Background. The paper is devoted to the development of a new approach to the study of a person's well/ill-being. Changes in economy, politics and geopolitics, social sphere in Russia and the entire world have resulted in emerging features of modern life that significantly affect the well-being of a person. In this regard, psychology interest in this issue is rising. In Western psychology, two theoretical constructs of "subjective well-being" and "psychological well-being" are clearly differentiated, and the toolkit to correspond each construct is created. However, in the national psychological science, there is a variety of terms with borrowed foreign psychodiagnostical tools.
The Objective of this research is to develop a concept of emotional well-being of a person based on the integration of existing foreign and national psychology approaches to the study of well-being within a new theoretical construct and structural model, and also transforming the models in the research tool and its empirical verification.
The paper considers emotional well-being of a person as an entire existential condition of harmony between the inner and outer world, initiated throughout the living process, activity and communication of a human.
Design. Conducting a pilot study based on the sample of 117 subjects and the analysis of reference literature allowed to build the theoretical construct of "emotional well-being of a person" that includes nine parameters: the three of them include the positive emotional component of well-being, other three ones include positive personal component of well-being, and three components indicate ill-being. These parameters lie in the basis of the research methods for self-evaluation of emotional well-being" (SEEWB) carried out using the sample of 2,229 subjects.
Conclusion. The cluster analysis identified and described groups of respondents in terms of self-evaluation of emotional well-being. The results obtained can be used both in research and in practical activities of a psychologist for diagnosing and optimizing the level of emotional and personal well-being.
DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0206
Available Online: 01.08.2018
Background. The functionability of the social worker, their professional competencies and the quality of interpersonal contact with the client create the background for analyzing the helping relationships as a main factor of efficacy of psychological help.
The Objective of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon of «helping relationships» in social work. The phenomenon of “helping” lies in the basis of helping relationships. “Helping” means finding a joint solution of certain problem of the client and the development of their social competencies. Client requests are given in brief, they include the provision of certain services and support/guidance in difficult life situations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the pioneering works in the field of helping relationships, e.g. F.Biestek, H.Perlman, R.Weiss, etc. Helping relationships are viewed through the categories of communication, interaction, working alliance, form, connection. The key components of a helping relationship are reciprocity, feelings, knowledge, reality, interest, goals, impartiality, ability to offer something new and facilitation. Helping relationships are always associated with changes in both the social worker and their client. Helping relationship in the practice of social work developed for a specific purpose and terminate when the goal is achieved. Helping relationship differ from other types of interpersonal relationships. Care for the client system, expectations, empathy and clear communication, authenticity of experiences and acceptance, authority are important factors in the development of helping relationship. The main stages of helping relationship in the practice of social work are considered: the initial stage, research and evaluation, problem solving and completion.
Research Results. Despite a significant role that helping relationship plays in social work, there are still the issues that require further study, e.g. distinction of helping relationship and therapeutic relationship, expert competence, capablity of building mutual assistance and describing the quality of mutual assistance.
Conclusion. Helping relationship is a long-term relation within the framework of professionally assigned roles and statuses related to the support and assistance to a person in their development and social adjustment, incentivizing individual changes and preserving or restoring their psychological and social well-being. Building and developing mutual assistance is possible only within the relatuins based on empathic understanding, respect, positive feedback, authenticity, congruence, immediacy and warm feelings towards the client.
Background. At different stages of the development of the society, the principles that lie in the basis of rehabilitation programs and are justified by experts of various fields are changing. The opportunities that modern society possesses, the resources that it is ready to spend to solve a wide range of rehabilitation problems, are transformed, evolve and require scientific reflection.
The Objective is to discuss modern principles of rehabilitation and social integration of mentally disturbed individuals.
Design. The role of the subject of the rehabilitation program and the role of society in implementing the programs are discussed. The principle of general and targeted rehabilitation work is justified, the principle of continuity and increasing specificity of psychological assistance, the principle of the subject's own activity are identified.
