ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
Ru | En
Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Main RSS Search

MainArticlesVolumes

Kaminskaya N.A. (2017). A qualitative research on the psychological means of developing one’s personal image and appearance. National Psychological Journal. 1, 72-83.

Abstract

This paper analyzes the internal mechanisms of the individual positive and negative attitude towards appearance, the description of which is under-represented in the psychological literature. The process of creating a consistent image of the physical «Self» and maintaining a positive emotional evaluation of the body and appearance particularly seen through the idea of assigning the individual components of appearance, committed throughout the whole course of life, and is understood as a specific psychological problem, addressable only in human personality as integrative unity, preserving and maintaining its integrity. The hypothesis of the study made by the assumption that a positive attitude to their external appearance is ensured, actualization processes semantic and symbolic mediation of the physical and expressive features, and on the contrary, a negative attitude toward the appearance indicates the failure of such processes. The following characteristics of body image were considered: emotional assessment and the nature of the work on the body, the internal means of maintaining a positive attitude to their appearance, and also the broader context of personal characteristics, particularly the motivational sphere, psychological defenses, the general harmony, integration of personality structure. Differences were demonstrated between conscious and unconscious relation to the external appearance among the subjects, presented significant correlations between the non-integration of personal organization and the negative attitude towards appearance, and between the presence of supervaluation group needs and the negative assessment by the subjects of their appearance. The subjects who accept their appearance are characterized by a greater representation of mediation systems as the assignment of funds in the structure of the physical image «Self», as compared to subjects not receiving their physical appearance.

Received: 10/23/2016
Accepted: 02/22/2017
Pages: 72-83
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0109

Sections: Personality Psychology;

PDF:

Keywords: physicality; physical «Self»; body image; image of appearance; distortion of body image; body-oriented psychotherapy; assignment; integration; clinical method; qualitative research;

Available Online 30.03.2017

Table 1. – Direct and indirect indicators of subject assessing his/her appearance

Questions

View of One’s Body

Direct Indicators

Indirect Indicators

1.

What do you think about your photos?

Good (good – to good features, bad – to bad features, usually good, mostly good, normal, etc.) (Acceptance)

Bad (not really, not photogenic, do not like the photos, do not like, as it turns out, it is critical to treat, etc.) (Non-Acceptance)

 

2.

Behaviour when taking photos

Poses, changes image for different picturesphotos; keeps free of course (Acceptance)

Keeps embarrassed, awkward; there are protective behavioural reactions (e.g. grimacing, the subject closes herself/himself trying to keep herself/ himself as far as possible, says cues like "I do not know how, show how to stand, how to sit, is it ok? I do not know how to pose. I do not like when I am photographed ", refuses to be photographed or filmed) (Non- Acceptance)

3.

Assess the photos and videos using 10 points scale

Maximum point is 10 (High— Acceptance, Low – Non-Acceptance)

Avoids responding (refuses to view photos, quickly leafs through them without considering estimates of time ("normal photography", "more or less", "ok", etc.), argues that the appearance is not important) (Non- Acceptance)

Table 2. – Direct and indirect indicators that identify subject’s work on his/her appearance

Questions

 

View of One’s Body

Direct Indicators

Indirect Indicators

1.

What do you pay attention to in your appearance most of all?

1. Enumerates using negative evaluation

2. Enumerates using positive evaluation

3. None

Topics: the subject speaks more about the expression; the subject says more about the features of the exterior; the subject says more about the work on the appearance (grooming, neatness, adherence to fashion, etc.)

Avoids responding (ignoring the question; generalization; emphasizing insignificance appearance)

2.

Do you take care of your appearance?

Yes

No

Topics: the subject cares for clothing, plays sports, attends the beautician, etc.

Avoids answering

Underlines insignificance of appearance

3.

Is it important for you to choose clothes?

