ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
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Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Längle Alfried

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Alfried Längle (2019). Consent to addiction. Existential Analytical Approach. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (12)3, 47–59

Background. Today, the problem of addiction is very relevant. Addicted persons may act against themselves, often becoming an enemy to themselves. Therefore, it is very important to develop effective psychotherapeutic methods of working with addiction. There are different models of working with addiction, but this problem has not yet been resolved.

The Objective is to present an existential-analytical approach to the therapeutic work with addiction.

Design. Addiction is deemed as an obstacle to Person-Being. This extremely strong mental need regularly makes free will obey it. The Will submits and plays along. It brings a person relief. The problem is in the fact that the Will acts against its own Person-Being, i.e. the person acts against himself. A person falls into a state of selfdestruction. In order to get out of this self-destructive state, a systematic correlation with one’s own Person is proposed, in order to strengthen relations with it and gradually begin to live a fulfilled life. In contrast to the behavioural model, where the stimulus immediately causes a reaction within the method developed in the framework of the existential-analytical approach, another model is established, that implies that an attempt is made to interpose the Self as Person between the stimulus and the reaction, due to which it is activated, which leads to a psychotherapeutic result.

Results. The main stages of the implementation of this model in psychotherapeutic work with addiction are considered. The exercises and methods for outlining the personal strengths of an addicted person are described, starting with the adoption of addiction, so as to try to provide the Person with more freedom of action and overcome the addiction.

Conclusion. This paper can contribute to the development of a personal and existential view of an addicted person.

Received: 08/11/2019

Accepted: 08/26/2019

Pages: 47-59

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0306

Keywords: addiction; will; freedom; self-­acceptance; existential-analytical approach; addiction;

By: Längle Alfried;

Available Online: 10/20/2019

Längle Alfried (2018). Psychotherapeutic work with hope in the existential analytical paradigm. National Psychological Journal, 1, 16-22

Introduction. Without hope, there is no motivation, no desire to live, suffering becomes stronger, and there are less chances for recovery. Hope plays a major role in treating a patient both mentally and physically.

The Objective of the study is to find answers to the most important questions concerning the gist of the notion of "hope": What is hope? What can we do to help hope live?

Procedure. The author believes that hope is more than just a feeling; he regards it as an existential act. Our activity is in the fact that we remain active, we take a firm position that will not shatter when one is unhappy, miserable, suffering fron a disease, or being institutiolisedia, etc. The ontological approach shows that hope means something that has not happened yet cannot be to exclude, i.e. hope is not self-deception and not a defense mechanism, it gives a chance to whatever events to happen. The following issues are revealed: the connection of hope with the attitude to the values of life, hope as a meaningful concept and deals with transcendence, the opposite of hope resignation (rejecting value, giving the things the free rein, losing ties with the events happening) causes desperation and despair. The so-called “false hope” is also highlighted, its positive and negative sides are shown and tips how to treat it correctly are given.

Conclusion. Hope means treating something as valuable. Hope is realistic as the forthcoming future can never be predetermined entirely. Hope is paradoxical: it makes you do something where nothing can be done. Therefore, hope has great potential for resilience. False hope is regarded as a defense reaction of the human psyche, but since it performs a certain function in this way, you should not simply take it away from a person. Where there is hope, there is meaning, hopelessness means loss of meaning.

Received: 11/10/2018

Accepted: 12/08/2018

Pages: 16-22

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0102

Keywords: psychotherapeutic practice; existential analysis; phenomenon of hope; values; analysis of social values; resignation;

By: Längle Alfried;

Available Online: 01/30/2019

Längle A. (2016). Why do we suffer? Understanding, treatment and processing of suffering in terms of existential analysis. National Psychological Journal. 4, 23-33.

The paper describes the existential analytical model within which the content of suffering is denoted and structured. The model shows that we suffer from when we suffer. Suffering is diverse in its «how» and «why.» The author highlights the features of various forms of suffering in accordance with their classification in the existential-analytical anthropology and reveals the essence of suffering. Within the framework of existential analysis there is an assumption that experience is perceived as fulfilling with suffering when the fundamental structures of existence are threatened or damaged, and the features of the contents of these structures are considered. Significant attention is paid to the ratio of human suffering and the loss of human sense of life, what is behind the feeling of senselessness of suffering. Suffering and pain fully or partly represent a threat to our very life and throw into question human lust for life. To avoid this, it is necessary to appeal to the vast opportunities of a person, and drawing strength from its sources to meet adequately the destructive factors and the abyss of existence. 

The paper considers the issue of activity which enables stepwise treatment of suffering. The model of stepwise coping with suffering is proposed. It helps to overcome the stagnation in the condition of suffering and returns to the world and life. Practical steps are suggested. These steps are applicable for all forms of suffering. They lay the basis for gaining inner peace. So we can target our efforts over the suffering and prevent the occurrence of mental illness (e.g., depression, hysteria, addiction, PTSD, etc.).

Received: 08/20/2016

Accepted: 10/14/2016

Pages: 23-33

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0403

Keywords: existential analysis; fundamental motivations; logotherapy; suffering; pain;

By: Längle Alfried;

Available Online: 12/30/2016

Längle A. (2015). Existential analytic understanding of emotion: theory and practice. National psychological journal. 1 (17), 26-38.

The paper gives a brief introduction to existential analysis (EA). It briefly describes how to develop this phenomenological approach and its main provisions. The emotion is deemed as a specific perception of a meaningful life. Emotionality plays a significant role in the existential analysis of anthropology and practice. The former one is the cornerstone of existence, and takes its place among the other three measurements in the existential theory of the EA.

The paper presents a phenomenological description of the four-step process of the emotion emergence. It shows how during this process vitality is stimulated, so emotions are important to humans. This is an existential analytic theory of emotions, which explains the importance of the EA practice of affection feeling (fühlen) and intuitive feeling (sense, i.e. spüren). The first is related to human life and the need for the detection values, the second one is related to the authenticity and ethics. In this pater, we consider the difference between the affect and the emotion. In the last three paragraphss theyform of emotional dysfunction is fiscribed, some of the studies in this area and the main elements of emotional and affective therapy.

Received: 08/20/2014

Accepted: 10/14/2014

Pages: 26-38

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0104

Keywords: existential analysis; theory of emotions; emotional sphere; affectability; variableness; life integrity;

By: Längle Alfried;

Available Online: 03/30/2015


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