Background. Classical psychology has considered forgetting as a negative process of failure of memorization and extraction, but did not deem it a separate mental process with specific features. The pioneer studies of intentional forgetting were conducted only in the late 1960s. Therefore, it seems to us relevant to present an analysis of the research methods that have been used to study purposeful forgetting.
The Objective is to analyze thoroughly intentional forgetting in modern cognitive psychology and to justify the assumption that the productive development of intentional forgetting issues should be associated with the priority attention to the regulating function of the mnemonic goal and its structure. A hypothesis lies in the fact that a particular operation of the mnemonic action of forgetting consists in disconnecting the content links between the constituent mnemonic elements made during memorizing process.
Design. Two of the most common experimental procedures for inducing the effect of reducing the reproduction of stimulus material after the "Forget" instruction are described: the item method and the list method. The results show four ways of interpreting the intentional forgetting effect: the aspirations of the subjects to meet the experimenter's expectations, selective encoding and selective processing of the material presented, the mechanism of active "retrieval inhibition" and eliminating the mnemonic trace. The concept of mnemonic action introduced in the works of P.I. Zinchenko and the concept of the mnemonic scheme as a program for the subsequent reproduction of V.Ya. Lyaudis are considered.
The Research Results suggest that when trying to perform an inadequate mnemonic query, the subject is forced to implement an additional operation, which may be attributed to potential forgetting operations. The development of this hypothesis consists in the theoretical description of operations that destroy the existing mnemonic scheme, followed by an empirical test of their amnesogenic effectiveness. Such an approach can be used in further studies of intentional forgetting.
Conclusion. Encoding and processing of mnemonic material, extraction, and the mechanism for inhibited reproduction play a role in shaping the effect of intentional forgetting. Considering the fact that the mnemonic trace can fade over time or for other reasons, forgetting is deemed as a multifaceted process. Prospects for the development of this subject area should be conducted using the mnemonic construct.
Sections: Cognitive Psychology;
Available Online 30.09.2018
Anderson, M.C., & Green, C. (2001) Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control. Nature, 410(6826), 366–369. doi:10.1038/35066572
Anderson, M.C., & Hanslmayr, S. (2014) Neural mechanisms of motivated forgetting. Trends in cognitive sciences, 18(6), 279–292. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.03.002
Anderson, M.C, Reinholz, J., Kuhl, B.A., & Mayr, U. (2011) Intentional suppression of unwanted memories grows more difficult as we age. Psychology & Aging, 26, 397–405. doi: 10.1037/a0022505
Anderson, M.C., & Huddleston, E. (2012) Towards a cognitive and neurobiological model of motivated forgetting. In R. F. Belli (Ed.) True and false recovered memories: Toward a reconciliation of the debate, 53–120. New York, NY: Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1195-6_3
Anderson, M.C., Ochsner, K., Kuhl, B., Cooper, J., Robertson, E., Gabrieli, S. W., Glover, G., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2004) Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science, 303, 232–235. doi:10.1126/science.1089504
Baddeley, A., Eysenck, A.W., & Anderson, M.C. (2009). Memory. Motivated Forgetting. New York: Psychology Press
Basden, B.H. (1996). Directed forgetting: Further comparisons of the item and list methods. Memory, 4(6), 633–654. doi:10.1080/741941000
Basden, B.H., Basden, D.R., & Gargano, G.J. (1993) Directed forgetting in implicit and explicit memory tests: A comparison of methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19. 603–616. doi:10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.113
Benjamin, A.S. (2006). The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 13, 831–836. doi:10.3758/BF03194005
Benoit, R.G., & Anderson, M. C. (2012) Opposing mechanisms support the voluntary forgetting of unwanted memories. Neuron, 76, 450–460. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.07.025
Bergström, Z.M., Fockert de J.W., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (2009) ERP and behavioural evidence for direct suppression of unwanted memories. Neuroimage, 48, 726–737. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.051
Bjork, R. (1972) Theoretical implications of directed forgetting. In A. W. Melton & W. Martin (Eds.) Coding processes in human memory, 217–235. Washington, DC, V. H. Winston & Sons, Inc.
Bjork, R.A., LaBerge, D., & Legrand, R. (1968) The modification of short-term memory through instructions to forget. Psychonomic Science. 10(2), 55–56. doi:10.3758/BF03331404
Bjork, R.A., & Woodward, A. E. (1973) Directed forgetting of individual words in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99(1), 22–27. doi:10.1037/h0034757
Block, R.A. (1971) Effects of instructions to forget in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 1–9. doi:10.1037/h0031190
Catarino, A., Küpper, C.S., Werner-Seidler, A., Dalgleish, T., & Anderson, M. C. (2015) Failing to Forget Inhibitory-Control Deficits Compromise Memory Suppression in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological science, 26(5), 604–16. doi:10.1177/0956797615569889
Challis, B.H., Velichkovsky, B.M., & Craik, F. I. (1996). Levels-of-processing effects on a variety of memory tasks: New findings and theoretical implications. Consciousness and cognition, 5(1–2), 142–164. doi:10.1006/ccog.1996.0009.