Yes

Depends on circumstances

No

Features of the subject’s appearance How thoroughly selects clothes

Avoids answering

Underlines insignificance of appearance

Table 3. – Photography and video technique

Subjects

Average rating to estimate the photos

Median value (Photos)

Minimum Rate (Photos)

Maximum Rate (Photos)

Points to assess the video

1.

7,08

7,5

5

8,5

8,5

2.

7,2

7

5

9

9

3.

3,3

4

0

7

1

4.

4

3

2

7

-

5.

7,6

9

3

10

10

6.

5,6

6

3

8

6,5

7.

6,2

7

1

10

9

8.

5

4,5

3

8

8

9.

8,8

8,5

8

10

9

10.

7,5

8

4

10

8

11.

7,08

6,5

6

9,5

6

12.

5,8

5,5

5

7

7

13.

2

2

1

3

3

14.

7,4

7

5

10

10

15.

6,6

6,5

6

8

8

16.

4,8

5

3

6

6

17.

7,8

7

6

10

10

18.

8,58

8,5

8

9,5

8

19.

3,6

4

0

6

2,5

20.

6,58

6,25

4

10

8

21.

5,6

6

4

7

7

22.

5,9

5

2

10

10

23.

6,3

6

6

7

4,5

24.

2

2,5

0

4

3

25.

5,3

6

0

10

0

26.

8,1

8

7

9

-

27.

8,25

8

7

10

8

28.

8

8,25

6,5

9

9

29.

9,3

9,5

8

10

10

30.

4,83

5

3

8

8

Table 4. Subject’s view of his/her body

Unconscious Acceptance, %

Unconscious Non-Acceptance, %

Unconscious Acceptance

Unconscious Non- Acceptance

Unconscious Acceptance

Unconscious Non- Acceptance

26,6

3,3

60

10

Table 5. – The nature of care about appearance in subjects

Work on Body

Group 1, %

Group 2, %

Group 3, %

1

6,6

13,3

0,0

2

20

43,3

6,6

3

0,0

6,6

3,3

(χ² = 9,356, p > 0,05)

Table 6. Comparison of personality structure type and the unconscious accptance of body in the sample tested

Type of Ppersonal Organization

View of Physical Image, %

Acceptance

Non-Acceptance

Integrated

40

13,3

Non-Integrated

6,6

40

(χ² = 36,697, p < 0,01)

Table 7. – The nature of significant needs in subjects characterized by positive and negative attitude to their appearance

Needs

Group 1, %

Group 2, %

Group 3, %

Ambition

3.0

10.0

0.0

Strength

3.0

30.0

10.0

Affection

0.0

20.0

20.0


Information needs

0,0

3,0

0,0

(χ² = 21,958, p < 0,01)

Table 8. – Representation of categories characterizing features of perceiving by the subjects their own and other people's appearance in the sample subgroups

Category

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Mentioning personality traits in appearance

+

-

-

Denying the importance of appearance

-

+

-

Contrasting the appearance and expression

-

+

-

Symbolizing one’s appearance

-

+

+

Positive evaluation of the appearance features possessed by the subject

+

+

-

Comparing one’s own appearance with positive examples

+

+

-

Contrasting one’s own appearance and somebody else’s ones

-

+

-

Criticizing other people’s appearance

-

+

-

Adjusting one’s own appearance with the appearance of others

+

-

-

Criticizing one’s appearance

-

-

+

Indicating one’s positive appearance features/traits and counterbalancing them with negative ones

+

-

-

Avoiding discussing appearance

-

+

+

References:

Andrew, R., Tiggemann, M., & Clark, L. (2016) Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image. Body Image. Vol. 18, 34-42. 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.04.003

Bailey, K.A., & Gammage, K.L. (2015) «It’s all about acceptance»: A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury. Body image. Vol. 15, 24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.04.010

Cash, T.F. (2012) Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. In T.F Cash (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance (334-342). London, UK, and San Diego, CA: Academic Press (Elsevier). doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-384925-0.00054-7

Cash T.F., & Smolak, L. (2011) Body Image: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention. New York: Guilford Press.

