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Gerasimovic Semyon A., Zakharova Elena I. (2016). Psychological conditions of developing client legal position in lawyer’s practice. National Psychological Journal. 2, 114-123.

Abstract

The paper reports the results of an analysis of opportunities provided by using the tools of practical psychology in lawyer’s practice. The authors distinguish psychological aspects of such legal category as a legal position, and also a variety of client’s psychological conditions that foster its formation. They also describe specific patterns of behaviour of a lawyer and a client which promote establishing and maintaining of a psychological contact and confidential relations between them. The authors show the opportunities to create a client’s orientation in a legal situation, using the methods of active listening. They also present the results of research on the conditions that provide an effective interaction between a lawyer and a client in a course of formation of a legal position.

The results of participant observation of a lawyer-client interaction reveal that the effectiveness of a lawyer’s work on formation a client’s legal position is related to a quality of psychological contact and a credibility of relations between them. One of the indicators of this effectiveness is completeness of client’s orientation in his/her legal situation. They show that the relation between these indexes is mediated by the use of methods of active listening and conversation techniques.

Thus, developing his professional competence by mastering psychological methods of impact on a client, a lawyer can significantly increase his efficiency of rendering a legal aid.

Received: 06/03/2016
Accepted: 06/28/2016
Pages: 114-123
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0211

Sections: Psychology and Law;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no22-2016/npj_no22_2016_114-123.pdf

Keywords: legal position; psychological contac; credibility of the relations; methods of active hearing; methods of conversation; orientation in a legal situation;

Available Online 30.08.2016

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:20332:"<p>
<b>Table 1. </b>Results of the lawyer survey
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td rowspan="2" width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
<b>The wording of the question </b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td colspan="3" width="39%" style="width: 39.76%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Number of Answers, %</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Agree</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Do not agree</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Difficult to answer</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The competence of the lawyer is limited to issues of law, while the client’s excitement and anxiety can be managed without a lawyer
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             3
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             97
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             0
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The lawyer is entitled to evaluate the customer's action in terms of morality and law, and is not obliged to hide neither his pity nor condemnation of client
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             20
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             66
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             14
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             A true professional is not obliged to prepare for a meeting with a new client
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             26
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             69
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             5
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Client location opposite the consultant is more conducive to mutual understanding
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             63
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             23
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             14
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Privacy terms and conditions must be met only by the client consent when he/she has something to hide
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             17
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             80
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             3
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Legal advice is not a place to express emotions, the lawyer and the client needs to keep back their feelings
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             51
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             40
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             9
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Questioning and challenging the client's words the lawyer risks losing his/her confidence
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             60
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             29
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             11
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The discrepancy between the systems of vital client values and those of the lawyer shall result in concealing their true attitudes
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             66
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             17
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             17
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             If the client "throws" to the lawyer his/her problems it is advisablefor the lawyer to stop the "verbal flow" and to structure the conversation
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             80
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             11
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             9
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Pauses in conversation with the client create tension and may point to the incompetence of the lawyer in the legal issues
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             20
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             63
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             17
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             By asking the question to the client the lawyer should build it depending on the nature of response he expects to hear
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             29
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             71
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             0
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The lawyer should not ask the client questions concerning personal issues and find out what feelings he/she experiences in the legal situation
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             34
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             55
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             11
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The interest of the lawyer to the actual circumstances is limited by those facts the client found it possible to mention
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             34
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             63
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             3
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The apparent discrepancy between client words and his/her facial expression is an occasion to clarify the client's true attitude to the problem
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             45
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             23
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             31
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             An experienced professional should not shed his/her responsibility in order to choose an alternative method of solving the problem
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             19
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             62
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             19
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             Since the rare client tells the lawyer the truth all the words of client should be thrown doubt upon
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             50
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             41
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             9
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The lawyer should make every effort to convince the customer to change the erroneous legal position
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             63
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             25
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             12
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 1cm;">
    <td width="60%" style="width: 60.24%; height: 1cm;">
        <p>
             The main task of the lawyer is to tell the client out of the current legal situation
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="11%" style="width: 11.02%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             78
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="15%" style="width: 15.16%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             13
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="13%" style="width: 13.58%; height: 1cm;">
        <p align="center">
             9
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
<b>Table 2. </b>Quality of psychological contact
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 4.85pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p>
<b>Level of Contact </b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Low</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Average</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>High</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Indexes
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             From 4 till 7
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 8 till 17
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 18 till 20
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Cases, %
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             18
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             66
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             16
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
<b>Table 3. </b>Trusting Relationship
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 4.85pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Trust Level</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Absent</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Present</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Indexes
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from -1 till 3
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 4 till 10
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Cases, %
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             22
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             78
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
<b>Table 4. </b>Active listening techniques and the art of conversation
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 4.85pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p>
              
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Low</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Average</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>High</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Indexes
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 3 till 7
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 8 till 18
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 19 till 37
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Cases, %
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             15
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             75
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="25%" style="width: 25%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             10
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
<b>Table 5. </b>Fullness of orientation
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 4.85pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p>
<b>Fullness of orientation </b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Partial</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Full</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Indexes
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             from 2 till 5
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             6
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Cases, %
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             34
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             66
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
<b>Figure 1. </b>Changing the adequacy of the legal position of the client
</p>
<p>
<img width="500" src="/images/articles/2-2016-11--1.gif" height="280"><br>
</p>
<p>
<b>Table 6. </b>Efficiency of lawyer’s job
</p>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="width: 100%;">
<tbody>
<tr style="height: 4.85pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p>
<b>Efficiency of lawyer’s job </b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Absent</b>
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.85pt;">
        <p align="center">
<b>Full</b>
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Changing the legal position of the client
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             Absent
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             Partial or Full
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
<tr style="height: 4.8pt;">
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p>
             Number of Cases, %
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             25
        </p>
    </td>
    <td width="33%" style="width: 33.34%; height: 4.8pt;">
        <p align="center">
             69
        </p>
    </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
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For citing this article:

Gerasimovic Semyon A., Zakharova Elena I. (2016). Psychological conditions of developing client legal position in lawyer’s practice. National Psychological Journal. 2, 114-123.

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