Research results. The need to address not only the conscious motivation of the subject, but also the consideration of unconscious motives for participation in rehabilitation activities and in maintaining health is disclosed. The fixed notion of norm as the ideal and the difficulty of changing stereotypes towards a mentally disturbed person are discussed.Conclusion. On the one hand, rehabilitation of a mental patients should be based on the developed and appropriately maintained personality orientation, the ability to take partial responsibility for mental condition and development. On the other hand, the patient needs societal support, preparedness of society to integrate into an active social life and to change the established stereotypes.
Background. Victor Frankl developed two methods based on the fundamental (spiritual) ability to self-distraction and self-transcendence, i.e. paradoxical intention and dereflection. Further development and extension of the concepts Person and Existence in the framework of existential analysis by Alfried Längle allowed to expand the scientific basis for the creation of new therapeutic interventions and their methodological description. It seems very relevant to present in the paper the analysis of the logotherapeutic and existential analytical psychotherapeutic methods that exist at the present moment.
The Objective of this paper is to give an overview of the logotherapy methods (LT) and existential analysis (EA), and to try and explain why they work. Also the author tries to clarify the logic of existential -analytical methods in correlation with EA anthropology and methodology.
Design. The review of the LT and EA methods is presented here as they are currently used in psychotherapeutic practice and are taught as part of the training program on psychotherapy and counseling of the International Society for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (GLE-International). The explanation of how the methods of logotherapy and existential analysis operate are done by correlating the EA methods in the first part of the paper with its anthropological concept, and in the second part - with the level (or extension) of the disturbance influenced by the method used and the psychotherapeutic work accordingly.
Results. Three different levels or layers of LT and EA methods distinguished from each other by the principles of psychotherapeutic work are characterized. The first two levels are the area of action of short-term therapy including counseling on the one hand, and process-oriented therapeutic procedures, on the other hand. The third level developing the process of developing a personal dialogue is aimed at the Person concept. Being the nucleus of EA, Personal Existential Analysis (PEA) is considered to be an intra- or interpersonal dialogical process through which a person claims himself/herself through a decisive occupation of a position, being faced with a certain situation. The therapeutic method of PEA (introductory part, 3 steps including all stages) is described.
Conclusion. The methods described provide the therapist with an array of various interventions aimed at activating the patient. Interventions are designed to help the patient find themselves in an existential relationship, gain their own voice, give their strength, help them find a description and give expression to new, better ways of being.
Background. Developing criteria for distinguishing between normal and abnormal personality is one of the most important fundamental scientific problems of psychology. However, today it does not have a satisfactory explanation.
The main Objective of this paper is to propose a new criterion to identify normal and abnormal personality that refers to the works of Erich Fromm.
The methodological and theoretical analysis of E. Fromm's ideas of productive and non-productive personality was carried out.
Based on the analysis of Fromm’s accounts an existential criterion for identifying normal and abnormal personality is proposed.
Conclusion. According to this criterion, firstly normal and abnormal personalities can be identified by special features of their position regarding existential dichotomies, secondly they include particular aspects of acquiring this position. Such dichotomies are inherent, bilateral discrepancies. The position of a normal personality pre-determinates certain existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is actively developed by a person taking into account the rational approach. The position of an abnormal personality is to deny a contradicting predetermination of inherent in existential dichotomies and leads a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and eventually single way where self-determination is not taken into account. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality is deemed as one of the most important factors that influence the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders (e.g. neurosis).
The references are made to empirical studies, which show that the existential criterion can be successfully used to diagnose normal and abnormal personality and to identify the causes of many psychological problems in humans.
Background. The issue of preventing antisocial behavior in the juvenile is relevant nowadays as delinquent, unlawful behaviour in children and adolescents is a powerful risk factor of asocial development of the personality on the whole, and also the factor that negatively affects their entire future.
The Objective is to analyze the causes and consequences of the asocial development in children and adolescents, to consider theoretical studies devoted to the prevention of antisocial behaviour and juvenile delinquency, neglected and homeless children and adolescents, and their rehabilitation and resocialization.
