontology of the mental. Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 3, 3–11. (In Russ.)

  86. LeDoux, J.E. (1998). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

  87. Libet, B. (2004). Mind Time: The Temporal Factor in Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  88. Lolatto, R. et al. (2018). Exploration of Web-Sites Affects Autonomic Responses Related to Unconscious Emotions. 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(pp. 4615–4618). Honolulu: IEEE. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513237

  89. Lomov, B.F., & Surkov, E.N. (1980). Anticipation in the structure of activity. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

  90. Lopez-Franco, A., Alanis, A.Y., Lopez-Franco, C., Arana-Daniel, N., Lopez-Franco, M. (2018). Emotional system in complex cognitive activities of working memory: A literature review of its role. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 17 (3–4), 679–693. doi: 10.3233/JIN-180095

  91. Lucini, F.A., Del Ferraro, G., Sigman, M., & Makse, H.A. (2019). How the Brain Transitions from Conscious to Subliminal Perception. Neuroscience, 411, 280–290. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.03.047

  92. Luriya, A.R. (1962). Higher cortical functions in man and their disturbances in local brain lesions. Moscow: Publ. MGU. (In Russ.)

  93. Luriya, A.R. (1970). Human brain and mental processes. Vol. II. Neuropsychological analysis of conscious actions. Moscow: Publ. “Pedagogika”. (In Russ.)

  94. Luriya, A.R. (1982). The stages of the traversed way: a scientific biography. Moscow: Publ.Mosk. un-ta. (In Russ.)

  95. Luriya, A.R. (2002). The nature of human conflicts: an objective study of disorganization of human behavior. Moscow:“Kogito-Centr”. (In Russ.)

  96. Luriya, A.R. (2003a). Fundamentals of Neuropsychology. Moscow: Publ. “Akademiya”. (In Russ.)

  97. Luriya, A.R. (2003b). Psychological heritage: Selected papers on general psychology. Moscow:Smysl. (In Russ.)

  98. MacLean, P.D. (1978). A mind of three minds: Education the triune brain. In J.S. Chall, & A.F. Mirsky (Eds.). Education and the brain, the 77th National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook(pp. 308–342). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  99. Makogonenko, Yu.V. (Ed.). (1994). Unconscious. Diversity of vision: collected articles, 1. Novocherkassk: Agentstvo “Saguna”. (In Russ.)

  100. Marini, S. et al. (2016). The bridge between two worlds: psychoanalysis and fMRI. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 27 (2), 219–229. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2015-0031

  101. Mathiesen, B.B., Förster, P.L.V., & Svendsen, H.A. (2004). Affect regulation and loss of initiative in a case of orbitofrontal injury. Neuropsychoanalysis, 6 (1), 47–62. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2004.10773440

  102. Mazin, V.A. (2019). The unconscious in Soviet Tbilisi. Saint Petersburg: Skifija-print. (In Russ.)

  103. McFadden, J. (2020). Integrating information in the brain’s EM field: the cemi field theory of consciousness. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 6 (1), niaa016. doi: 10.1093/nc/niaa016

  104. Meshcheryakov, B.G., & Zinchenko, V.P. (Eds.). (2009). Big psychological dictionary(4th ed.). Moscow: AST MOSKVA; Saint Petersburg:Praim-EVROZNAK. (In Russ.)

  105. Metzinger, T. (2010). The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self. New York: Basic Books.

  106. Mithen, S. (1999). The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science. London: Thames & Hudson.

  107. Moccia, L., Mazza, M., Di Nicola, M., & Janiri, L. (2018). The Experience of Pleasure: A Perspective between Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 12, 359. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00359

  108. Najström, M., Jansson, B. (2006). Unconscious responses to threatening pictures: interactive effect of trait anxiety and social desirability on skin conductance responses. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 35 (1), 11–18. doi: 10.1080/16506070510011566

  109. Nava, E., Romano, D., Grassi, M., & Turati, C. (2016). Skin conductance reveals the early development of the unconscious processing of emotions. Cortex, 84, 124–131. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2016.07.011

  110. Nemov, R.S. (2017). General Psychology. In 3 vol. Vol. I. Introduction to Psychology(6th ed.). Moscow: Publ. Yurait. (In Russ.)

