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Sobkin V.S., Kalashnikova E.A. (2017). Ideals and anti-ideals students of the basic and senior school. National Psychological Journal. 3, 121-135.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of representations of the ideals and anti-ideals in secondary and high schools students. The study is important due to connection with the peculiarities of modern adolescent socialization in the context of contemporary social cultural realities. Shaping the world view in students is significantly influenced by the choice of values and the social role model. In this regard, the aim of this study was to examine gender and age dynamics of different groups of personalities related to the politics and spiritual culture in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents. Aggravation of the internal and external political situation, politically-oriented media content and society as a whole, the introduction of information technologies in various spheres of life, the «western» background of cultural values and information environment, the shift of sex-role identification has a significant influence on gender-specific and age-specific dynamics and significance of different groups of personalities in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents are based on the data of content analysis and a questionnaire survey of 2,273 students, grades 5-11. The features of the structure of ideals and anti-idials of boys and girls, which are formed under the influence of gender identification are characterized.

The analysis of the students’ groups of ideals and anti-idials is held depending on their belonging to the Russian and foreign cultures.

The students’ representations of the ideals and anti-idials are of a mixed structure, dominated by the personalities of the real people in comparison with the images (characters of works of literature, cinema, cartoons). The sphere of political culture and ideology (politicians, historical figures) that presents male personalities is significant for boys. For girls, besides politics, the literary field (writers and movie actors) is more important, where the proportion of male staff increases substantially when getting on years. Analysis of ideals and anti-idials representation of «male» and «female» characters in the literary and artistic field has allowed to confirm the trend identified in previous studies: getting on years girls more and more build an image of themselves in positive samples, choosing the «female» characters as perfect role model. The «male» characters are often referred by girls among their anti-idials.

Received: 06/30/2017
Accepted: 07/12/2017
Pages: 121-135
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0314

Sections: Personality Psychology;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no27-2017/npj_no27_2017_121-135.pdf

Keywords: ideals; anti-idea; content analysis; modern adolescent; gender specific; age dynamics of higher mental functions; «male» «female» personalities; personalities of domestic and foreign cultures;

Available Online 10.10.2017


Fig. 1 (a, b). The structure of ideals and anti-ideals of students in secondary and high schools (per cent)


Fig. 2a. Age dynamics of the bars in male and female student ideals structure (per cent of the total number of answers in each age group)


Fig. 2b. Age dynamics of the bars in male and female student anti-ideals structure (per cent of the total number of answers in each age group)


Fig. 3. Respondents’ preferences in the personae groups in «Real People» bar in the structure of ideals and anti-ideals in 5th-11th grade students (respondents, per cent)


Fig. 4a. Dynamics of personae group importance in the ideal structure in «Real People» bar in 5th-11th grade male students (respondents, per cent)


Fig. 4b. Dynamics of personae group importance in the ideal structure in «Real People» bar in 5th- 11th grade female students (respondents, per cent)


Fig. 5a. Dynamics of personae group importance in the anti-ideal structure in «Real People» bar in 5th-11th grade male students (respondents, per cent)


Fig. 5b. Dynamics of personae group importance in the anti-ideal structure in «Real People» bar in 5th-11th grade female students (respondents, per cent)


Fig. 6. Group importance in the ideal and anti-ideal structure in «Images» bar in secondary and high school students (respondents. per cent).


Fig. 7а. Differences of the selected groups of «Images» bar in the ideals structure of male and female students (per cent) (Р<.05)


Fig. 7b. Differences of the selected groups of «Images» bar in the anti-ideals structure of male and female students (per cent) (Р<.05)


Fig. 8. Age dynamics of the importance of «Images” bar in the structure of ideals in secondary and high school students (per cent)


Fig. 9. Age dynamics of the importance of «Images” bar in the structure of anti-ideals in secondary and high school students (per cent)


Fig. 10a. The ratio of native and foreign representatives in the dominant groups of «Real People» bar in the ideals of adolescents (per cent)


Fig. 10b. The ratio of native and foreign representatives in the dominant groups of «Real People» bar in theanti- ideals of adolescents (per cent)


