Introduction. In the context of the intensification of intercultural interaction as a key component of the global development of modern society, the understanding of personal characteristics that ensure success in intercultural communication is particular importance. Looking for the solution to this issue, American Professor Christopher Early and Professor Soon Ang, Singapore University of Technology, proposed the concept of cultural intelligence, defined as the ability to function and interact effectively across cultures. This concept has been recognized in foreign studies, but so far poorly covered in the Russian psychological science.
Objective: Analyzing the concept of cultural intelligence and selecting the main trends of the empirical research.
Procedure. The paper analyzes the theoretical background of the concept of cultural intelligence, provides an overview of empirical studies of cultural intelligence and other phenomena of intercultural interaction, examines the main methodological tools for studying cultural intelligence.
Findings. The key areas of empirical research on cultural intelligence over the past 15 years are highlighted, the main methods for measuring cultural intelligence are presented, and further research perspectives are proposed.
Conclusion. The concept of cultural intelligence that appears across modern theories of intelligence by H. Gardner and R. Sternberg is extremely relevant to the modern world of global processes in the context of “culture and intelligence” issues. Cultural intelligence is very effective in a specific context, e.g. intercultural relations, the importance of which increases across cultures. Cultural intelligence is studied on a par with other types of intelligence, and also personality traits (Big Five personality traits). This concept has received particular popularity in the research field of organizational and management psychology. Nevertheless, there are a number of significant phenomena of intercultural communication, including ethnic identity, which offers new research points in relationship with cultural intelligence.
Sections: Social Psychology;
Available Online 30.12.2018
Abdul M. M., & Budhwar P. (2013). Cultural intelligence as a predictor of expatriate adjustment and performance in Malaysia. Journal of World Business, Elsevier, 222–231.
Ackerman P. L. (1996). A theory of adult intellectual development: Process, personality, interests, and knowledge. Intelligence, 22, 227–257. doi:10.1016/ S0160-2896(96)90016-1
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Koh, C. (2006). Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31, 100–123. doi:10.1177/1059601105275267
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Tan, M. L. (2011). Cultural intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg & S. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook on intelligence, 582–602. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511977244.030
Ang S., Van Dyne L., Koh C., Ng, K.-Y., Templer K. J., Tay C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335–371. doi:10.1111/j.1740- 8784.2007.00082.x.
Bandura A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology, 51, 269–290. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00092.
Belovol E.V., Shkvarilo K.A., & Khvorova E.M. (2012). Adaptation of the questionnaire «The Scale of Cultural Intelligence» by C. Early and S. Ang within the Russian-language sample. [Psikhologiya i Pedagogika], 4, 5–14.
Cantor N. & Kihlstrom J. E (1987). Personality and social intelligence. Еnglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Chen G., Kirkman, B. L., Kim K., Farh C. I. C., & Tangirala S. (2010). When does cross-cultural motivation enhance expatriate effectiveness? A multilevel investigation of the moderating roles of subsidiary support and cultural distance. Academy of Management Journal, 53,1110–1130. doi:10.5465/ AMJ.2010.54533217
Chen X. P., Liu D., & Portnoy R. (2011). A multilevel investigation of motivational cultural intelligence, organizational diversity climate, and cultural sales: Evidence from U.S. real estate firms. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0024697
Chua R. Y. J., Morris M. W., & Mor S. (2012). Collaborating Across Cultures: Cultural Metacognition and Affect Based Trust in Creative Collaboration Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118, 116–131. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.03.009
Crowne K. (2009). Social intelligence, emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence,andleadership: Testing a new model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL.
Cushner K. & Brislin R. W. (1996). Intercultural relations: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dean B. P. (2007). Cultural intelligence in global leadership: A model for developing culturally and nationally diverse teams. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.
Deci E. L. & Ryan R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Deng L. & Gibson P. (2008). A qualitative evaluation on the role of cultural intelligence in cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3, 181–197.
Duff A. J., Tahbaz A., & Chan, C. (2012). The interactive effect of cultural intelligence and openness on task performance. Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 20, 1–12.