Design. The paper studies the issue of adolescent aggression in modern Russian society. The paper recites a wide range of foreign and Russian research, analyses regulatory and legal documents and regional practices, and also employs the data of the author’s survey of Russian adolescents conducted in 2017.
Research results. Family reshaping in terms of psychology and relationship between family members have a direct effect on deviant or antisocial behaviour in adolescents. A significant negative correlation between the school climate and the aggressiveness of schoolchildren was revealed. High positive intercorrelations within the indicators of the school climate were found to be high: school safety and teacher-student relations. Children who are not involved in bullying, assess the climate and school safety significantly higher than the children who are bullied. This pattern is typical for all participants in the persecution, regardless of their role, i.e. the victim, the aggressor or the observer.
Conclusion. Based on the data reviewed, the recommendations given can be taken into account when establishing the state policy on preventing antisocial behaviour and the aggression in the juvenile. The significance of the joint school and family measures that can be an effective tool for preventing teenage aggression is drawn special attention to.
Background. Legal regulation of psychological assistance in the Russian Federation is currently being implemented only by the departmental acts, and is legislatively regulated by the subject of the Russian Federation in the city of Moscow. Such legislative regulation may be found not sufficient, since existing acts do not provide a standard regulatory definition of psychological assistance, neither they define the principles and forms of rendering this assistance. Also they can hardly arrange and classify certain types of psychological activity, which results in mutually contradicting nature.
In addition, there is a need for a standard definition not only of psychological assistance, but also of psychological activity as a complex of various types of activity carried out by psychologists, and also a standard definition of the profession of a psychologist and qualification requirements including principles of psychological activity.
Objective. The objective is to prove the existing need of adopting a new federal law on psychological counselling, finding gaps in legal regulation of phychological sphere.
Research Progress. The paper analyzes the reason for accepting a new federal law on psychological counselling and the societal need in such legislation and also main provisions of the new law.
Hypothesis. The research resulted in the need for passing a federal law on psychological counselling.
Conclusion. There is a public demand for a new federal law on psychological counselling and such law will certainly create a lot of benefits for the population. It will be a tool for psychological counseling that will put the profession of a psychologist into the statute, and will clearly define types of psychological activity and set principles that the psychologist should follow.
Practical Application. The research results can be used while drafting and passing the new federal law on psychological counselling and executive regulatory acts.
Background. Currently there is a need to adopt a special federal law that covers psychological counselling of the population. The lack of such law is preventing use of uniformed terminology across the country and separating governmental and non-governmental psychological counselling rendered. Such gap also does not correspond with the interests of the clients that counselling is focused on since the experts who are allowed to extend those services are undetermined and undefined.
Objective The paper is directed at analyzing the status quo of legal regulation of the psychological counselling, finding gaps in such regulation and proving the need in a special federal law.
Research Progress. The paper takes an account of the current state of regulation of psychological counselling in the Russian Federation and foreign countries using the comparative legal analysis approach.The research resulted in a finding that there is the need in a special federal law on psychological counselling.
Conclusion. Special federal law on psychological counselling of the population is necessary to elaborate and eventually to implement for uniformity in counselling and in social work services, and also to protect the rights and interests of those who seek councelling, as well as determining the qualifications of those to render such services.
Practical Application. The research results can be used while drafting and passing a special federal law on psychological counselling and executive regulatory acts.
Background. Based on the analysis of literary plots and consulting practice the paper identifies the ways of overcoming the "problem of success" and innovative activity by managers and executives.
Objective. The hypothesis of the research can be presented in the following way: efficient innovative activity, overall effectiveness of the manager causes a contradictory attitude to the success achieved. Being aware that success is largely ensured by creating and implementing innovations, and sometimes being unaware of the commitment to avoid losing the goal, the manager falls into one of two ways. He/she either involuntarily seeks to keep the aim of the activity simultaneously with the desire to achieve it, or he/she is looking for opportunities to set new goals based on the one that has already been achieved or opposed to it. Since the goal of achieving greater efficiency is almost always associated with innovations, it is assumed that in the leader’s relation to innovations one can judge how the leader overcomes the "problem of success" and how much he/she is aware of it.