Dolto, F. (2006) Unconscious body image. Collected papers. Vol. 16. The unconscious body image. Moscow, ERGO, 376.

Dohnt, H., & Tiggemann, M. (2006) The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology. 42 (5), 929-936. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.929

Dorozhevets, A.N. (1987) Distorted perception of appearance in obese patients. [Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta]. Series 14. Psychology. 1, 21-29.

Dorozhevets, A.N., & Sokolov, E.T. (1991) A study of the image of the physical I: some results and reflections. [Telesnost’ cheloveka: mezhdistsiplinarnyy aspekt]. Ed. V.V. Nikolaev, & P.D. Pishchenko. Moscow, USSR FD, 67-74.

Galperin, P.Ya. (2000) Introduction to Psychology. Moscow, Universitet, 336.

Halliwell, E. (2015) Future directions for positive body image research. Body Image. Vol. 14, 177-189. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.03.003

Janet, P. (2010) Psychological evolution of personality. Moscow, Akademicheskiy Proekt, 400.

Jellinek, R.D., Myers, T.A., & Keller, K.L. (2016) The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls. Body Image. Vol. 18, 78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.05.003

Jongenelis, M.I., Byrne, S.M., & Pettigrew, S. (2014) Self-objectification, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptoms in young Australian children. Body Image. Vol. 11. Iss. 3, 290-302. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.04.002

Khrisanfova, L.A. (2012) The man’s face. Systematic approach. [Litso cheloveka kak sredstvo obshheniya: mezhdistsiplinarnyy podkhod]. Eds. Barabanshchikov, V.A., Demidov, A.A., Diveev, D.A. Moscow, Kogito Tsenter, 115-142.

Labunskaya, V.A. (2005) Being the subject: self-presentation, and relationship to the external I. [Sub’ekt, lichnost’ i psikhologiya chelovecheskogo bytiya]. 235-257.

Labunskaya, V.A. (2012) Aesthetic assessment of human face and the importance of the external appearance of women using various practices of modifying the human look. [Litso cheloveka kak sredstvo obshheniya: mezhdistsiplinarnyy podkhod]. Eds. Barabanshchikov, V.A., Demidov, A.A., Diveev, D.A. Moscow, Kogito Tsenter, 45-56.

Lacan, J. (1997) Mirror stage and its role in shaping the function of I in the form in which it appears to us in the psychoanalytic experience. [Instantsiya bukvy v bessoznatel’nom ili sud’ba razuma posle Freyda]. Moscow, «Logos», 7-14.

Leontiev, D.A. (2004) Thematic Apperception Test. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo «Rech’», 247.

Ramsey, N., & Harcourt, D. (2011) Psychology of appearance. SPb., Piter, 256.

Tarkhanova, P.M. (2014) Research of influencing macro and microsocial factors on the level of physical makeovers and emotional well-being of young people. [Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya]. 1, 89-95.

Shalygina, O.V. & Kholmogorova, A.B. (2015) «Body-oriented approach» of contemporary culture and its implications for the health of children, adolescents and young people. [Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya]. Vol 23. 4, 36-68.

Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2016) Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls. Body Image. Vol. 18,19-22. doi: 0.1016/j.bodyim.2016.04.004

Tatangelo, G., McCabe, M., Mellor, D., & Mealey, A. (2016) A systematic review of body dissatisfaction and sociocultural messages related to the body among preschool children. Body Image. Vol.18, 86-95. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.06.003

For citing this article:

Kaminskaya N.A. (2017). A qualitative research on the psychological means of developing one’s personal image and appearance. National Psychological Journal. 1, 72-83.

About Editorial Board Volumes Authors For Authors Indexing Contacts
CC BY-NC

National Psychological Journal, 2006 - 2022