Earley P. C., & Ang S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Eccles J. S., &Wigfield A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. In S. T. Fiske, D. L. Schacter, & C. Zahn-Waxler (Eds.), Annual review of psychology, 53, 109–132. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153
Elenkov D. S., &.Manev I. M. (2009). Senior expatriate leadership’s effects on innovation and the role of cultural intelligence. Journal of World Business, 44, 357–369. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2008.11.001
Engle R.L., & Crowne K.A. (2013). The Impact of International Experience on Cultural Intelligence: An Application of Contact Theory in a Structured Short Term Programme. Human Resource Development International, 17, 30–46. doi:10.1080/13678868.2013.856206
Fehr R. & Kuo E. (2008). The impact of cultural intelligence in multicultural social networks. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.
Ford M. E., & Maher M. A. (1998). Self-awareness and social intelligence. In M. D. Ferrari & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Self-awareness: Its nature and development, 191–218. New York: Guilford Press.
Gardner H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: Theory in practice. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Gelfand M. J., Imai L., & Fehr R. (2008). Thinking intelligently about cultural intelligence: The road ahead. In S. Ang& L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 375–387. New York, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Gjertsen T., Torp A. M., Koh C. K., & Tan M. L. (2010, August). The impact of cultural intelligence on homophily in intraorganizational multinational networks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Montreal, Canada.
Goleman D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Groves K. S., Feyerherm A., Gu M. (2015) Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness. Journal of Management Education, 39, 209–243. doi:10.1177/1052562914543273
Groves K., &Feyerherm A. (2011) Leader cultural intelligence in context: Testing the moderating effects of team cultural diversity on leader and team performance. Group and Organization Management, 36, 535–566. doi:10.1177/1059601111415664
Gudykunst W. B., Ting-Toomey S., & Chua E. (1988). Culture and interpersonal communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hall E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, E. T. (1959). Thesilent language. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Huff K.C., Song P. & Gresch E. B. (2014). Cultural intelligence, personality, and cross-cultural adjustment: A study of expatriates in Japan International. Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 151– 157. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.08.005
Huff K.C. (2013). Language, cultural intelligence and expatriate success. Management Research Review, 36, 596–612. doi:10.1108/01409171311325750
Imai L., & Gelfand M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112, 83–98. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.02.001
Kim K., Kirkman B. L., & Chen G. (2008). Cultural intelligence and international assignment effectiveness. In S. Ang& L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 71-90. New York, NY: Sharpe.
Kornhaber M. & Gardner H. (1991). Critical thinking across multiple intelligences. In S. Machlure& P. Davies (Eds.). Learning to think: Thinking to learn. Oxford: Pergamon.
Leung K., Аng S. & Tan M.L. (2014). Intercultural Competence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 2014, 1, 489–519. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091229
Lin Y. C., Chen A. S. Y., & Song Y. C. (2012). Does Your Intelligence Help to Survive in a Foreign Jungle? The Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Cross Cultural Adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 541–552. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.03.001
Mayer, J. D. (2014). Personal intelligence: The power of personality and how it shapes our lives. New York: Scientific American/Farrar, Strauss, & Giroux.
Koo H., Choi B., Shik Jung, J. (2012). Previous international experience, cross-cultural training, and expatriates’ cross‐cultural adjustment: Effects of cultural intelligence and goal orientation. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(3), 285–330. doi:10.1002/hrdq.21131
Moon, T. (2010). Emotional intelligence correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 876–898. doi:10.1108/ 02683941011089134
Motowidlo S. J., Dunnette M. D., & Carter G. W. (1990). An Alternative Selection Procedure: The Low-Fidelity Simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 640–647. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.640
Murdock G. P. (1987). Outline of cultural materials (5th rev. ed.). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.
Ng K.-Y., Van Dyne L., & Ang S. (2012). Cultural intelligence: a review, reflections and recommendations for future research. In A.M. Ryan, F.T.L. Leong, & F.L. Oswald (Eds.), Conducting Multinational Research, Applying Organizational Psychology in the Workplace, 29–58. Washington, DC, Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13743-002
O’Neil H. E., & Abedi J. (1996). Reliability and validity of a state metacognitive inventory: Potential for alternative assessment. The Journal of Educational Research, 89, 234–245. doi:10.1080/00220671.1996.9941208
Oolders T., Chernysherdco 0. S., Stark S. (2008). Cultural intelligence as a mediator of relationships between Openness to Experience and adaptive performance. In S. Ang& L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 145–158. New York, NY: Sharpe.
Pintrich R. R., & DeGroot E. V. (1990). Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40. .