Dulaney, C.L., Marks, W., & Link, K.E. (2004). Aging and directed forgetting: Pre-cue encoding and post-cue rehearsal effects. Experimental Aging Research, 30, 95–112. doi:10.1080/03610730490251504
Elmes, D.G., Adams, C.A., & Roediger, H.L. (1970) Cued forgetting in short-term memory: Response selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 103–107. doi:10.1037/h0029989
Epstein, W. (1972) Mechanisms of Directed Forgetting. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 6, 147–191. doi:10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60386-2
Festini, S.B., & Reuter-Lorenz, P.A. (2017). Rehearsal of to-be-remembered items is unnecessary to perform directed forgetting within working memory: Support for an active control mechanism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43(1), 94–108. doi:10.1037/xlm0000308
Fleck, D.E., Berch, D.B., Shear, P.K., & Strakowski, S.M. (2001) Directed forgetting in explicit and implicit memory: the role of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. The Psychological Record, 51, 207–221. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com
Foster, N.L., & Sahakyan, L. (2011) The role of forget-cue salience in list-method directed forgetting. Memory, 19(1), 110–117. doi:10.1080/09658211.2010.537665.
Freud, Z. (1998) Suppression. Basic psychological theories in psychoanalysis. Essay on the history of psychoanalysis: collected papers. St. Petersburg, Aleteya, 108–123.
Gamboa, O.L., Garcia-Campayo, J., Müller, T., & von Wegner, F. (2017) Suppress to forget: The effect of a mindfulness-based strategy during an emotional item-directed forgetting paradigm. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 432. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00432
Gao, H., Cao, B., Zhang, Q., Qi, M., Li, F., & Li, H. (2016) Intending to forget is not easy: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 104, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.03.007
Gardiner, J.M., Gawlik, B., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1994) Maintenance rehearsal affects knowing, not remembering; elaborative rehearsal affects remembering, not knowing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(1), 107–110. doi:10.3758/BF03200764
Geiselman, R.E., & Bagheri, B. (1985) Repetition effects in directed forgetting: Evidence for retrieval inhibition. Memory & Cognition. 13(1), 57-62. doi:10.3758/BF03198444
Golding, J.M., & Gottlob, L.R. (2005) Recall order determines the magnitude of directed forgetting in the within-participants list method. Memory & Cognition, 33, 588–594. doi:10.3758/BF03195326
Hardt, O., Nader, K., & Nadel, L. (2013). Decay happens: the role of active forgetting in memory. Trends in cognitive science,. 17(3), 111–120. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.01.001
Hertel, P.T., & Calcaterra, G. (2005) Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. 12, 484–489. doi: 10.3758/BF03193792
Hupbach, A., Weinberg, J.L., & Shiebler, V.L. (2018) Forget-me, forget-me-not: Evidence for directed forgetting in preschoolers. Cognitive Development, 45, 24-30 .doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.11.002.
Istomina, Z.M. (1953) On the Development of Arbitrary Memory in Preschool Children [Doshkol'noe vospitanie], 4, 33–39.
Lee, Y.S. (2012) Cognitive load hypothesis of item-method directed forgetting. Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 65(6), 1110. doi:10.1080/17470218.2011.644303.
Lee, Y.S., Lee, H.M., & Tsai, S.H. (2007) Effects of post‐cue interval on intentional forgetting. British Journal of Psychology. 98, 257–272. doi:10.1348/000712606X120410.
Lee, Y., & Lee, H. (2011) Divided attention facilitates intentional forgetting: Evidence from item-method directed forgetting. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 618–626. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.008.
Levy, B. J., & Anderson, M.C. (2008) Individual differences in the suppression of unwanted memories: the executive deficit hypothesis. Acta psychological, 127(3), 623–635. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.12.004.
Luria, A.R. (1996) A small book about a great memory (Mnemonic Mind). Romantic essays. Moscow, 240.
Lyaudis, V.Ya. (2011) Memory in the process of development. Moscow; Voronezh, MPSI; MODEK, 287.
MacLeod, C.M. (1989) Directed forgetting affects both direct and indirect tests of memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15(1), 13–21. doi:10.1037/0278-7318.104.22.168.
MacLeod, C.M. (1998). Directed forgetting. In J.M. Golding & C.M. MacLeod (Eds.) Intentional forgetting: Interdisciplinary approaches, 1–57. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Macleod, C.M. (1999). The item and list methods of directed forgetting: Test differences and the role of demand characteristics. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(1), 123–129. doi: 10.3758/BF03210819.