  111. Nevzorov, A.G. (2012). Origin of human personality and intelligence. Experience in summarizing classical neurophysiology data. Saint Petersburg: Anatomiya i Fiziologiya. (In Russ.)

  112. Newton, T.L., & Contrada, R.J. (1992). Repressive coping and verbal-autonomic response dissociation: The influence of social context. Journal of personality and social psychology, 62 (1), 159–167.doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.62.1.159

  113. Nikitina, E.A. (2018). Cognition. Consciousness. Unconscious.Moscow: Knizhnyj dom “LIBROKOM”. (In Russ.)

  114. Nikolaeva, E.I. (2021). Psychophysiology. Saint Petersburg: Piter. (In Russ.)

  115. Northoff, G. (2011). Neuropsychoanalysis in Practice: Brain, Self and Objects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  116. Northoff, G. et al. (2002). Orbitofrontal Cortical Dysfunction and “Sensori-motor Regression”: A Combined Study of fMRI and Personal Constructs in Catatonia. Neuropsychoanalysis, 4 (2), 151–171. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2002.10773394

  117. Nuske, H.J., Vivanti, G., Hudry, K., & Dissanayake, C. (2014). Pupillometry reveals reduced unconscious emotional reactivity in autism. Biological Psychology, 101, 24–35. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.003

  118. Ornstein, R.E. (1992). Evolution of Consciousness: The Origins of the Way We Think. New York: Simon & Schuster.

  119. Ozhigova, A.P. (1989). To the problem of higher cortical centres evolution of the human brain. In Ya.Ya. Roginskii (Ed.), Biological evolution and man (pp. 200–219). Moscow: Publ. MGU. (In Russ.)

  120. Özkarar, F.G., Göktepe, E., & Canbeyli, R. (2008). Ego fails to repress: the role of left frontal lobe hypoactivation in associative memory impairment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychoanalysis, 10 (2), 189–199. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2008.10773587

  121. Panksepp, J., & Solms, M. (2012). What is neuropsychoanalysis? Clinically relevant studies of the minded brain. Trends in cognitive sciences, 16 (1), 6–8. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.11.005

  122. Panksepp, J., Lane, R.D., Solms, M., & Smith, R. (2017). Reconciling cognitive and affective neuroscience perspectives on the brain basis of emotional experience. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 76 (B), 187–215. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.010

  123. Penfield, W. (2015). Mystery of the Mind: A Critical Study of Consciousness and the Human Brain. Princeton: Princeton University Press.doi: 10.1515/9781400868735

  124. Pennebaker, J.W., Hughes, C.F., & O'Heeron, R.C. (1987). The psychophysiology of confession: linking inhibitory and psychosomatic processes.Journal of personality and social psychology, 52 (4), 781–793.doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.781

  125. Petriichuk, N.D. (2020). What is “Me” – circuit approach: Fundamentals of circuitry of natural neural networks. Moscow: KnigIzdat.(In Russ.)

  126. Petrovskii, A.V. (1995). Introduction to Psychology. Moscow: Publ. “Akademiya”. (In Russ.)

  127. Piaget, J. (1973). The Affective Unconscious and the Cognitive Unconscious. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 21 (2), 249–261. doi: 10.1177/000306517302100201

  128. Piradov, M.A. (Ed.). (2020). Chronic disorders of consciousness(2nd ed.). Moscow: Goryachaya liniya – Telekom. (In Russ.)

  129. Pluzhnikov, I.V. (2014). Key approaches to the problem of personality in neuropsychology. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 14: Psikhologiya (Moscow University Psychology Bulletin), 3, 8–17. (In Russ.)