Research Progress. The total sample consisted of 115 participants (including 78 males, 37 females), middle-level managers, aged 32 to 51. 14 experts participated in the research. Based on expert interviews, the respondents were divided into two groups: more successful and more innovative managers were performed by 63 participants; less successful and less innovative managers were performed by 52 participants.
The research methods were the author's questionnaire and interview.
Research Results. Based on the difference analysis between the two groups of managers statistically significant answers differ in 79 per cent in the pairs of participants.
Conclusion. The conclusion is based on the fact that for the leaders who are quite successful in innovative activity a characteristic feature of experiencing success and moving towards new goals was the way whose key features were depicted by E. Hemingway in his literary works. The practical significance of the research is that the revealed signs of the efficient experience of success can become a subject of special awareness for managers who are stuck on the problem of success in one of two scenarios poorly realized by the subject of management activity.
Background. The successful socialization and personal development of the individual are directly related to the processes of creating an adequate social picture of the world, which is promoted by attributive processes.
The Objective of the research was an empirical test of the religious impact on the choice of attribution in the representatives of the Muslims and Orthodox Christians. The tasks of identifying the peculiarities of attributive processes in Orthodox Christians and Muslims in solving problems with a different level of complexity in a group are discussed.
Progress Report. Two groups of Orthodox Christians and Muslims were invited to participate in the research. The main empirical part was preceded by the pilot research, whose aim was to obtain an array of possible options of attribution in the groups of Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Based on the results of the pilot research a questionnaire was created, it reflects the opinions of the group members and is supplemented by the author's versions.
After the approbation stage, the main stage of the research was carried out that is aimed at revealing the peculiarities of attributive processes in Orthodox Christians and Muslims in solving problems with a different level of complexity in a group discussion.
Research Results. The results showed that the representatives of the confessions under consideration are similar in using dispositional interpretations of the keys to success and reasons for failure, i.e. the internal attribution processes do not differ between Orthodox Christians and Muslims. In addition, differences in the attribution of both group success and failure, and also individual success and failure in the representatives of the two confessions in solving problems of varying degrees of complexity were revealed.
Conclusion. Religious macrofactor performed by traditional patterns of behaviour is less significant in comparison with the classical attributive processes being the results of group dynamic processes.
Background. The paper highlights the necessity of studying the role of various high-level psychological mechanisms that participate in regulating sensory perceptual processes occurring under perceptual uncertainty.
Objective. The objective was to study the role of cognitive styles as crucial factors of individual differences that determine the performance of near-threshold and threshold sensory tasks on loudness discrimination.
Design. The tasks represented the discrimination of loudness of 1000Hz tonal signals in the ‘similar-different’ paradigm. The stimulus factor was presented by the difficulty level set by the value of difference between the stimuli (2 or 1 dB). Five cognitive styles (augmenting-reducing, leveling-sharpening, flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control, equivalence range, and focusing-scanning) were considered as factors of individual differences. The sensitivity index A‵, RT and its stability, and also confidence index for each task were analyzed.
Results. The significant and quasi-significant (0.05<p<0.1) effects of separate cognitive styles and also their interactions effects were identified. These effects varied depending on the task difficulty level. Cognitive styles ‘augmenting-reducing’ (p=0.008) and ‘leveling-sharpening’ (p=0.044), together with their interaction (p=0.042), affected sensitivity in threshold task; the interaction of these styles affected sensitivity in near-threshold task (p=0.047). ‘Flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control’ (p=0.042) as well as the interaction of ‘augmenting-reducing’ and ‘leveling-sharpening’ affected RT (p=0.073) and its stability (p=0.083). Subjective confidence in the near-threshold task depended on such cognitive styles as ‘flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control' (p=0.081), and ‘equivalence range’ (p=0.043); the threshold task depended on ‘focusing-scanning’ (p=0.021), ‘flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control' (p=0.071), and ‘equivalence range’ (p=0.018), alongside the interaction of the latter two (p=0.052). The results were compared to the ones of threshold and near-threshold visual signal detection tasks performance.