Fig. 11a. The ratio of native and foreign representatives in the dominant groups of «Images» bar in the ideals of adolescents (per cent)


Fig. 11b. The ratio of native and foreign representatives in the dominant groups of «Images» bar in the anti-ideals of adolescents (per cent)

Table 1. Distribution of ideals and anti-ideals male and female students in "male" and "female" personae (number of answers, per cent)

Ideals

Total

Males

Females

Р=

Real People Bar

Male Personae

84.2

98.4

69.2

.0000

Female Personae

15.8

2.8

30.8

.0000

Image Bar

Male Personae

79.7

96.7

60.6

.0000

Female Personae

20.3

3.3

38.1

.0000

Anti-Ideals

Total

Males

Females

Р=

Real People Bar

Male Personae

85.7

91.5

79.5

.0000

Female Personae

14.3

8.5

20.5

.0000

Image Bar

Male Personae

86.3

94.0

78.9

.0000

Female Personae

13.7

6.0

21.1

.0000

Table 2.

 

Personae

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Ideals

Gender

5th Grade

7th Grade

11th Grade

Real People

M

97,2

2,8

97,7

2,4

96,8

3,2

F

71,8

28,2

73,2

26,8

76,1

23,9

Images

M

96,7

3,3

95,0

5,0

98,0

2,0

F

60,9

39,1

67,7

26,8

73,8

32,1

Anti-Ideals

Gender

5th Grade

7th Grade

11th Grade

Real People

M

97,0

3,0

90,2

9,8

93,2

6,8

F

79,9

20,1

81,0

19,0

87,2

12,0

Images

M

93,4

6,6

93,1

7,4

86,5

13,5

F

72,4

27,0

83,9

16,1

88,8

11,2

Table 3. «Male» and «female» personae in the dominant groups of the «Real People» bar in the ideals of male and female students in 5th. 7th and 11th grades (per cent)

Gender

Male Student

Female Student

Group

Male

Female

Male

Female

5th Grade

Group Total

97,2

2,8

71,8

28,2

Politicians

100

0,0

100

0,0

Youth Subculture

95,8

4,1

0,0

100,0

Sport

100,0

0,0

–*

Pop Singers

41,0

59,0

7th Grade

Group Total

97,7

2,4

73,2

26,8

Politicians

100

0,0

100

0,0

Youth Subculture

95,8

4,2

38,8

61,2

Sport

100,0

0,0

Pop Singers

56,2

43,8

Film Actors/Actresses

100

0,0

56,7

43,3

Historical Figures

100

0,0

11th Grade

Group Total

96,8

3,2

76,1

23,9

Politicians

100

0,0

100

0,0

Writers

94,1

5,9

Media People

50,0

50,0

Historical Figures

100

0,0

Film Actors/Actresses

51,9

48,1

Academic Figures. Culture Figures. Public Figures

100

0,0

* – the group is not dominant in the structure of ideals.

Table 4. "Male" and "female" personae in the dominant groups of the "Real People" bar in the anti-ideals in male and female students of 5th. 7th and 11th grades (per cent)

Gender

Male Student

Female Student

Group

Male

Female

Male

Female

5th Grade

Group Total

97.0

3.0

79.9

20.1

Politicians

96.7

3.3

92.0

8.0

Youth Subculture

92.5

7.5

59.3

40.7

Sport

100

0.0

–*

Pop Singers

68.5

31.5

7th Grade

Group Total

90.2

9.8

81.0

19.0

Politicians

91.5

8.5

93.8

6.3

Youth Subculture

91.7

8.3

59.4

40.6

Sport

100

0.0

Pop Singers

91.8

8.2

83.3

16.7

11th Grade

Group Total

93.2

6.8

87.2

12.0

Politicians

92.0

8.0

95.2

4.8

Historical Figures

100

0.0

100.0

0.0

* – the group is not dominant in the structure of anti-ideals

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For citing this article:

Sobkin V.S., Kalashnikova E.A. (2017). Ideals and anti-ideals students of the basic and senior school. National Psychological Journal. 3, 121-135.

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