  130. Popper, K. (1963). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  131. Prangishvili, A.S., Bassin, F.V., & Shoshin, P.B. (1984). Is there a dilemma “unconscious or set”? Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 6, 95–101. (In Russ.)

  132. Prince, M. (1909). The unconscious. Chapters IV and V. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 3 (6), 391–426. doi: 10.1037/h0072025

  133. Pugnaghi, G., Memmert, D., & Kreitz, C. (2020). Loads of unconscious processing: The role of perceptual load in processing unattended stimuli during inattentional blindness. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82 (5), 2641–2651. doi: 10.3758/s13414-020-01982-8

  134. Ramus, F. (2013). What's the point of neuropsychoanalysis? The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203 (3), 170–171. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.127217

  135. Redinbaugh, M.J. et al. (2020). Thalamus Modulates Consciousness via Layer-Specific Control of Cortex. Neuron, 106 (1), 66–75.doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.01.005

  136. Revonsuo, A. (2017). Foundations of Consciousness (Foundations of Psychology). New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315115092

  137. Round table “Problems and prospects of psychological study of disturbances of voluntary regulation of activity” (2012). In N.K. Korsakova, & Yu.V. Mikadze (Eds.), A.R. Luria’s heritage in the modern scientific and cultural-historical context: to the 110th anniversary of А.R. Luria’s birth(pp. 286–327). Moscow: Fakul'tet psihologii MGU imeni M.V. Lomonosova. (In Russ.)

  138. Ruby, P.M. (2011). Experimental research on dreaming: state of the art and neuropsychoanalytic perspectives. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 286. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00286

  139. Salas, C.E., Casassus, M., & Turnbull, O.H. (2017). A neuropsychoanalytic approach to case studies. Clinical Social Work Journal, 45 (3), 201–214. doi: 10.1007/s10615-016-0596-z

  140. Sardzhveladze, N.I. (1985). Unconscious and concept of set in conception of D.N. Uznadze. Voprosy psikhologii (Questions of Psychology), 4, 114–120. (In Russ.)

  141. Savel'ev, S.V. (2010). Origin of human brain. Moscow: VEDI. (In Russ.)

  142. Savel'ev, S.V. (2015). Variability and genius(2nd ed.). Moscow:VEDI. (In Russ.)

  143. Savel'ev, S.V. (2016). Brain poverty(2nd ed.). Moscow: VEDI. (In Russ.)

  144. Savel'ev, S.V. (2021). Morphology of consciousness: in 2 vol. Vol. 2.Moscow: VEDI. (In Russ.)

  145. Sayin, A., & Ceylan, M.E. (2013). The Neurobiology of Transference. The Journal of Mind & Behavior, 34 (3/4), 233–258.

  146. Scheinin, A. et al. (2021). Foundations of Human Consciousness: Imaging the Twilight Zone. Journal of Neuroscience, 41 (8), 1769–1778. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0775-20.2020

  147. Schultze-Kraft, M. et al. (2016). The point of no return in vetoing self-initiated movements. PNAS, 113 (4), 1080–1085. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1513569112

  148. Seirafi, M., De Weerd, P., Pegna, A.J., & de Gelder, B. (2016). Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9, 686. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00686

  149. Serikov, A.E. (2012). Free will and its loss in neuropsychological context. Vestnik Samarskoi gumanitarnoi akademii. Seriya: Filosofiya. Filologiya (Bulletin of the Samara Humanitarian Academy. SeriesPhilosophyPhilology), 2 (12), 63–78.(In Russ.)

  150. Seth, A.K., Izhikevich, E., Reeke, G.N., & Edelman, G.M. (2006). Theories and measures of consciousness: an extended framework. PNAS, 103 (28), 10799–10804. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0604347103

  151. Shilov, Yu.E. (2015). Cognitive aspects in researches of unconsciousness in contemporary psychology. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiiskoi akademii nauk (News of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences), 17 (1–4), 907–912. (In Russ.)