Conclusion. Being crucial situational determinants of solving sensory tasks under perceptual uncertainty, the type and difficulty level of the task mediate the effects of individual differences factors on sensory performance indices. The results are discussed within the framework of system activity approach in psychophysics.
Background. The paper presents the review of the research devoted to functional asymmetry of auditory perception in dichotic listening. The practical application problem of dichotic listening for researching other cognitive functions (attention, executive functions) is considered. The influence of different variables on the results of dichotic listening is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to memory, as it can ‘distort’ the indices of functional asymmetry of auditory perception.
The Objective is to study the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening.
Progress Report. 4 variants of word dichotic listening test were used, in which variables determining the degree of memory influence on the result (the instruction and the number of dichotic pairs in series) is ranged. Laterality index (LI), accuracy scores: total (AS), right-ear (RAS), left-ear (LAS); efficiency score (ES) were calculated. The research involved 80 healthy people aged 18 to 63 years divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 people, and 7 patients with blood stroke aged 25 to 75 years.
Research Results. It was shown that the wording of the instructions (participants were instructed to report all the words they had heard or the words they had heard most clearly) does not have any influence on the results of dichotic listening, the number of dichotic pairs in series (1 or 4) has an influence (comparing by LI U=227 , р<0,05; by AS U=0, р<0,05; by RAS U=2, p<0,05; by LAS U=0, р<0,05; by ES U=174,5, р<0,05). When the variant with 1 dichotic pair in series was presented, high accuracy scores and high efficiency score were noted; laterality index was approaching zero. This variant cannot be used to assess the functional asymmetry of auditory perception in healthy people and in participants who suffered a stroke.
Conclusion. In order to control the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening can be used modified variant with 1 dichotic pair in series. But it is necessary to increase the complexity of the task that is offered to the participants. The authors consider that the presentation of fused words is possible. The stimuli presented to different auditory channels simultaneously should merge into a single perception unit.
Background. The widely discussed issue of developing creative thinking in childhood is the massive decline in creativity in many children in countries according to Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The methodological restrictions of the test approach and descriptive methods make it difficult to find an answer to the question of different aspects of creativity development in childhood, so this problem does not receive sufficient consideration in modern developmental psychology.
The Objective of the theoretical and analytical research is to study the status quo and modern approaches to the issue of child's creative thinking, to substantiate the methodology of the "gradual development" trend that reveals the line of functional development of logical and creative actions in the development of human psyche, the discussion of applied issues related to overcoming the crisis situations when dealing with creativity in modern children.
Design. The theoretical-analytical research consistently substantiates the methodology of "gradual development" as a system of objective requirements for the mental process ("ideal form") and conditions ensuring the fulfillment of these requirements (appropriation of the tool of activity in the orienting function); the idea of functional development of the child's psyche is revealed. The restrictions of the psychometric test method in resolving the problem of creativity development in children throughout the 20th century and at the present time are discussed.
Research Results. The analysis of the "gradual development" methodology showed how the conditions for mediation and growth of productivity indicators in the solution of the divergent tasks of the Picture Construction Test (Torrance, 1966) in preschool children is approaching the pre-established "ideal form". In the course of the task management, the qualitatively different types of child behaviour of enhancing the properties of their actions are identified: proactivity, reflexivity, control. The results showed that qualitative discrepancies in the productivity types of solving various tasks by preschool children are significantly associated with their intellectual level.