Rockstuhl T. Ang S., Ng K.Y., Lievens F., & Van Dyne L. (2013). The incremental value of assessing situational perspective taking in SJTs. Presented at Annu. Conf. Soc. Ind. Organ. Psychol., 28th, Apr. 11–13, Houston.
Rockstuhl, T., & Ng, K.-Y. (2008). The effects of cultural intelligence on interpersonal trust in multicultural teams. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 206–220. New York, NY: Sharpe.
Rockstuhl T., Hong Y. Y., Ng K.-Y., Ang S., & Chiu C. Y. (2010). The culturally intelligent brain: From detecting to bridging cultural differences. NeuroLeadership Institute, 3, 22–36.
Rockstuhl T., Seiler S., Ang S., Van Dyne L., & Anne, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross-border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 825–840. doi:10.1111/j.1540- 4560.2011.01730.x
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychology, 55, 68–78. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Sahin F., Gurbuzb S., Köksal O., & Ercan Ü. (2013). Measuring cultural intelligence in the Turkish context. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21 (2), 135–144. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12024
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition, and personality, 9, 185–211. doi:10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG
Shaigerova L.A., Shilko R.S., Zinchenko Yu.P., Dolgikh A.G., & Vakhantseva O.V. (2018). Cultural determination of mental health and psychological well-being: methodological issues. [Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta]. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 3–23.
Spencer-Oatey, H. (2008). Culturally speaking: Culture, communication and politeness theory (2nd edition). London & New York: Continuum.
Soldatova G.U., & Nestik T.A. (2011). Historical and evolutionary perspective of mankind in the world of diversity: from the conflict paradigm to the tolerance paradigm. National Psychological Journal, 2, 15–25.
Soldatova G.U., Chigarkova S.V., & Rasskazova E.I. (2018).Testing the Russian version of the extended scale of cultural intelligence [Psikhologiya.Zhurnal Vysshey Shkoly Ekonomiki], 15(3), 510–526.
Sternberg J., Forsyth J. B., & Hedlund J. (2002). Practical Intelligence: monograph. St. Petersburg, Piter.
Sternberg J. (1996). Intellect of success: monograph. Minsk, Potpourri.
Sri Ramalu, S., Shamsudin F., & Subramaniam C. (2012). The mediating effect of cultural intelligence on the relationship between openness personality and job performance among expatriates on international assignments. International Business Management, 6, 601–610. doi:10.3923/ibm.2012.601.610
Sternberg R.J., & Detterrnan D. K. (1986). What is intelligence? Contemporary viewpoints on its nature and definition Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Sternberg R.J. (1987). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tay C., Westman M., & Chia, A. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of cultural intelligence among short-term business travelers. In S. Ang (Sr. L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 126–144. New York, NY: Sharpe.
Templer K. J., Tay C., & Chandrasekar N. A. (2006). Motivational cultural intelligence, realistic job preview, realistic living conditions preview, and cross-cultural adjustment. Group & Organization Management, 31, 154–173. doi:10.1177/1059601105275293
Triandis H.C. (1994). Culture and Social Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Trompenaars F. & Hampden-Turner C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture. McGraw-Hill.
Van Dyne L., Ang S., & Koh C. (2008). Development and validation of the CQS: The cultural intelligence scale. In S. Ang& L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 16–38. New York, NY: Sharpe.
Van Dyne L., Ang S., Ng K.-Y., Rockstuhl T., Tan M. L., & Koh C. (2012). Sub-dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence (CQ). Social and Personal Psychology: Compass, 6(4), 295–313. doi:10.1111/j.1751- 9004.2012.00429.x
Ward C., Wilson J., Fisher R. (2011). Assessing the predictive validity of cultural intelligence over time. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 138–142. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.032
Ward C., & Fischer R. (2008). Personality, cultural intelligence, and intercultural adaptation. In S. Ang, & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 159–176. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Ward C., Fischer R., Lam F. S. Z., & Hall L. (2009). The convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of scores on a self-report measure of cultural intelligence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 85–105. doi:10.1177/0013164408322001Wu PeiChuan, Ang S.H. (2011). The Impact of Expatriate Supporting Practices and Cultural Intelligence on Cross Cultural Adjustment and Performance of Expatriates in Singapore. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22, 2683–2702. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.599956
Chigarkova S.V. Soldatova G.U. (2018). Cultural intelligence as a socio-psychological phenomenon: a review of the conception. National Psychological Journal, 4, 27–38.