  152. Sjöberg, R.L. (2021). Free will and neurosurgical resections of the supplementary motor area: a critical review. Acta Neurochirurgica, 12 (1). doi: 10.1007/s00701-021-04748-9

  153. Sloman, S., & Fernbach, P. (2017). The Knowledge Illusion: Why We Never Think Alone. New York: Riverhead Books.

  154. Smirnov, I.V. (2003). Psychoecology. Moscow: OOO “Izdatel'skii dom «Kholodil'noe delo»”, OOO “Spetsmontazh-ST”. (In Russ.)

  155. Smirnov, I.V., Beznosyuk, E.V., & Zhuravlev, A.N. (1995). Computer psychosemantic analysis and psychocorrection at extramental level. Moscow: Izdatel'skaya gruppa “Progress” – “Kul'tura”.(In Russ.)

  156. Smith, R., & Solms, M. (2018). Examination of the hypothesis that repression is premature automatization: A psychoanalytic case report and discussion. Neuropsychoanalysis, 20 (1), 47–61. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2018.1473045

  157. Sokolov, E. (2013). Psychophysiology of Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  158. Sokolova, E.T. (1976). Motivation and perception in norm and pathology. Moscow:Publ. Mosk. un-ta. (In Russ.)

  159. Solms, M., & Panksepp, J. (2012). The “Id” knows more than the “Ego” admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and primal consciousness perspectives on the interface between affective and cognitive neuroscience. Brain Sciences, 2 (2), 147–175. doi: 10.3390/brainsci2020147

  160. Soon, C.S., Brass, M., Heinze, H.-J., & Haynes, J.-D. (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 543–545. doi: 10.1038/nn.2112

  161. Soroko, S.I., & Trubachev, V.V. (2010). Neurophysiological and psychophysiological foundations of adaptive biocontrol. Saint Petersburg:Politekhnika-servis.(In Russ.)

  162. Spence, S.A. et al. (2009). Toward a cognitive neurobiological account of free association. Neuropsychoanalysis, 11 (2), 151–163. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2009.10773607

  163. Stoléru, S. (2004). Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 157. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00157

  164. Suzuki, W.A. (2009). Perception and the medial temporal lobe: evaluating the current evidence. Neuron, 61 (5), 657–666. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.02.008

  165. Suzuki, W.A., Baxter, M.G. (2009). Memory, perception, and the medial temporal lobe: a synthesis of opinions. Neuron, 61 (5), 678–679. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.02.009

  166. Suzuki, Y., Minami, T., & Nakauchi, S. (2018). Association between pupil dilation and implicit processing prior to object recognition via insight.Scientific Reports, 8, 6874. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25207-z

  167. Swaab, D.F. (2014). We Are Our Brains: A Neurobiography of the Brain, from the Womb to Alzheimer’s. New York: Spiegel & Grau.

  168. Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2017). Pupil dilations induced by barely conscious reward goal-priming. Neuropsychologia, 103, 69–76. DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.07.020

  169. Tiberg, K. (2007). (Ap)perceptual Distortions in a Case of Right-Hemisphere Lesion: Evidence from the TAT. Neuropsychoanalysis, 9 (1), 59–65. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2007.10773542

  170. Tiberg, K. (2014). Confabulating in the transference. Neuropsychoanalysis, 16 (1), 57–67. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2014.898410

  171. Tokareva, G.V., & Dorfman, L.Ya. (2014). Investigations of implicit processes in western psychology. Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya “Psikhologiya” (Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series “Psychology”), 7 (1), 17–27. (In Russ.)