Conclusion. The prospects of the functional and age development of the child's psyche is shown to explore the theoretical and applied problems of the development of creative thinking in ontogeny. The application of the P.Ya. Galperin’s concept of orientation to non-standard (divergent) problems allowed to consider the most renowned tests of creative talent proposed by E.P. Torrance in identifying the creative potential of a normally developing child.
artistic and creative giftedness;
Galperin`s method of mental actions development;
functional and age-related development of child's mind;
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. Early career choice is a developmental task at the adolescent age (D.B. Elkonin, I.S. Kon, D.I. Feldstein). Diversified educational system in Russia makes it objectively possible to implement various trajectories of professional development in the transition from childhood to adulthood (L.A. Golovei, O.A. Karabanova, N.S. Pryazhnikov). The paper is devoted to the study of parental involvement in career choice in the context of the modernization of the Russian educational system. The scheme of Personal Career Plan (PCP) is a substantive procedural model of career choice (N.S. Pryazhnikov). The adolescent PCP development is studied as a process that is realized through the interaction between the adolescents and their parents and is understood as the co-adjustment process (G.V. Burmenskaya) of the efforts of adolescent and parents in solving the task of building the PCP. The collaboration of parents and adolescents is determined by child-parent relationship (CPR), development of personal autonomy, autonomy of adolescent in CPR. There is lack of research devoted to the study of parent-child relationship at the stage of the career choice, types of parental involvement in the adolescent’s PCP g.
Objective. The objective of the research is to study the correlation between parental involvement in career choice by adolescents and emotional autonomy in CPR in adolescence (according to adolescents).
Design. The paper presents the results of the authors’ empirical research parental involvement (according to adolescents). The study was conducted in 2016-2017 and represents a part of a broader research of the conditions and factors for PCP in the Russian adolescents. The sample included 167 adolescents of Moscow high schools from 14 to 18 y.o. The techniques included modified “Parent Career Behavior Checklist” (Keller, Whiston, 2008), and modified “Emotional Autonomy scale” (EAS) (Steinberg, 1986) (author’s adaptation).
Findings. The obtained data allowed to conclude that the parental involvement in career choice is quite possible. Five groups of adolescents with different level of parental (mothers’ and fathers’) support in career choice (according to adolescents) were distinguished. The results confirm the correlation of adolescent’s emotional autonomy in CPR and the features of parental involvement in career choice (acoording to adolescents).
Conclusion. The hypothesis of the correlation of the parental involvement and the emotional autonomy in CPR was confirmed. The nonlinear character of the relationship between parental involvement and emotional autonomy of adolescents in the CPR has been revealed.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The research of the student attitude to the system of supplementary education is of paramount importance as it is the system of supplementary education where the adolescent tries to implement specific "cultural tests" that allow him/her to obtain an inverse social reaction regarding his/her personal success (success as a subject of activity).
The Objectives of the research are as follows: 1. Determining the influence of age, social demographic factors on the involvement of adolescents in the system of supplementary education is the objective of the research. 2. Defining the motives determining the occupations of students of the secondary and high schools in the circles, studios, sections. 3. Studying the influence of the student involement in the system of supplementary education on their studies.
Research Progress. The paper presents the results of the research carried out by the Center for the Sociology of Education of the IEM RAE in October-November, 2017. The sample includes 11,803 school students of 7-11th grades of the Leningrad region, Russia. Questions concerning the student involvement in the system of supplementary education, paid vs free school classes in various circles, studios, sections, preferences of certain areas of supplementary education, variety of motives that make students get interested in different types of extra classes are discussed. The influence of extra classes on the studying activities (academic success, student status in the classroom, peculiarities of motives involved).
Research Results. In the system of supplementary education, every second student of the secondary and high school is engaged. The educational status and financial position of the student's parents influence his/her involvement in the system of supplementary education. The influence of macro-indicators (settlement factor) is marked as preference in the field of studies and also within the payment strategy of the educational services provided. Among the main motives for attending classes there are the following ones: broadening the horizons, assessing the abilities and opportunities.
Conclusion. The most important motive that causes adolescent interest in various types of jobs and occupations in the system of supplementary education is to catch up with the lack of knowledge obtained in school. The student’s involvement in the system of supplementary education also sets a positive vector for his/her development as subject of the studying activity.
