The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping), and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo) and teams (hockey, football, volleyball). Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368) there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495).
The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463), the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220) and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465) are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368).
Available Online: 08/30/2015
The paper provides an overview of work engagement and workaholism, and also the current research. Work engagement differs from workaholism as a psychological phenomenon, but both concepts are closely connected with each other. The scientific research of the phenomena mentioned above began only in 1970, when Oates published his first book called “On being a “workaholic”. Each employee has to find balance between private life and work to get utmost job satisfaction, and to perform his/her job responsibilities productively. Work engaged staff have higher levels of subjective comfort and psychological well-being, without any experience of occupational deteriorations. In modern psychology, there is no prescription for perfect recipe of finding balance between work and family that entails different angles of considering work engagement and workaholism, their causes and prevention mechanisms. On the other hand, the impact of excessive work engagement may be one of the reasons of developing negative human functional states that plays a moderating role in the transit stage from work engagement to workaholism. Schaufeli discribed work engagement as a positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that can be characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Workaholism is a multidimensional construct, which can be linked to both positive and negative outcomes. At the contemporary stage of scientific development a lot of difficulties in studying workaholism and work engagement could be analyzed, e.g. there are no adopted Russian diagnostics instruments to assess workaholism and its manifastations. Thus, further research should be devoted to the issues of choosing proper research instruments in order to obtain clear and reliable results.