  172. Tononi, G., & Edelman, G.M. (1998). Consciousness and Complexity. Science, 282 (5395), 1846–1851. doi: 10.1126/science.282.5395.1846

  173. Trevena, J., & Miller, J. (2010). Brain preparation before a voluntary action: Evidence against unconscious movement initiation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19 (1), 447–456. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2009.08.006

  174. Turnbull, O.H., Jenkins, S., & Rowley, M.L. (2004). The pleasantness of false beliefs: An emotion-based account of confabulation. Neuropsychoanalysis, 6 (1), 5–16. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2004.10773432

  175. Turnbull, O.H., Jones, K., & Reed-Screen, J. (2002). Implicit awareness of deficit in anosognosia? An emotion-based account of denial of deficit. Neuropsychoanalysis, 4 (1), 69–87. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2002.10773381

  176. Unterrainer, H.F., Chen, M.J.-L., & Gruzelier, J.H. (2014). EEG-neurofeedback and psychodynamic psychotherapy in a case of adolescent anhedonia with substance misuse: Mood/theta relations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 93 (1), 84–95. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.03.011

  177. Unterrainer, H.F., Lewis, A.J., & Gruzelier, J.H. (2013). EEG-Neurofeedback in psychodynamic treatment of substance dependence. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 692. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00692

  178. Uznadze, D.N. (2001). Psychology of set. Saint Petersburg: Piter. (In Russ.)

  179. Uznadze, D.N. (2014). Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy: mental life science(Trans. from Georgian). Moscow: Smysl. (In Russ.)

  180. Van der Ploeg, M.M. et al. (2017). Inducing unconscious stress: Cardiovascular activity in response to subliminal presentation of threatening and neutral words. Psychophysiology, 54 (10), 1498–1511. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12891

  181. Villa, K.K., Shevrin, H., Snodgrass, M., Bazan, A., & Brakel, L.A.W. (2006). Testing Freud’s Hypothesis That Word Forms and Word Meaning Are Functionally Distinct: Subliminal Primary-Process Cognition and Its Link to Personality. Neuropsychoanalysis, 8 (2), 117–138. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2006.10773521

  182. Vizel', T.G. (2021). Fundamentals of Neuropsychology. Theory and practice(2nd ed.). Moscow: Publ. AST. (In Russ.)

  183. Whalen, P.J. et al. (1998). Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (1), 411–418. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-01-00411.1998

  184. Wiest, G., Lurger, S., & Baumgartner, C. (2012). Free will, agency, and the synthetic function of the ego: an investigation using cortical stimulation. Neuropsychoanalysis, 14 (2), 135–140. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2012.10773697

  185. Wolk, P.C., Savoy, R.L., & Frederick, B.B. (2012). The neural correlates of vertical splitting in a single case study. Neuropsychoanalysis, 14 (2), 157–163. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2012.10773699

  186. Yan'shin, P.V. (2013). Measurements of unconscious I. Microkinetic psychosemantic detection. Samara: OOO “Izdatel'stvo VEK#21”. (In Russ.)

  187. Yovell, Y. (2000). From hysteria to posttraumatic stress disorder: Psychoanalysis and the neurobiology of traumatic memories. Neuropsychoanalysis, 2 (2), 171–181. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2000.10773303

  188. Yu, C.K.-C. (2016). Classification of typical dream themes and implications for dream interpretation. Neuropsychoanalysis, 18 (2), 133–146. doi: 10.1080/15294145.2016.1236701

  189. Zal'tsman, A.G. (1989). Processing of extramental visual information in the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Sensornye sistemy (Sensory systems), 3 (1), 43–47. (In Russ.)

  190. Zhane, P. (2009). Psychic automatism. Experimental study of lowest forms of human mental activity(Trans. from French). Saint Petersburg: Nauka. (In Russ.)

For citing this article:

Khokhlov N.A., Fyodorova E.D. (2021). Neuropsychology of the unconscious: current state of the problem. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2021, (41)1, 127-148. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0111

About Editorial Board Volumes Authors For Authors Indexing Contacts
CC BY-NC

National Psychological Journal, 2006 - 2022