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The issue of secondary failures in adopting children without parental care requires more attention to the preliminary psychological work with candidates for adoptive parents, in particular, to assessing motivation for child adoption. The paper examines the possible risks and limitations of the diagnostic approach associated with "functional" and "dysfunctional" motives, justifies the advantages of targeting the tasks of accompanying and counseling families.
The Objective of the paper is to describe a new method for studying the expectations and attitudes of parents based on the technique of repertory grids, identifying empirically valid criteria for interpreting the results and demonstrating the application methods on the case analysis.
Research Progress. Parents from 20 families with adopted children and parents from 18 families from the control group filled in the rank repertory grids and assessed children's photographs, and also members of their family according to certain constructs. The grids were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.
Research Results. The data are presented on the distribution of quantitative indices (indicators of the complexity of correlation links, relevance of constructs to the issue of child adoption, predominance of dissimilar categories of constructs), with lower and upper quartiles to groups the subjects according to high and low indices. Based on the case analysis, a holistic approach to interpretation is illustrated, combining the evaluation of quantitative characteristics and qualitative data analysis.
Conclusion. Using the technique of repertory grids allows to assess the parent dominant expectations of interacting with the child, their flexibility, relevance and control of experiences related to child's adoption, and also the existence of distorted attitudes toward existing children. The interview form allows to use the method for joint targets of problem-oriented therapy, clarifies realistic expectations and percieved decision-making.
Background. Connected with the changes that have taken place in the labour market in the last decades, psychologists are faced with the scientific and practical task of improving vocational guidance work with high school students using new programs to develop their personal and professional identity.
Objective. Based on the epigenetic theory of development the objective is to generalize and systematize the theoretical and empirical studies of personal and professional identity in adolescents aged 15–16, establish new empirical facts, verify the results already obtained and develop practical recommendations for improving vocational guidance counseling for high school students.
Design. Some features of the relationship between personal and professional identity of high school students aged 15–16 were studied. First of all, the relationship of personal identity with age was studied. In the course of the research, such methods as studying personal identity of D. Marcia modified by V.R. Orestova and O.A. Karabanova and methods of professional identity of A.A. Azbel and A.G. Gretsov were used. The methods were disseminated among 158 respondents, and the questionnaires filled by 132 respondents turned out to be suitable for processing.
Research Results. Several hypotheses were put forward: 1. The level of personal identity development is significantly associated with the age of high school students. 16-year-old 10th-graders outnumber 15-year-old 9th-graders. Between the age groups, significant differences were identified (p = 0.048), so the hypothesis is confirmed. 2. The majority of 15-year-old 9th-graders (63.3%) and 16-year-old 10th-graders (62.2%) who go to Moscow schools have a status of a moratorium. The hypothesis is confirmed. 3. For the age of 15-16 years, the dynamics of professional identity is absent. The hypothesis is confirmed. The differences between adolescents of 15 and 16 years in this parameter are not statistically significant (p = 0.993). 4. The level of personal and professional identity development is higher in females than in males. The hypothesis was not confirmed as the differences between females and males are not significant (p = 0.122), (p = 0.928).
Conclusion. As a result of generalization of theoretical and empirical data, an author's approach to improving vocational guidance work with high school students is proposed.
Background. The interest in childhood as a period of human life and in children as members of society is determined by negative transformations of the sociocultural development observed in the period starting with 70-80s of the 20th century to the present day.
The Objective of the paper is to describe the pilot research for optimizing parenting motivation as part of personal education. The basic hypothesis of the research is the assumption about the objective dependence of parenting motivation on the system of value orientations and attitudes of the subject, including the perceived necessity for the child upbringing.
Progress Report. The first stage of the research includes the analysis of foreign and domestic scientists’ works of in the field of psychology of parenting, which allowed to shape the research hypothesis and to design the experimental part. The second stage is the implementation of the experimental research program. Respondents of the research were represented by males and females aged 16 to 22 years.