Marks, W., & Dulaney, C.L. (2001) Encoding processes and attentional inhibition in directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1464–1473. doi:10.1037/0278-7322.214.171.1244.
McKinney, L.C., & Woodward, A.E. (2004) Remembering What One Intended to Forget: The Lack of Directed Forgetting Effects in Implicit Memory. The American Journal of Psychology, 117, 169–190. doi:10.2307/4149021.
Murray, B.D., Anderson, M.C., & Kensinger, E. A. (2015) Older Adults Can Suppress Unwanted Memories When Given an Appropriate Strategy. Psychology and Aging. 30(1), 9–25. doi:10.1037/a0038611.
Murray, B.D., Muscatell, K.A., & Kensinger, E.A. (2011) Effects of emotion and age on performance during a think/no-think memory task. Psychology and Aging, 26, 940 –955. doi:10.1037/a0023214.
Nichols, A.L., & Maner, J.K. (2008) The good-subject effect: Investigating participant demand characteristics. The Journal of general psychology, 135, 151–166. doi:10.3200/GENP.135.2.151-166.
Nørby, S., Lange, M., & Larsen, A. (2010). Forgetting to forget: On the duration of voluntary suppression of neutral and emotional memories. Acta psychological, 133(1), 73–80. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.10.002.
Nurkova, V.V., & Gofman, A.A. (2016a) Forgetting: the presence of memory trace, its accessibility and intentional control. Part 1. National Psychological Journal, 3, 64–71. doi: 10.11621/npj.2016.0309
Nurkova, V.V., & Gofman, A.A. (2016b) Forgetting: the problem of the presence of a trace of memory, its accessibility and intentional control. Part 2. National Psychological Journal, 4 (24), 3–13. doi:10.11621/npj.2016.0401
Paller, K.A. (1990). Recall and stem-completion priming have different electrophysiological correlates and are modified differentially by directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 1021–1032. doi:10.1037/0278-73126.96.36.1991.
Roediger, H.L. III, Weinstein, Y., & Agarwal, P.K. (2010) Forgetting: Preliminary considerations. In S. Della Sala (Ed.), Forgetting. 1–22. New York, Psychology Press.
Sahakyan, L., & Foster, N.L. (2009) Intentional forgetting of actions: Comparison of list-method and item-method directed forgetting. Journal of Memory and Language, 61(1), 134–152. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2009.02.006.
Sahakyan, L., Waldum, E. R., Benjamin, A.S., & Bickett, S.P. (2009) Where is the forgetting with list-method directed forgetting in recognition? Memory & cognition, 37, 464–476. doi:10.3758/MC.37.4.464.
Sahakyan, L., & Kelley, C.M. (2002) A contextual change account of the directed forgetting effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(6), 1064–1072. doi:10.1037/0278-73188.8.131.524.
Sereda, G.K. (1984) Theoretical model of memory as a mechanism of system organization of individual experience. Psychology of activity and cognitive processes. [Vestnik Khar'kovskogo universiteta], 253, 10–18.
Smirnov, A.A. (1966) Issues of memory in psychology. Moscow, Prosveshchenie. 422.
Taylor, T.L., Cutmore, L., & Pries, L. (2018) Item-method directed forgetting: Effects at retrieval? Acta Psychologica, 183, 116–123. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.004.
Thompson, K.M., & Taylor, T.L. (2015) Memory instruction interacts with both visual and motoric inhibition of return. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(3), 804–818. doi: 10.3758/s13414-014-0820-2.
Tulving, E., & Thomson, D.M. (1973) Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80(5), 352–373. doi:10.1037/h0020071.
Velichkovsky, B.B. (2009) Possibilities of cognitive training as a method of correcting age-related violations of cognitive control. [Experimental’naya psikhologiya], 2(3), 78–91.
Wheeler, M.A. (1995) Improvement in recall over time without repeated testing: Spontaneous recovery revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 173–184. doi:10.1037/0278-73184.108.40.206
Woodward, Jr., A.E., Bjork, R.A., & Jongeward Jr., R.H. (1973) Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12(6), 608–617. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(73)80040-4.
Zacks, R.T., Radvansky, G., & Hasher, L. (1996) Studies of directed forgetting in older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22(1), 143. doi:10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.11.
Zinchenko, V.P. (2013) Psychology of action. Contribution of the Kharkov Psychological School. [Kulturno-istorichekaya psikhologiya], 1, 92–107.
Zinchenko, P.I. (1961) Involuntary memorization. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo APN RSFSR, 562.Zinchenko, T.P., & Zinchenko, V.P. (2002) Psychology of Memory: manual. Dubna, Mezhdunarodnyy universitet prirody, obschestvava i cheloveka "Dubna", 179.
Nourkova V.V., Gofman A.A. (2018). Intentional Forgetting: Current Status and Future Prospects of Research. National Psychological Journal. 3, 117-128.