Research Results. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the experimental data carried out at the third stage showed that 73 per cent of the respondents pointed to the family as the most important value. The central motivation for child birth in the majority of respondents (84 per cent) is receiving baby love.
Conclusion. The conducted research showed that parenting motivation is well-developed in the respondents. The hypothesis about the distinctive features of parenting motivation at the stages of early and late adolescence, and also the hypothesis of the gender specificity of parenting motivation have also been confirmed. Similarly, the qualitative analysis of the experimental data that has been performed in the research reveals the maximum intensity of the emotional component of parenting motivation. The cognitive component that objectively determines the stability of motivation is weakly expressed. To develop the parenting motivation as part of personal education the program aimed at harmonizing the development process of both emotional and cognitive component of parenting motivation was organized.
Background. The topic of the psychological consequences of mass disasters for children and adolescents (victims of natural and man-made disasters, military conflicts, terrorism), and also the corresponding risks, threats to their mental development is insufficiently covered in modern psychology. Difficulties in carrying out research cause their quite a small number in relation to the children's population.
The Objective of the analytical theoretical research is 1. to study the general state of the issue and the most discussed modern models of experiencing mass disasters and its impact on the psychological well-being of children and adolescents who are victims and witnesses of mass natural cataclysms, socio-anthropogenic and technogenic catastrophes; 2. to conduct cultural and historical analysis of the issue; 3. to handle central discussion issues regarding the prevention of destructive psychological reactions in the younger generation.
Progress Report. In the theoretical and analytical research, an array of ideas about the psychological consequences of mass disasters for the younger generation is consistently considered from the early historic periods up to modern days. A critical analysis of the main methodologies that lie in the basis of most modern research is presented, and finally, the paper considers the possibilities of systematic cultural and historical analysis in the framework of the issue stated in the title, including the prevention of destructive psychological reactions.
Research Results. The analysis has revealed the partiality and diversity of research models, the often inconsistent conclusions drawn on the basis of their research development; discussion on issues of preventive intervention.
Conclusion. The integrative possibilities of cultural and historical analysis are shown, including the methodology of the research carried out earlier, the possibilities of designing preventive measures that increase the psychological stability of children and adolescents to the traumatic consequences of extreme situations. The essence of the proposed approach is the cultural and historical understanding of internal and external causes and mechanisms of various posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the nature of care and work with them, and also in the possibilities of diagnosing "weaknesses", premises for the development of such disorders in the conditions of a society.
Keywords: children and adolescents;
psychological consequences of experiencing mass catastrophes and disasters;
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD);
Available Online: 30.03.2018
Background. The issue of upbringing is becoming increasingly important due to the development and growing-up of modern children and adolescents in the so-called digital age. The characteristic features of child development in the kindergarten and in the primary and secondary school within the information society make pose a challenge to the psychological service.
Objective. The key to the situation can be found in the context of the priority directions of psychology of upbringing and education, and also by establishing scientific and practical support of the directions. The paper is to thoroughly consider psychologists’ and educators’ work in the education system in the current situation. The goals and objectives of their work are specified in regard with the significant changes that have been recently observed in the Information Society.
Design. The acute and sometimes contradictory issues of the upbringing have been severely paralyzed. The ever-lasting goals of educating children and developing their personality such as emotional and spiritual development, mastering the accumulated bag of cultural achievements, the development of moral feelings, abilities for full communication, etc. are singled out.
Research Results. Modern education reflects the needs of the information society and has to focus more on the issues of schoolchildren's progress, the development of their intellectual sphere, and the preparation for the passing of the State Exam. Much less attention is paid to education. Practical psychology being an important assistant of the educational system is much influenced by the latter and is not actually prepared solve the urgent task of educating children.
Conclusion. The solutions to the problems of education should not only be found at the level of highly professional interdisciplinary integration of the educational, psychological, social and other sciences and practices, but also at the level of the contemporary interaction of various sciences and forms of social consciousness , i.e. culture, art, media (television, radio, Internet), law, morality, religion.